Henry A. Murray
Multiform Assessment Measures
Argument Completion Test
Two school friends are considering various possibilities for a summer vacation. the adventurous one, is trying to persuade Y to accompany him on a mountain climbing trip in the Canadian Rockies. Y, a less reckless individual, 'being mindful of the dangers to be encountered, is reluctant to accept.
"Wouldn't it be better," says Y, "to —------------------
X and Y believe they are in love with each other, but on certain critical issues their sentiments are definitely in conflict. X holds that one can do no better than accept the great traditional values, the standards imparted by one's parents, as guiding principles of conduct.
Y, on the other hand, maintains that the moçal codes of the past should not be allowed to bind the present. It is necessary for each generation to oxycrimviit.
The relationship of X and Y seems to hang on the settlement of this question.
X, a thorough-going realist, whose attitude to people and events is tempered by skepticism and a certain distrust of high-flown sentiments, finds on arriving at college that he is rooming with a sensitive and imaginative idealist.
Y's extreme optimism makes X somewhat cynical, and it does not look as if they would ever make a go of it.
Finally they decide to discuss, with complete candor, their differences in outlook.
In order to achieve the high and distant goal of his ambition, X believes that most of the easy pleasures' and comforts of life must be renounced. But his best friend Y, who has made a practice of accepting whatever stimulating opportunities for enjoyment are nearest at hand, is convinced that X is carrying his asceticism too far.
"Look here," says Y, ”---------------------
X, who has never been able to see that war ever settles anything, is contemplating with some misgivings the expectation of being drafted. He meets his friend Y, and they stop to have a beer together.
Y has been accepted, and is on his way to camp. He tells X that he expects to be sent to the Pacific. He is buoyant at the prospect, and says that he will be glad to take his shirt off and get into it all.
"How is it possible," asks X, "that X and Y have just cone home from a meeting and are sitting by the fire. Y asks X why he didn’t speak up at the meeting. X answers that he can’t talk in public. When Y accuses X of admitting limitations before he has really tried, X says that everyone’s life is determined by a fate over which we have little or no control, and any reasonable man must learn to accept his own limitations.
Y, who has a resolute and determined character, simply cannot understand this attitude. He wonders whether --------------------------------------------------------------
2, who is a philosopher at heart, and enjoys theorizing on all questions, loves to sit around and have his friends tell hitó what they are doing.
On this particular evening, after the others have gone, Y, who is a leader in most of the activities of college, tells X that the trouble with him is that he is really leading a vicarious life, and that he ought to get out and get into things himself, and not just philosophize on the side lines.
X is .telling Y that he plans to become a sociologist because he feels that in this way he might make a contribution to the creation of a new and better society. This, he asserts, is the desperate need of our time.
Y feels indifferent to this plan. He says that one should pursue whatever vocation is best suited to one’s nature. In the long run it may or may not prove valuable to society. No one can foretell.
"Whether it is or not," he says, "------------
Form for Autobiography
Directions. Please glance over this outline to get a general idea of what is required; and then, without consulting it, write your life- history in chronological order. When you have finished writing, go over this outline carefully, and add, as a supplement, whatever information you omitted in your original account. Return this outline with your autobiography in a sealed envelope. «
A. Family History
1. Parents, a. Race, religion, education, economic and social status, occupations, offices, abilities, interests, sentiments, dominant traits and state of health of each parent.
Position of your family in the community. Were they rejected, disregarded, accepted, popular, highly respected? Rise or fall of family status in recent years. Marked successes or failures of mother or father.
b. Father-mother relationship. Was it marked by mutual trust and affection, harmony, discord, constant quarreling, separation, divorce?
£. Parent-self relationships, general attitude of each parent. Was he (or she) affectionate, devoted, companionable, generous, over-solicitous, nagging, demanding, anxious, possessive, stern, domineering, hatefúl, indifferent?
Your attitude to each parent; was it affectionate, dependent, submissive, respectful, obliging, cooperative, independent, rebellious, hostile, distrustful?
Which parent do you most resemble? Which is your favorite? Which has most disappointed you? Which do you most respect?
d. Parental standards and disciplines. What virtues and vices were specially stressed at home by example or teaching? How, by whom and for what were you punished? What were your reactions to punishment? (resentment, vengeance, flight, deceit, mortification, acquiescence, submission, self-pity?) Moral and religious instruction.
2. Siblings a. Order of birth, sex, dominant traits, sentiments, interests and abilities of each sibling.
b. Sibling-self relationships: attachments, quarrels, rivalry, conflicts.
To which siblings did you feel superior or inferior, and in what respects?
3. Larger Family Circle. Characterize briefly grandparents, relatives or nurses who affected or influenced you.
B. Physical Environments, Neighborhoods, Homes
1. Places of Residence, a,. Give sone account of where you have lived; the physical surroundings that have impressed you; the characteristics of the community.
b. Homes: rooming and sleeping arrangements, comfort and taste of furnishings.
Did you have a feeling of permanence in your environment? How did you react to each change of place?
2. Places Visited. Give some account of places visited, trips taken, travels.
C. Personal History
1. Childhood, a. Births place and date of birth; nature of birth (natural or Caesarean; short or long labor)!
b. Feeding: breast or bottle? Age of weaning. .
Was there any difficulty in feeding you? Did you crv-a great deal? p ’ Were you finhicky about food then or later?
