David Kaczynski's input in the UNABOM case
Based upon the following facts and an analysis of relevant information, the affiant has concluded that suspect Theodore J. Kaczynski, also known as Ted, is identical with the UNABOM subject who has called himself "F.C." in various communications who affixed these same initials to at least eight explosive devices between 1980 and 1987, and provided a secret identifying number to the New York Times as an authenticator for his letters.
The affiant has based this conclusion on a comprehensive review of investigative results and forensic reports regarding the UNABOM investigation, as follows:
1. The suspect's brother, David, has informed UNABOM Task Force investigators that he developed a suspicion of Ted's involvement in the series of criminal activities perpetrated by the UNABOM subject after David received news media reports in approximately December, 1994, that summarized the dates and places of UNABOM events. David noted that he and Ted grew up in Chicago, Illinois (the locale of the first four bombings), his brother had obtained his doctorate from the University of Michigan (the location of a mail bomb victim targeted by the UNABOM subject), his brother had taught at the University of California at Berkeley (the site of two UNABOM bombings) and his brother had lived and worked in Salt Lake City, Utah (the location of several UNABOM events.)
2. David has advised investigators that following his reading of published excerpts from the UNABOM manuscript in approximately August, 1995, he became increasingly suspicious based on the strong similarities between Ted's views and those of the UNABOM subject.
Upon reading the published UNABOM manuscript in its entirety, in approximately September, 1995, David advised that he became convinced that Ted was the author of the UNABOM manuscript. In particular, David stated there was a unique phrase in the UNABOM manuscript which referred to "cool-headed logician" which he recognized as Ted's terminology. David stated that this and other statements in the UNABOM manuscript "leapt out" at him because they expressed Ted's long-held position on the role of art versus science in our society.
This definitely marked the UNABOM manuscript as Ted's product, according to David, because he and Ted had a running argument for years on this subject. David characterized this ongoing debate which he and Ted began in approximately 1975 as a "dialectic" concerning the nature of reality in the universe which centered around a "core argument", the essence of which concerned Ted's belief that scientists had a truer picture of the universe than artists did because of their reliance on a criterion that a fact was valid only insofar as it could be proven as true or false. David, on the other hand, debated Ted from the position that reality is not necessarily black and white and includes many unknowns which are part of human experience, such as art. David advised investigators that he was shocked with the recognition of Ted's authorship of the paragraph concerning "art" in the UNABOM manuscript (paragraph 17).
The affiant notes that this paragraph reads as follows:
"Art forms that appeal to modern leftish intellectuals tend to focus on sordidness, defeat and despair, or else they take on an orgiastic tone, throwing off rational control as there were no hope of accomplishing anything through rational calculation and all that was left was to immerse oneself in the sensations of the moment."
David emphasized that Ted has long been committed to rationality as a guiding principle and noted that a particular characteristic of Ted's debating style was that he placed special emphasis on making his arguments compelling. In doing this, Ted characteristically stressed that since his ideas were based on a "rational ideal", any action in support of them was justifiable. David expressed his sadness to investigators in commenting that this type of justification would enable Ted to feel fully justified and even visionary in killing people to accomplish his "rational objectives."
3. In addition to providing dozens of personal letters received from Ted during the preceding 30 years, David provided investigators with a photocopy of an essay written by Ted in approximately 1971 wherein Ted cites the necessity of forming and supporting an organization to bring about the end of Federal and corporate funding for scientific research. David has advised that Ted personally discussed with him in approximately 1971 the possibility of David heading up such an organization and when David declined, Ted became very angry. David stated that he recognized substantial similarity between the ideas, concepts and expressions contained in Ted's 23 page essay and the UNABOM manuscript.
4. The affiant has consulted with and reviewed the findings of FBI Supervisory Special Agent James R. Fitzgerald, who has directed the comparative analysis of all of Ted's correspondence and documentation in a side-by-side comparison of the UNABOM letters and 56 page manuscript entitled "Industrial Society and Its Future." Through this study SSA Fitzgerald has informed the affiant that the content, context and writing style of Ted's 6,374 word essay (circa 1971) and the 34,649 word UNABOM manuscript are very similar. SSA Fitzgerald concluded that the UNABOM manuscript appears to be "a greatly expanded, more detailed" version of Ted's 1971 essay. He stated that "the problems and issues articulated in the two documents are virtually identical, only they are enhanced upon and the solutions differ." In 1971 Ted urged a legislative remedy, but in 1995 the UNABOM manuscript cited the need for revolution and violent change to bring about the necessary solutions. Of the 47 paragraphs in the 1971 essay, 35 of the paragraphs can be closely correlated with paragraphs in the UNABOM manuscript. The comparative analysis provides over 160 examples where the two documents share like phrases and word spellings. Examples include: When Ted is writing in the 1971 essay (page 11) regarding his objection to Perry London's view in his book "Behavior Control," he states "I simply find the sphere of freedom that he favors too narrow for me to accept." The UNABOM manuscript states in paragraph 93, "We are going to argue that industrial-technologic society cannot be reformed in such a way as to prevent it from progressively narrowing the sphere of human freedom " Again, in paragraphs 111, 128 and 133, the UNABOM manuscript contains references to "...narrowing our sphere of freedom..........narrows our sphere of freedom......invades our sphere of freedom.......... " Other examples include the same uncommon (and in the last case inaccurate) spellings of words used in both categories of documents, such as "analyse" versus "analyze"; "wilfully" instead of "willfully"; and "instalment" rather than "installment."
A copy of SSA Fitzgerald's analysis is attached to this affidavit as Exhibit A.
5. The affiant has reviewed the expressed opinions of numerous scholars and professional educators regarding their own evaluations of the UNABOM manuscript and associated UNABOM correspondence. None had access to Ted's identity as a suspect nor to any of his writings.
One caller to the UNABOM Task Force (Larry Newell) stated that he is familiar with The Technological Society, by Jacques Ellul, and believes the UNABOM subject has been influenced by this book which was popular in 1964. Ted's brother, David, advised investigators that around the 1971-72 period, the book by Jacques Ellul, The Technological Society, became Ted's "bible". In a letter from Ted to David postmarked 8/21/81, Ted refers to Jacques Ellul and discusses Ellul's philosophy. Dr. James P. McGee, PhD, Director of Psychology and Director of Addition Services, The Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, contacted the UNABOM Task Force and opined that the UNABOM manuscript was authored by an individual that was very familiar with and even paraphrased ideas from two books, In Defense of Elitism by William A Henry, III (1994) and Behavioral Control by Perry London (1969). The affiant notes that Ted cites Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society and Perry London's Behavior Control beginning on page 10 of his 23-page essay, written circa 1971, and Ted devotes several pages to a critique of London's philosophy. London, on page 128 of Behavior Control refers to University of Michigan Professor James McConnell who was injured by a UNABOM mail bomb that was mailed from Salt Lake City, Utah, on November 12, 1985.
6. Investigation has confirmed that Ted completed his undergraduate study at Harvard University in 1962. From 1963-1967, Ted pursued Masters and Doctoral programs at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan and earned a PhD in Mathematics in 1967. Ted attended the University f Michigan during Professor James McConnell's tenure there. Ted's Harvard transcript indicates that he took a course called "History of Science 101" during the 1962 semester. The UNABOM explosive device that was mailed to Professor McConnell on November 12, 1985, was accompanied by a letter purported to be from a Ralph C. Kloppenburg, Department of History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. The letter served as an enticement to encourage Professor McConnell to open the package and review an unsolicited doctoral dissertation. The letter read, in part:
"Dear Dr. McConnell:
I am a doctoral candidate in history at the University of Utah. My field of interest is the History of Science, and I am writing my dissertation on the development of the Behavioral Sciences during the 20th century... "
In Ted's 23-page essay, circa 1971, he argues that "continued scientific and technical progress will inevitably result in the extinction of individual liberty" and lists as an "ominous" development "operant conditioning, (after the manner of B.F. Skinner and friends)." Ted ends his essay by proposing the foundation of an organization dedicated to stopping federal and corporate aid to scientific research. In the second paragraph of the UNABOM letter from Kloppenburg (pseudonym) to Professor McConnell, the writer states in part, "...I am attempting to analyze the factors in society at large that tend to promote vigorous development in a given area of science, and especially I am attempting to shed light on the way in which progress in a particular field of research influences public attitudes toward that field in such a manner as to further accelerate its development, as through research grants..." Investigation has established that Professor McConnell's behavior modification techniques involved "operant conditioning" and his findings were widely publicized in digests and journals, as well as a Psychology textbook, Understanding Human Behavior, which became one of the top five best selling textbooks in its field. Professor McConnell received research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health for his work in this field.