Did you enjoy certain foods particularly, eat between meals, steal food out of the kitchen.
c. Preliminary learning. Were you precocious or retarded in learning to walk and talk? Were you confident on your feet, \j ' w in running, jumping, climbing? Did you remain close to your '
parents, or stray away, adventuring into the unknown? Did you experience_any,serious falls? /} Q Describe your first memory.
d. Toilet training. Was your mother (or nurse) particular about your having a daily bowel movement? Were you difficult to train? Did you suffer from diarrhoea or constipation? Did you soil the bed or your clothes? Did you play with your faeces or use them for smearing?
e. Common habits: duration of thumb-sucking, nail-biting, bed-wetting. Did you stammer?
f. Temper. Did you have temper tantrums or explosive
y I rages? Did you ever destroy your toys, torture animals or cruelly attack another child?
g. Fears and Nightmares. What were you afraid of as a child? (darkness, heights, fire, solitariness, closed or open spaces, insects, animals, burglars, kidnappers, demons, ghosts, God’s wrath?) Did you have many nightmares? Did you walk in youi* sleep? .
h. Illnesses and Accidents. Did you suffer from any long, severe or unusual illnesses? convulsions, accidents? operations?
i. Fantasies and Dreams. Did you imagine yourself a hero ((or heroine), or identify yourself with some story-book character?
Recall some of your fantasies and dreams. What were your favorite books?
j,. Play: favorite pastimes and games in childhood: Did you play with dolls, me’cHanical toys, soldiers, animals? Did you like to build retreats and hiding places? Did you have all the companions you desired? Were you accepted by the other children? Were you a bully, or were you bullied by others? Did you spend some time each summer in ihe country, on a farm, in the mountains or by the sea?
k. General Attitude. Was you general attitude a daptive (cooperative and obliging), aggressive (competitive and assertive), refractory (negative and resistant, timid (sensitive and fearful), or guileful (teasing and wily)? Were you self-confident at hone? among your companions?'
2. School History. a. Order of schools attended; approximate age at entrance and at graduation.
b. Scholastic record: best and worst subjects. Describe briefly the course of your intellectual interests and
cP Influential teachers. Characterize the teachers, if any, who have influenced you.
d. Social relationships, Were you rejected, ignored, accepted, popular, ridiculed, bullied, respected, elected to office?
• Charactei'ize some of your best friends. Were your friendships casual or deep, temporary or enduring? Did you have many quarrels? Did you have periods of moodiness and solitariness?
e. Membership in Groups. What cliques, organizations, or clubs -did you belong to? Did you engage in public speaking? What interests did you share with others? Were you a leader?
£, Athletic Record. What games did you play? Did you excel at any sports, make any teams?
. Miscellaneous Interests and Amusements. How did
I you spend your spare time? Did you have any hobbies? Did you collect anything?
&. Ambitions and Ideals, Hero-worship. What did you most want to be in later life? Was there any particular’person (historical or contemporary) whom you accepted as a model to emulate? What qualities in others did you particularly admire?
i. General Attitude at School. How would you characterize your customary attitude? (genial, confident, shy, submissive, fearful, timid, forward, assertive, boisterous, show-off, aloof, indifferent, defensive?)
3. Sex History, a. Sex Knowledge: (i) Curiosity about body of other sex, about where children come from, about sexual relations. Did you ask many questions? Did you conduct investigations? play post-office, etc.? Did you exhibit yourself before others? What theories did you hold about childbirth? What information was given you, at what age, and by whom?
(ii) Sexual relations of parents. Did you ever overhear or oversee sexual intercourse between your parents? Were you shocked or disillusioned when you were told of it?
b. Sexual Practices, (i) Masturbation. When did you begin to masturbate? Who taught you? How frequent has it been? How much guilt have you felt about it?
(ii) Homosexual,. Have you over indulged in mutual masturbation or in any other form of sexual activity with one of your own sex? Are you sexually excited by members of your own sex? Do you feel quilty about it?
(iii) Heterosexual. Did you play sex games as a child? Have you ever been in love? how often? What type of person is selected? Do you quarrel? Do you do much dating, petting, necking? Do you pick up girls in the street? Have you had sexual intercourse?
How much guilt has been a ssociated with sex?
(iv) Erotic fantasies-. Give some account of your sexual fantasies. What kind of preliminary activity is specially pleasurable in you imagination? What kind of partner appears most exciting in fantasy?
(v) Emotions. In connection with sexuality which of these feelings have you experienced most acutely: excitement, embarrassment, anxiety, affection, devotion,.worshipful love, disgust, shame, remorse, loss of self-respect.
— What is your attitude toward marriage?
D. Present Sentiments. Aspirations and Ideals
1. Sentiments. a. Positive, What things, people, professions, groups, institutions do you esteem most highly at the present time?
What human achievements, what historical characters do you admire most? What guiding principles, or philosophy, do you accept as worth•following?
b. Negative. What things, people, professions, groups, institutions do you dislike most? Name some of your pet aversions and annoyances? Mention some of the all-too-human traits of others that go against your grain.
Aims, a. Immediate. What are your chief aims for the immediate future? b. Distant. What, would you. guess, will be your main sources
of satisfaction in later life? What do you hope to accomplish? What is the limit of your ambition? What ideals, would you say, are worth striving for?
E. Estimate of Self and W*rld
State briefly what you believe to be:
a. Your general estimate of and attitude toward the social world.
b. The world’s estimate of and attitude toward you,
c. Your general estimate of yourself.
Which of these harms and benefits coming from your fellownen do you r chiefly anticipate: competition, envy, hostility, injustice, meanness \ malicious criticism, goodwill, generosity, a helping-hand, sympathy.
/ companionship, love, disloyalty, trickery, hypocrisy, ridicule, slander, A abuse, exclusiveness, depreciation, discrimination, recognition, honor, praise, respect, neglect, indifference.
How much money do you expect to be making in ten years? To what extent will your happiness depend on the size of your income?
If you could (within reason) remodel the world to your heart’s desire how would you have it and what role would you like to play in such a world?.
1. Please try to "define” yourself as a person. What qualities, facts or descriptive material do you believe to be important about yourself?
2. How have you changed since coming to Harvard? Is this change for better or for worse? Would you attribute it to Harvard, to "growing up,” or to both?