7. The comparative analysis prepared by SSA Fitzgerald and reviewed by the affiant determined that the UNABOM manuscript made reference to four books: The Ancient Engineers by L. Sprague DeCamp; Chinese Political Thought in the Twentieth Century, by Chester D. Tan; The True Believer, by Eric Hoffer; and Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, by Roger Lane and edited by Hugh Davies Graham and Ted Robert Gurr. In reviewing the UNABOM manuscript the affiant determined that Note 16 references Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives and quotes from Chapter 12, pages 476-478. The UNABOM manuscript made reference to articles in two magazines, "OMNI" and "Scientific American". The UNABOM subject referenced an article in the August 1993 issue of "Scientific American" by Russell Ruthen entitled, "Strange Matters: Can Advanced Accelerators Initiate Runaway Reactions?", and a July, 1993 article entitled "Risk Analysis and Management," by M. Granter Morgan. The UNABOM subject sent a letter and a copy of his manuscript to "Scientific American" on June 24, 1995.
UTF investigation has determined that Ted has also made reference to The Ancient Engineers, Violence in America and "Scientific American."
In a letter from Ted to David dated 9/2/86 and provided to UTF investigators by David, Ted makes reference to "L. Sprague DeCamp's (The Ancient Engineers".
In an interview with the FBI on 2/17-18/96 David advised that the Kaczynski family subscribed to "Scientific American" at least up until the time that he went to college. "Scientific American" was around the house and readily available to family members. Investigators have determined that in Ted's application for admission to Harvard College dated 10/22/57, question G requests the applicant to cite examples of current reading, to include books, magazines and newspapers. Ted cites "Scientific American" magazine. UTF investigators interviewed Dr. Carolyn C. Goren, a cardiologist in Missoula, Montana, who has examined and treated Ted. Dr. Goren provided several letters written to her by Ted. In one of the letters, dated 5/26/91, Ted references an article entitled "Aspirin" in the January, 1991, issue of "Scientific American."
On 3/24/96, Wanda Kaczynski, Ted's mother, provided a number of articles and letters authored by Ted over the years and in her possession. One of the letters was dated 12/14/69 and addressed to the editor of the Chicago Daily News. Paragraph 2 of the letter began, "The stricter gun control laws recommended by the U.S. Commission on Violence are a case in point."
The affiant notes that in 1968, President Lyndon Johnson formed a commission to address the growing problem or violence in America.
This commission, the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, headed by Milton Eisenhower, tasked a group of scholars to research the history and causes of violence in America.
One of the members of this Commission was Eric Hoffer, and James Q. Wilson, a Harvard Professor, was on the Commission's Advisory Committee. The scholars produced a report, The History of Violence in America, Historical and Comparative Perspectives, which entailed a thorough history of violence in the United States. This report was submitted to the Commission in 1969. Based on this report and others submitted by other groups working for the Commission, the Commission issued a number of recommendations to include the initiation of some sort of Federal gun control. These recommendations were reported in the New York Times during the Summer, Fall and Winter of 1969.
DAVID'S DESCRIPTION OF TED'S ACTIVITIES (1969-1995)
8. The suspect's brother, David, during interviews with UTF members, provided an accounting of Ted's whereabouts and activities from 1970 to the present, to the extent that he was knowledgeable. David said that after graduating from the University of Michigan, Ted announced he had obtained a teaching position at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB). Ted was an Assistant Professor in the UCB Department of Mathematics and lived in Berkeley, California. While at Berkeley, Ted spent some time in the woods in Northern California, took up deer hunting and purchased a gun.