3. Do you feel any differences between the person you feel you are at home (e.g., the way you act toward others, the things you do or say, the way you feel, etc.) and the way you are at Harvard? If so, in what way? How do you feel about this?
4. Is there ary conflict between the values of your parents or home community and those of the Harvard community? If so, how have you resolved this conflict? With which set of values do you more closely identify yourself?
5. When home on vacation do you feel in any way distant from your family or home community? From people who have been important to you in the past? If you do, how would you explain this distance?
6. How do you think your parents see you?
7. How do your friends at Harvard see you?
8. If your friends here see you differently from the way your parents see you, who do you think has the better idea of what you are really like?
9. Do you think your parents would understand the kind of person you are and the things you are doing at Harvard?
10. Are your friends at Harvard different from your friends at home? How do they differ? Do you think they see you differently? Which group has the better idea of what kind of a person you really are?
11. If you have changed since coming to Harvard have you become more or less like your father? Would you like to be the kind of man your father is? Do you feel very much like him? Very different from him? Please explain,
12. Do you think your parents approve of the changes in you? If they did not, would this upset you?
13. What kind of a person do you think you will be in the future? What do you expect will be your values, occupation, way of life, etc.?;
Procedure for Writing Philosophy
Few men, even professional philosophers, have a finished, polished, and self-consistent philosophy. But everyone has a set of implicit and explicit outlooks, values, general expectations, aims, and views of the world; in short, everyone has some conception of the world and themselves which we can call his personal philosophy. We would like you to articulate some of your own philosophical views.
First, we have included 20 statements which express commonly-held philosophical attitudes, values, or outlooks. Please first indicate (a) whether you agree or disagree with each statement and (b) how important to you this belief is by circling the appropriate responses. Then add a sentence or two explaining, amplifying, or qualifying your answer.
Secondly, please read quickly over the accompanying philosophical outline, and,—without consulting it further—write an impromptu statement of what you consider the most important aspects of your own daily operating philosophy. What beliefs, expectations, and values are most important to you? What implicit or explicit general views of yourself, other people, society, and the universe really matter to your life? What values and aims are most crucial in your life? Do you find any over-riding principles or values especially meaningful or central to your world-view? Among the many beliefs and attitudes which every man holds, some are more vital than others, and it is in these that we are most interested. You will probably have to summarize some of your points.
thirdly, look back over the mimeographed philosophical outline, and add as a supplement any further points you consider important but have left out of your impromptu statement. You should not attempt to give a full answer to every question or topic, but rather to fill in any views which are important to you and which you have omitted.
Finally, re-read what you have written, making any changes or corrections you wish. At the end of the supplement, summarize your views by listing, in order of importance to you, the four most crucial components of your philosophy.
In writing your philosophy, please keep in mind that you may be called upon someday to use this as a basis for discussion. Try to spend about two hours on the job—perhaps fifteen minutes on the inventory, an hour on your impromptu statement, and 45 minutes on the supplement and summary.
Please return the completed inventory and your own statement within a week from the time you received it. Thank you.
Outline for Writing Personal Values and Philosophy of Life
Does life have any inherent meaning or purpose? How does one find or create this meaning or purpose? What meaning or purpose does it have to you? Do you believe in a supernatural power? What effect does this have on your life and other beliefs? Are there objective values in the world? Or does each man have to make up his ovn'l
What are the most important qualities a person should have? What is the role of self-knowledge in life? What should a man’s attitude towards his own pleasure and advancement be? Is each man the center of his own universe, in some ultimate sense ego-centric? Should one orient himself to the outer world of other people and activities or primarily to his own thoughts, feelings, and imagination? Is genuine happiness possible? Important to you? How is it attained?
What relative place should reason and feeling have in life? Would you value selfcontrol over spontaneity? How much should you curb your own desires for the sake of others? For the sake of long-range aims? Is it possible to be too spontaneous? Too sincere? Should one live for the moment or form the future?
What is your estimate of human nature? How much can you expect from others? What should your dominant attitude towards them be? Is a man responsible for the welfare of others? Should he attempt to devote himself to other people or to himself?
Is it more natural for man to be alone or in communication with other people? How much do you value privacy, independence, and self-reliance? Cooperation, intimacy, closeness with others? How far should a person go in modifying his own behavior or attitudes to make other people happy? How much can he demand of other people? What are the chances for really satisfactory relationships with other people?
What should your attitude be towards other people’s beliefs and behavior? Which do you feel is the greater danger, excessive tolerance or excessive restraint of others? Do you accept the right of others to tell you what to do? When, if ever? How possible is it to "live and let live?"
How would you evaluate the present state of American society? Do you think it is progressing, standing still, or going downhill? In what ways and areas? Are there better ways of doing things? How important do you think material welfare should be? Cultural accomplishments? Social justice? What major criticisms would you make of modern culture? What are its major accomplishments? Would you change it in any way? How?
Can the individual change the society he lives in? Should he try? How much does he owe to the society? Where does loyalty stop and conformity begin? Should one attempt not to conform? Do you personally feel you can in any way affect the way your society changes? How, or why not? What kind of role should the individual take in his community? How important is political activity? Philanthropy? Doing your own job well?
What do you expect from your future career or profession? What kinds of satisfactions and opportunities should it provide? Should a man’s work be integrated into the rest of his life (family, home life, leisure) or kept separate? Do you think most people are satisfied in their work? Why, or wtiy not? In what ways do you expect to be satisfied or dissatisfied? What contributions of a general sort would you hope to make through your work?
What are you* expectations about the future ef the world? Will there be a mb*?
Atomic attack? A long stalemate? Gradual lessening of tension? Does this affect your thinking about yourself and your future? How? How will things change in your lifetime? How would you like them to change?