UTF investigation has verified that Ted was an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at UCB from July 16, 1967 through June 30, 1969 as confirmed in the UCB General Catalogue, 1968-69. The Department of Mathematics was located in Campbell Hall. Campbell Hall is located in close proximity to Cory Hall, which was the site of placed UNABOM devices on 7/2/82 and 5/13/85.
In June, 1969, Ted quit his job at UCB. David met Ted in Wyoming and they travelled in Ted's car to British Columbia, Canada to find some land. Ted found some land near Prince George and filed homesteading type applications for the land. Ted returned to his family's home in Lombard, Illinois, in the summer of 1969, where he lived while awaiting word from the Canadian government on his land application. During the winter of 1970, Ted received a letter from the Canadian government rejecting his application. Ted remained at his parents' home, but did not work. He became very anti-social and withdrawn and stayed in his room reading. It was at this time that Ted began writing letters to editors concerning technology and liberty.
In July or August, 1970, David received a letter from his parents sharing a note they received from Ted. The note said that Ted's parents were the best parents anyone could have and he was sorry if he disappointed them. Shortly thereafter, Ted showed up at David's apartment in Great Falls, Montana. Ted told David about conflict with his parents and said he had to get away. Ted wanted to know if David wanted to join him and become 50-50 partners on a land purchase, to which David agreed. Ted found 1.4 acres near Lincoln, Montana, for $2,100 and they each paid $1,050. Ted purchased lumber and supplies and, without any help, built a small cabin on the site.
On 3/23/96 UTF members interviewed Wanda Kaczinski, Ted's mother, with her son David present. Wanda provided copies of letters Ted wrote in 1969 and 1970 to editors of Chicago newspapers and various magazines concerning technology and liberty. Wanda also provided a copy of an undated letter from Ted that said " no one could want better parents."
David recalled that sometime in 1971, or about one year after Ted built the cabin, he showed up at David's apartment in Great Falls with a 23-page essay which was similar, if not identical, to the essay (supra) that David recently retrieved from his mother's house and forwarded to the FBI through his attorney, Anthony Bisceglie of Washington, D.C. David had not seen the essay prior to 1971.
David understood that Ted mailed copies of the essay to an undetermined number of intellectuals. The essay suggested the formation of an organization to end Federal funding for scientific research. Ted wanted David to head up the organization because Ted did not work well with people, but David declined. David made the photocopy of the essay from a carbon copy of the essay he found at his mother's house. David recognized handwritten corrections on the essay as his brother's handwriting.
During the interview with Wanda, the UTF obtained the carbon copy of the same 23 page essay earlier provided to the FBI by David.
The carbon copy contained original handwritten corrections and notations which David identified as his brother's handwriting.
David recalled that Ted stayed at his Lincoln, Montana, cabin until late 1972 or 1973 when he travelled to Salt Lake City, Utah to find a job. Ted spent about six months in Salt Lake City, working as an unskilled carpenter's helper for a private contractor. Ted returned to Montana in June, 1973. In the winter of 1974, Ted wrote the family a letter to say that he would be away camping for a while and they should not worry if they did not hear from him.
David recalled that during the spring or summer of 1978, Ted returned to Chicago. He obtained employment at Foam Cutting Engineers in Addison, Illinois, where both his father and David were working at the time. In August or September, 1978, Ted got a job at Prince Castle Restaurant Equipment Division, where he was employed until he suddenly quit in August or September, 1979.
After quitting, Ted stayed around the house for a while and then traveled to Canada for six to eight weeks, borrowing David's Datsun. Ted said he wanted to look for land in Saskatchewan but did not find any, so returned to Chicago and gave David his car. Subsequently Ted returned to Montana that same summer or possibly in the fall.