Does the universe and your place in it in some way "make sense?” Does existence seem by and large a pleasant or a grim business? Do you feel the universe is friendly, indifferent, or unfriendly to man’s purposes? Do you feel there is any over-all design of which you are a part?
PHILOSOPHICAL OUTLOOK TEST (Form C)
On the following pages you will find a number of statements reflecting different attitudes towards a number of problems which have concerned contemporary writers, philosophers, and social commentators. Many of these statements have been paraphrased from recent discussions of modern life and of the experience of the individual in our time.
After each statement are six possible answers: These stand for;
SD - Strongly Disagree
D - Disagree
MD - Mildly Disagree
MA - Mildly Agree
A - Agree
SA - Strongly Agree
You should circle the answer that comes closest to your own attitude toward the statement. For example, to indicate strong agreement with the following statement;
XX. Questionnaires are inventions of the Devil.
you should circle the "SA," as shown. Please answer all questions, and work as rapidly as possible.
|1. Once I have made up my mind to do something, I seldom have any second thoughts or doubts about it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|2. People are basically and innately good.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|3. Beneath the apparent disorder of the world are certain uni- versal principles which order and structure its workings.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|4. Nice as it may be to have faith in the majority of your fellow-men, it does not pay off.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|5. Sometimes when I dislike my current situation, I hesitate to change it because I am uncertain about the consequences of my contemplated move.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|6. The longer I live, the more I realize how basically alone and friendless we all are.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|7. At root, the world is chaotic, random, and meaningless.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|8. In an emergency, I am among the first to suggest what action should be taken.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|9. I make few commitments without some inner reservation ' or doubt about the wisdom of undertaking the responsibility or task.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|10. There are always plenty of people who are eager to extend a helping hand.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|11. Increasing knowledge and understanding will permit us to pre- diet the future with ever-greater confidence.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|12. Very few people can be trusted.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|13. By and large, friendships have meant relatively little in my life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|14. It is hard for me to understand people who are always wonder- ing whether they made the right choice or did the right thing.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|15. Attempts to predict the future are doomed to failure: random, fickle chance governs all.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|16. I sometimes feel a mixture of love and loathing towards the same person,||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|17. Believe that a man will keep his promise and he will keep it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|18. My feelings about a person, once they are settled, seldom change very much.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|19. Man’s relations with his fellows are normally stable and predictable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|20. Experience in the ways of the world teaches us to be suspi- cious of the underlying motives of the general run of men.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|21. I have few friends and many enemies..||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|22. Second thoughts about things we have undertaken are only natural; there are few endeavors that do not have disadvantages which only become apparent once we are embarked on them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|23. Honesty compels us to admit that our lives are without any inherent regularity, purpose, or form.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|24. I either like a person strongly, or dislike them strongly—seldom if ever do I have mixed feelings.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|25. If you have faith in your friends, they will seldom disappoint you.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|26. I usually want to go over all of the pros and cons of a question extremely carefully before coming to any definite decision.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|27. One of the chief results of education is to enable us to see the consistency and regularity of the universe and of our own natures.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|28. Beware; the world is full .of people who experience their keenest satisfactions in detecting and exposing the defects and wealmesses of people such as you.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|29. I doubt if I will ever find anyone who really understands me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|30. You can never really tell what will happen next, and attempts to find out are destined to fail.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|31. I have a capacity to devote myself almost totally to a person, cause, or task.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|32. My attitudes and feelings about people sometimes change abruptly without any clear external cause.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|33. People will be honest with you as long as you are honest with them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|34. I generally make up my mind fairly quickly: and once it is made up, it usually stays made up.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|35. Wise men have always known that our lives were intelligible, purposeful, and coherent.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|36. He who is gullible enough to believe the "truths" that people tell him is heading for a fall—disillusionment, mortification, and regret.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|37. Most people are pretty cold, not interested in you and your troubles.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|38. The notion that man and nature are governed by regular laws is an illusion based on our insatiable wish for certainty.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|39. I often wonder once I have promised to do something whether I was wise to have made the commitment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|40. I have strong, definite, and relatively unchanging opinions. about many political and philosophical questions.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|41. Most people are generous in their judgements of your actions and inclined to give you the benefit of a doubt.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|42. Man’s increasing knowledge will some day permit him to pre- diet and control the future with far greater exactness than he does today.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|43. I am often led to abandon a projected course of action when I begin to worry about its consequences.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|44. The world is full of people who will take advantage of you if you are fool enough to give them the slightest opportunity.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|45. People’s interest in each other is basically selfish,||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|46. Human relations follow inconstant, unpredictable courses.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|47. When I embark on a given course of action, I seldom turn back or hesitate.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|48. I am often of two minds about many controversies in politics and philosophies; both positions have things to recommend them and to be criticized about them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|49. Most people you meet are friendly and obliging, more disposed to aid you than to refuse aid.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|50. Although we may not always perceive them directly, the prin- ciples that order the universe are forever the same.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|51. There is little chance of ever finding real happiness.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|52. It takes a good deal of new evidence before I am willing either to change my attitude about either an abstract issue or a person.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|53. The average student and I are poles apart.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|54. Anyone who believes he can "see what the future will bring" in these days is either blind or self-deceived.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|55. I am not what would ordinarily be called a "decisive" or "resolute" person.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|56. The vast majority of men are truthful and dependable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|57. Regularity, constancy, predictability—these are the laws of the world.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|58. I feel that other people have not counted much in my life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|59. It is generally advisable to avoid strong personal attachments.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|60. Human life rests on blind, unknowable chaos.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|61. Trust others to the limit and they will trust you to the limit.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|62. As a general rule, a man's past experience is a reliable guide to his future.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|63. You will certainly be left behind if you stop too often or too long to give a helping hand to other people.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|64. I expect neither help nor praise nor sympathy from others.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|65. One of the greatest delusions of our time is the belief that through science or religion we can know the future.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|66. The average man is generous and honest in personal dealings with others.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|67. Wisdom is the capacity to understand what is unchanging, stable, and predictable in the world around us.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|68. Emotional committments to other people are usually the prelude to disillusion and disappointment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|69. Intellectual integrity requires the courage to recognize that nothing is really knowable and nothing, is truly certain.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|70. It is dangerous to trust people unless you know them extremely well.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
Range of Experience Inventory (Form B)
Listed on the following pages are a variety of common life experiences, drawn from autobiographies of college students. We are interested in how many of these experienced you personally have had, in the range of your direct personal experience.
Each statement is followed by a six-point scale. You are asked to circle one of the answers for each statement. The six abbreviations have the following meanings:
Fa = False
VS = Very Slightly True
Sl = Slightly True
Mo = Moderately True
Ve = Very True
Ex = Extremely True
For example, the following might be a statement on the Inventory:
I know from direct personal experience what it is
XX. To take inventories about my personal experience. Fa VS SI Mo (Í7ê)Ex
If you feel this statement is Very True, you should circle the "Ve," as shown
Some statements in the Inventory refer to ’’mother,1' "father,” or "parents," If your mother and/or father are dead, or if your parents are separated or divorced, fill in the questions for the person who served as a substitute for them.
In order to mark a statement on the "true” side, you should consider whether you have ever had the experience mentioned, even though the statement is worded in the present.
I know from direct personal experience what it is
|1. To have parents who do not sympathize with my hopes, aspirations, and accomplishments.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|2. To find the confidence I place in someone repeatedly confirmed.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|3. To be brought up with consistent disciplin||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|4. Rarely to have had a really close, relaxed friendship with à person of the opposite sex.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|5. To have a father who has been more interested in himself or in other things (his work, social activities, recreations, etc.) than he has been in me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|6. To be given orientation (a sense of my place in the universe and the purpose of my existence) by a stable philosophy or faith.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|7. Seldom to be included in the activities of my contemporaries.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|8. To have a mother whose love is a source of comfort and strength||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|9. To have parents who disapprove of some of the choices I make in life, or try to keep me from making my own decisions.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|10. To have a friend who sticks by me regardless of what happens.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|11. To have confidence in the steadiness of my parents’ feelings for me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|12. To have girls dislike me or consider me unattractive.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|13. To have a father who is incompatible with me in terms of temperament, disposition, outlook, etc.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|14. To find that many of my basic values about life stand the tests of time and experience,||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|15. To have to find most of my good acquaintances outside of my own age group (either younger or older).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|16. To have a mother who, no matter how busy, almost always has time to pay attention to me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|17. To have parents who have sometimes left me alone or in the care of someone else for considerable periods.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|18. To have been helped by someone who had nothing to gain from the kindness.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|19. To have parents with a constant set of standards, so that I usually know in advance how they will respond to my actions.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|21. To have a father who has not associated with me as much as I would have liked him to,||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|22. To have an outlook on the world which is shared by people I respect and admire.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|23. To be considered something of an outsider or outcast by people ny own age.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|24. To have a mother whose love and understanding has been steady, but never restrictive or confining.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|25. To have my parents argue with me over my choice of friends, my area of study, and/or my way of behaving.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|26. To find a person whom I can trust without fear of betrayal or disloyalty.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|27. To have parents who will not go back on their word, unless it is really impossible for them to keep it.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|28. To be ignored or rejected by a girl I like.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|29. To have a father who has made me feel that I have disappointed him, fallen below his expectations,||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|30. To have the most important of the beliefs I held in my youth prove adequate to the needs of my present life.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|31. Often not to know how I stand with my contemporaries.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|32. To have a mother whose company I almost always have enjoyed and with whom I have shared many aspects of my life,||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|33. To have parents of whom I am sometimes embarrassed.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|34. To have found that people usually fulfill, if not excell, the expectations I have of them.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|35. To have parents on whose love I can rely whenever I need it.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|36. To have social situations where girls are present make me feel awkward or ill at ease.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|37. To have a father who does not appreciate me (does not praise me when I accomplish something, does not perceive my potentialities).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|38. To hold beliefs which prove compatible with or are based on many centuries of man’s experience.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|39. Very seldom, if ever, to have been asked to join as a member of a close-knit group or clique.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|40. To have a mother who encourages me to be independent and resourceful (trusts in my judgment, leaves me alone when I want to be alone, is glad when I succeed).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|41. To have parents who generally support me in my undertakings and who feel these are important.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|42. To be hurt by someone in whom I had trusted implicitly.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|43. To be alternately loved and then rejected by my parents.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|44. To have a girl-friend with whom I am very close or in love.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|45. To have a father whom I admire and look to as an example in many things.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|46. To have many of my ideals and/or values seriously undermined by others.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|47. To be given a sense of "belonging" by my contemporaries (be in the groups I want, be an accepted member of several organizations, etc.).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|48. To have a mother who is unable to understand me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|49. To have parents who are reasonable in their discipline and/or demands on me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|50. To be ridiculed or ignored by people I had once considered my friends.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|51. To have my parents often break or forget a promise they make to me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|52. To have a close physical relationship with a girl of whom I am very fond.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|53. To have a father who respects my judgment and my ability to make my own decisions.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|54. To have had experiences in the world that invalidated what I had believed to be indisputable truths.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|55. To have enjoyed the activities and/or clubs of my school.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|56. To have a mother who criticizes, blames, or disapproves of me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|57. To have parents to whom I feel very close, and with whom I can readily communicate.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|58. To be let down by a person I once thought was fond of me, but did not help me when I needed help.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|59. To be the object of capricious and arbitrary discipline and/or praise from my parents.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|60. To be as comfortable in relationships with women as I am in those with men.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|61. To have a father with whom I have shared many common interests (hobbies, games, trips, etc,).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|62. To have been forced to see the bad consequences of beliefs and ideals I once held dear,||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|63. To grow up among companions in whose social world I had a definite and relatively stable place.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|64. To have a mother who is distant from me (unresponsive, unsympa- thetic, aloof, undemonstrative).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|65. To have parents whose values and beliefs seem reasonable to me, and which I can generally accept.