During the 3/26/96 interview with Wanda and David, she recalled that in 1978 Ted took the Greyhound bus from Montana to the main bus terminal in Chicago and that he caught the "Northwestern", a local commuter train, to Lombard. At this point David advised that on this occasion Ted's father went to pick Ted up at the bus terminal in Chicago, but Ted and his father missed each other due to some miscommunication. David recalled that Ted telephoned to find out why his father did not meet him, and that Ted ended up taking a taxi to Lombard.
To the best of Wanda Kaczynski's recollection, Ted started working at Foam Cutting Engineers within a few days of his arrival at
Lombard. Ted remained in Lombard until the fall of 1979 when he returned to Montana. Wanda recalled that Ted just took his suitcase, plus whatever he could carry. She walked with him to the local commuter train station in Lombard so that he could catch a bus in Chicago for Montana. She was unable to fix a more precise date for his return to Montana.
UNABOM Device #1 was found at the University of Illinois Circle Campus on 5/25/78. Both David and Wanda recalled that Ted showed up in Chicago a few days prior to starting the job at Foam Cutting.
David characterized a few days as no more than 30 days before starting the job. UNABOM Device #2 was placed at Northwestern University on 5/9/79. Ted was working in Chicago during this time frame. UNABOM Device #3 was mailed from the Chicago area on 11/14/79. Both David and Wanda said Ted remained in Chicago until the fall of 1979.
In a letter from Ted to David postmarked 8/21/81 and translated from Spanish to English, Ted states, "Last year I was absent for a large part of the summer." UNABOM Device #4 was mailed from Chicago, Illinois to Percy Wood, then President of United Airlines, on 6/3/80.
David and Ted's parents visited Ted in Montana each summer (usually in September), beginning in the early 1970s until about 1984.
In 1982 David bought some land and built a cabin in a remote part of Texas, south of Alpine. In 1985 he invited Ted to come and visit, but at the last minute Ted sent an overnight letter saying that he changed his mind. David thought this was in the winter of 1985.
In 1984 or 1985 Ted wrote a letter to David asking for help in renting a car. He did not have any credit cards and he wanted David to rent a car under a company name. Ted wanted David to pretend to be a supervisor under a different name so he could give the name to the car rental agency in case they wanted verification. David declined to do this which made Ted angry.
During 1985 there were four UNABOM events that required the UNABOM subject to be in: Oakland, California on 5/8/85; Berkeley, California on or about 5/15/85; Salt Lake City, Utah, on 11/12/85; and Sacramento, California on 12/11/85.
During September/October, 1986, David visited Ted at his cabin in Montana. Ted sent a letter to David dated 9/2/86 advising David that he could come for a visit between 9/27/86 and 10/4/86 inclusive and neither before nor after.
David has not seen Ted since the 1986 visit to Montana. In 1989 David wrote Ted indicating that he planned to live with his future wife, Linda. Ted told David he did not want to communicate with him again, to write only if he had something really important to say, and to place a red line on the envelope beneath the stamp, signifying the importance of the contents. Ted said he intended to destroy any envelopes that did not have a red line.
David also sent Ted a letter requesting that he be the best man at David's July, 1990, wedding, but Ted did not respond.
In September, 1990, David sent Ted a letter advising that their father was very ill which Ted acknowledged by stating it was an appropriate use of the red line. Their father died on October 2, 1990, and David wrote Ted to advise him of the memorial service, but Ted did not attend.
In January or February, 1991, Ted wrote asking for his share
of the father's estate, $60,000. He did not receive this money, but did get $7,000 from his mother.
In the summer of 1991, Ted wrote David saying he did not want anything further to do with the family. He also told of visits to a cardiologist, Dr. Goren.
In November, 1994, Ted wrote asking David for a $1,000 loan, followed by another request for a $2,000 loan. David sent the money to Ted in the form of cashier's checks.
In November, 1995, David wrote a letter to Ted mentioning his concern for Ted's welfare and suggesting a visit to Montana. Ted returned a letter postmarked 11/30/95 in which he rejected the idea and told David he should not write except for practical matters related to the property.