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|66. To have my faith in someone I was very close to shattered by some unexpected act, event, or disclosure.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|67. To have parents whose behavior makes me uncertain about their real feelings toward me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|68. To have girls generally be attracted to me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|69. To have a father who will stand by me through thick or thin.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|70. To have been obliged by facts to abandon cherished illusions or values.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|71. To have a number of friends with whom I share common interests, beliefs, and ideas, and by whom I am accepted and well-liked.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|72. To have a mother who is over-solicitous, unduly apprehensive about my well-being, health, safety, comfort, etc. (who warns me against possible harms, opposes undertakings that are in any way risky or dangerous, stresses prudence, etc.).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|73. To have parents who allow me to make my own decisions (who encourage me to be self-sufficient and independent).||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|74. To be disillusioned by discovering that someone I loved was not as admirable or loyal as I thought he (she) was.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|75. To be unsure how my parents will respond to my behavior.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|76. To have my interest and liking for a girl fully reciprocated.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|77. To have a father who is very close to me and able to understand me.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|78. To have had to reject many of the basic beliefs which people never seem to question.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|79. To make friends easily, and to inspire affection and respect in those I meet.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
|80. To have a mother with whom I have very little in common.||Fa||VS||Sl||Mo||Ve||Ex|
Philosophical Outlook Test (Form D)
|1. You can rely on most people you meet.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|2. I am extremely responsive to moods and subtle changes of feelings both in others and in myself.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|3. I know who I am and where I am going.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|4. It is generally advisable to avoid intense personal attachments.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|5. To get back at someone who has injured you, to hear of the humiliation and defeat of an enemy—this is both delicious and invigorating.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|6. In this age of conformity to advertising slogans and the shibboleths of big business, integrity demands that we stand against the main trends of our society.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|7. Wen I embark on a given course of action, I seldom turn back or hesitate.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|8. You are likely to be trampled on by others if you place too much reliance on them or their promises.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|9. The future looks black as pitch, with little in view to justify a core of hope or faith.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|10. Appearances, are usually deceptive.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|11. I often wonder after I have promised to do something whether I was wise to have made the commitment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|12. There is little to be gained by opposing mass culture,or middle-class standards; they aren’t really that bad anyway.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|13. Trying to cooperate with other people brings mainly strains, rivalry, and inefficiency; consequently, I much prefer to work by myself.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|14. Suffeting is the only source of wisdom.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|15. There are always plenty of people ready to extend a helping hand.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|16. The undercurrents of hostility or friendship, nervousness or ease, in another person are usually extremely clear to me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|17. No matter who I am or with or what I am doing, my feeling about myself seldom changes very much.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|18. I expect neither help nor praise nor sympathy from others. SD D. MD MA A SA||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|19. I sometimes wish someone I knew were dead.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|20. I am simply not susceptible to the general enthusiasm for sue- cess, togetherness, and material accomplishments.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|21. A good deal of new evidence has to be brought in before I am likely to question my established attitude about an issue or a person.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|22. Only by keeping on guard against the possible untrustworthiness of others can we spare ourselves the continual pain of disillusionment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|23. Wise men know there is more pain and misery in life than pleasure and delight.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|24. First impressions cannot be relied upon; what lies beneath the surface is often utterly different.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|25. I am not what would ordinarily be called a "decisive" or "resolute" person.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|26. It is all too easy to over-emphasize the faults in modern soeiety, forgetting the benefits that have come from truly democratic standards of culture.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|27. There’s little more ruinous for an original person than to try to carry out his ideas in cooperation with other people.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|28. Most people who say they are happy close their eyes to the sufferings of the world.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|29. Most people are generous in their judgment of you and inclined to give you the benefit of the doubt.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|30. I sometimes have a feeling of immediate and intuitive ing of another person without a word being spoken.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|31. Increasing knowledge and understanding will permit us to predict the future with ever increasing confidence.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|32. Emotional committments are usually the prelude to disillusion . and disappointment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|33. I find I frequently feel hatred for someone I love.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|34. Ours is an age of cheap publicity, of ballyhoo, eye-wash, pretense, hypocrisy, and downright lies.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|35. I sometimes devote myself almost without reservation to a person or a task.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|36. Any man who has really known himself has had good cause to be horrified.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|37. The real substance of human life consists of a procession of disillusionments, with but few goals that are worth the effort spend in reaching them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|38. Too many men lead shallow drab lives: I want to look into the depths, beneath the superficialities and conventionalities of everyday life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|39. I am frequently led to abandon a projected course of action when I begin to worry about its consequences.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|40. The intelligent observer cannot help but marvel at the cultural achievements of the modern world} not only the individual peaks of accomplishment, but the high plateau of the average man.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|41. "Teamwork" is the last refuge of mediocrity. SD D HD HA A SA||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|42. For anyone with an average amount of energy, self-confidence, and talent,the chances of success in life are excellent.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|43. You can count on the vast majority of people you come in con- tact with to be trustworthy and dependable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|44. Sometimes the relationships between people and things are apparent to me with unusual clarity and depth.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|45. Man's relations with his fellows are normally stable and predictable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|46. Here today, gone tomorrow—that's my motto'.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|47. I sometimes think to rayself how much I hate someone.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|48. The idea of trying to adjust to society as now constituted fills me with horror.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|49. In an emergency, I am always among the first to suggest what action should be taken.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|50. Unless a man has been filled with revulsion, he cannot claim to possess self-knowledge.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|51. You can be certain that beyond every obstacle you encounter, your chosen path is blocked by a succession of further obstacles—some of which are insunnountable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|52. I cannot simply take life as it coroes: I must penetrate to the heart of it, see people stripped of their externals.