TIMELINE OF TED'S ACTIVITIES AND UNABOM INCIDENTS
The UTF has undertaken an extensive investigation of Ted's known activities, with the objective of accounting for his whereabouts and location on specific dates between 5/25/78, the date of the first UNABOM event, and 6/24/95, the date of the mailing of the UNABOM manuscripts from San Francisco, California. The UTF investigation has identified:
Dr. Carolyn Goren in Missoula, Montana, who received items of correspondence from Ted and treated Ted on ____________ occasions;
A hotel in Helena, Montana (Park Hotel), where Ted stayed overnight on 31 occasions between April 14, 1980 and October 4, 1995;
A bank in Missoula, Montana (Western Federal Savings where Ted had two checking accounts and two Certificates of Deposit (CD) accounts. On 5/14/84, Ted obtained two Certificates of Deposit, for $500 each. CD account #207 was closed on 9/26/84. CD account #208 was closed on 8/20/85.
On 5/22/85 Ted opened checking account #110093923 with a $600 check and $51.17 he received on interest from CD #207. This checking account was closed on 7/13/94: Ted wrote ___checks on this account between 5/22/85 and 7/13/94. There were no deposits to the account from 1991 until the account was closed on 7/13/94.
The second account reflects the writing of 32 checks between
2/21/95 and 8/23/95, when the account was closed with a cash withdrawal of $203.53 in Missoula, Montana;
A total of 81 letters written by Ted to his brother David or mother, Wanda with verifiable postmarks. None of the postmarks, checks, hotel stays or visits to the doctor are in conflict with dates of UNABOM incidents.
The attached timeline shows postmark dates on Ted's letters; dates of UNABOM devices and UNABOM letters; stressing the location of the UNABOM subject on pertinent dates; and the dates of Ted's stays at the Park Hotel.
UTF contact with the Greyhound Bus Line has determined that........
MONEY RECEIVED BY TED FROM DAVID AND WANDA
UTF investigation has identified two bank accounts at Western
Federal Savings, Missoula, Montana, maintained by Ted from 1984 to 1994 and 2/21/95 through 8/23/95. Dates of checks and deposits are noted on the timeline.
A review of Wanda's canceled checks and David's records reflect the following funds sent to Ted:
|CHECK DATE||DATE POSTED||AMOUNT|
|11/94 (received from David)||1,000.00|
|2/1/95 (received from David)||2,000.00|
|TOTAL (5/16/85 - 2/1/954)||$16,802.81|
Of significance with respect to the above dates between 5/16/85 - 2/1/95, Ted received $16,802.81 but his bank records indicate deposits of only $_____.
Ted opened the first account at Western Federal Savings on 5/22/85 with the $600 check received from Wanda and dated 5/16/85. The UNABOM subject was in the San Francisco Bay Area sometime between 5/8/85 and 5/15/85 (UNABOM Device #______ was mailed to Boeing on 5/8/85 and Device #____ was observed in
Room ____ of Corey Hall, UCB, several days prior to the 5/15/85 detonation.
Ted deposited the $600 check dated 12/5/85 from Wanda on 12/28/95 and the $25.00 check dated 12/27/85 from Wanda on 1/8/86. UNABOM Device # was placed at Rentech Computer Rental, Sacramento, California on 12/11/85 requiring the presence of the UNABOM subject in Sacramento.
Ted received $1,000 from David circa November 14, 1994, approximately one month prior to UNABOM Event #15, mailed to Thomas Mosser from San Francisco, California, on Saturday, 12/3/94.
Ted received $2,000 from David circa 1/19/95 and prior to the mailing of UNABOM Device #16 to Gilbert Murray from Oakland on 4/20/95 and the mailing of the UNABOM manuscript from San Francisco on 6/24/95.
It should be noted that Ted sent David a letter postmarked 11/2/94 requesting the $1,000, stating:___
By letter postmarked 12/23/94, Ted requested the additional $2,000, stating "I need another $2,000...if and when I get over present difficulties sufficiently...There won't be any further requests for loans...if another $2,000 won't do it, then I guess nothing will, so I may as well give up."