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|53. Sometimes when I dislike my current situation, I hesitate to change it because I am uncertain about the consequences of my contemplated move.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|54. Attempts to predict the future are doomed to failure: random, fickle chance governs all.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|55. Few people can preserve (much less find) their identity within a group.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|56. Generally, I am very happy.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|57. Most people you meet are friendly and obliging, more disposed to aid you than to refuse aid.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|58. My life so far seems a futile search to discover my true identity.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|59. Wise men have always known that our lives were intelligible, purposeful and coherent.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|60. A man must learn to tolerate loneliness and solitude: it is veiy / rare that he can find a companion who is prepared to accept him for what he is.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|61. Most people secretly despise those who depend on them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|62. Pursuit of the shallow values of success, popularity, and adjustment has le.d our society far towards moral bankruptcy.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|63. Very few people can be trusted.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|64. I am given to self-accusation and self-recrimination about things I have done or might have done.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|65. No longer can a young man build his character and his hopes on solid ground: civilization is crumbling, the future is dreadfully uncertain, and his very life hangs by a thread.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|66. Most people wear masks: we can never really know a : ián unless we probe below the surface.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|67. My attitudes and feelings about people often change back and forth rather abruptly.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|68. Honesty compels us to admit that our lives are without any inherent regularity, purpose, or form.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|69. X will either be a colossal success or a colossal failure, nothing in between.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|70. I really enjoy life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|71. Believe that a man will keep his promise and he will keep it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|72. My early ideals have collapsed, leaving little in their place.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|73. Man’s increasing knowledge will some day permit him to predict and control the future with far greater exactness than he docs today.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|74. One should build his life around things which will not require the support of other people, for there is no more potent source of dissatisfaction than unfulfilled hopes about others.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|75. There have been times when I have been so mad at someone I almost could have killed him.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|76. In the last analysis, the "American way of life" is pretty shallow and tawdry.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|77. The world is full of people who are .eager to take advantage of you if you give them the slightest opportunity.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|78. In personal relationships, I sometimes have an acute feeling of my own inadequacy and worthlessness.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|79. There is little chance of ever finding real happiness.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|80. Beneath our personable facades lie depths of human nature which many people would find unimaginable.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|81. The American man on the street shows a much higher standard of taste than most "intellectuals" give him credit for.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|82. You can never tell what will happen next, and attempts to find out are predestined to fail.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|83. Only very rarely do things turn out for the best: disappointments, complete or partial failures—these are the inevitable bittei' lessons of experience.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|84. The world is a bright and cheery place.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|85. If you have faith in your friends, they will seldom disappoint you.'||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|86. The question of who I really am end what I will ultimately do with myself is seldom far from my mind.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|87. Although we may not always perceive them directly, the principles that govern the universe are forever the same.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|88. Much as a man may seek true understanding from others, he must reconcile himself to living without it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|89. To be an active and appreciated member of a group means a tremendous amount to me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|90. Senseless conformity is the dominant trend of our times.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|91. Very few people will help another person out unless it benefits them in some way.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|92. 92. I sometimes lose perspective and really hate myself after I. have done something wrong.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|93. The world is teeming with opportunities and promises of success for anyone with sufficient imagination to perceive them.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|94. Most ideologies and beliefs serve primarily to hide men's unpleasant motives from themselves.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|95. The values of the average American express many of man's highest aspirations.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|96. The notion that nan and nature are governed by regular laws is an illusion based on our insatiable desire for certainty.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|97. There are sad and depressing times when the world strikes the eye as a huge, heartless, impersonal nachine, almost devoid of understanding, sympathy and icrcy.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|98. By and large, I feel that my life to date has been pretty much of a success in terms of my own values.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|99. He who places his confidence in others will find it fully repaid.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|100. For lack of a clear sense of identity and direction, I sometimes feel that I am floating in a limbo of purposelessness, where nothing makes any sense and nothing has any- point to it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|101. Regularity, constancy, predictablity—these are the ground-rules of the world.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|102. A wise man expects little from others; thus he avoids the frustration-of failure and the despair of disillusion.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|103. It is generally more satisfying to work with others than alone.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|104. In this saccharine age of empty banalities and hollow affirmations, opposition or withdrawal are the most honest solutions for the individual.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|105. The world abounds with people who experience their keenest satisfaction in exposing the weaknesses and defects of others.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|106. There is really no good reason for a person not to trudt his inner self.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|107. Satisfaction is the rule, dissatisfaction the exception.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|108. I cannot accept appearances: I must go beneath them to the secret sources of dignity and shame, strength and weakness.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|109. Most people in this country lead productive and fulfilling lives.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|110. Human relations follow inconstant, unstable courses.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|111. I feel strongly how different I am from most people, eveij. my close friends.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|112. I have a good deal of self-confidence.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|113. If you trust others to the limit, they will trust you to the limit.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|114. Sometimes I feel that everything I have done, or am doing, is aimless and without much meaning.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|115. As a general rule, a man's past experience is a reliable guide to the future.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|116. I often am aware that I really loathe someone.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|117. The individual can seldom be genuinely productive without some active role in the life of his community.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|118. American culture seldom rewards men of genuine creative ability: the "soft sell" and the "fast pitch" are rapidly becoming the keys to "artistic" success.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|119. Most people are basically unreliable when their own security or pride is at stake.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|120. My confidence in my own value is strong enough so that if people don’t like me, it does not bother me greatly.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|121. Most endeavors are worthwhile—pleasurable in their execution and rewarding in their results.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|122. Much of our conventionality and rationality is an attempt to gloss over the deeper well-springs of human action.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|123. Twentieth century societies have permitted men to reach a higher standard of culture than ever before.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|124. Anyone who believos he can "see' what the future will bring" is either blind of self-deceived.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|125. The older I get, the more I see the differences that divide and separate me from other people.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|126. I feel that most people like me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|127. Faith in others breeds happiness and good will; suspicion engenders only suspicion in return.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|128. I generally have a very clear feeling of my own identity.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|129. We live in a stable intelligible universe.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|130. I daydream occasionally of getting revenge on those who have injured me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|131. Wo find ourselves through a full life with others, not through isolation.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|132. Once I have made up my mind to do something, I seldom i,ave any second thoughts or doubts about it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|133. Expect the worst of others and you will avoid disappointment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|134. There is almost never any valid basis for self-contempt or self-distrust: these should be seen as symptoms of some other disorder or disappointment.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|135. We can be confident that conditions will improve in due time.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|136. The reasons people give for their actions should not be accepted at face value; they are usually very far removed from true motives.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|137. If I had it in my power to change the values of the average . . : American, I would leave them much as they now are.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|138. Human life rests on blind, unknowable chaos.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|139. I don't think I'll ever find a woman who really understands me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|140. One can be sure that, despite any evidences to the contrary, happiness lies ahead of him.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|141. I have sometimes had experiences so unique or ineffable that I could not effectively communicate them to another person.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|142. I expect to be successful in attaining my goals in life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|143. The longer I live, the more I realize how basically alone and friendless we all are.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|144. Love and hate are inseparable: we often hate most those who are supposedly closest to us.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|145. Membership in organized groups is a valuable if not essential part of a man’s education.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|146. It is hard for me to understand people who are always vacillating—wondering whether they made the right choice or did the right thing.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|147. Nice as it may be to have faith in your fellow men, it does not pay off.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|148. It tskes a great deal to shake my self-respect or feeling of my ultimate worth.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|149. There are few men who do not have it within their reach really to enjoy life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|150. I make few commitments without some inner reservation or doubt about the wisdom of undertaking the responsibility or task.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|151. Americans have a right to be proud of the levels of cultural appreciation which our country has reached in recent years.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|152. One of the greatest delusions of our time is the belief that we can know the future.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|153. I have very little in common with most of the people I meet.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|154. Beneath the polite and smiling surface of man's nature is a bottomless pit of evil.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|155. I sometimes "see through" a person very quickly, and feel that I understand him or her well despite short acquaintance.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|156. I have a film implicit faith in certain values which help orient and give meaning to my life.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|157. I doubt if I will ever find anyone who really understands me.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|158. There are times when I can hardly control my irrational hatreds.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|159. American culture is inclined to be trashy, cheap, nnd. comraetcial.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|160. I generally make up my mind fairly quickly: itnd once it is made up, it usually stays made up.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|161. He who is gullible enough to believe the "truths" that others tell him is headed for disillusionment, mortification, and regret.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|162. I generally go into a new situation with a feeling that other people will like me, Oi- at least respect me for what I am.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|163. In the long run, things almost always work out for the best.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|164. Second thoughts about things we have undertaken are completely natural: almost every endeavor has disadvantages which only become apparent once we are embarked on it.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|165. One should not carp about those many Americans who place great emphasis on success and the approval of their fellows: these are important and necessary values.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|166. The whole idea of "taking an active part in the life of my community" leaves me cold.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|167. Only cows are contented.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
|168. The prospect is pretty hopeless: it looks as if the Nations were heading toward their doom—one final, fateful, suicidal, global war.||SD||D||MD||A||SA|
One of our main areas of psychological concern is that of creativity, eventually in all its varieties—social, political, ideological, scientific, and aesthetic,— but for the present we are concentrating on literary creativity, and I hope you will do what you can to contribute to our understanding of this variety, even though it does not happen to be the one which is most natural to you.
The special focus of this study is the nature of the mental processes by which a short story (say, about 6 to 12 pages) is generated out of the memories of an actual personal experience. In some cases, a story so derived turns out to be a highly selective, yet fairly congruent representation of the original episode. In other cases, the experience is radically transformed in the process of composition—say in a fanciful, comic, satirical, polemical, or tragic mode, naturalistic or symbolic.
But how can these selective, representational, imaginative, or transmuting processes be studied if nobody but the author knows the precise nature of the generating experience and if every author* s story stems from a wholly different experience? The answer is not far to Seek. Can you give it?
Could you write a story a) containing some of the ingredients of, or b) with a similar dynamic structure as, or c) somehow suggested by, or d) that symbolically represents or caricatures your experience in March or April, I960?
Could you do this—in as many hours as you care to spend on it (at the regular rate)—before Easter vacation?
Could you also give an account of when and how the ideas you accepted or rejected came to mind? And finally, if you write one or more preliminary versions, could you let me have them?
Approximate class rank in preparatory school: out of
Extracurricular activities, offices, prizes, etc.:
Non-school activities (religious, community, etc.)
Activities at Harvard:
How would you describe Harvard to a close friend who is not attending here?
Do you think Harvard exerts any pressure to change its students? If so, in what direction?
Do you think you have changed since the beginning of this year? If so, in what ways? Do you want to change in this direction?
Do you think freshman year at Harvard involves any degree of stress?
If so, in what areas is it strongest? What has been your reaction to this?
After a million years of evolution, man has invented biologic and atomic weapons which are capable of destroying all rife on this planet. The human race is thus confronted by its severest challenge.
Two questions have been asked: 1, has any man the imagination to conceive of a philosophy (religion, ideology, morality, way of life) which might save humanity from self-destruction? and 2, have men the capacity to transform themselves into living embodiments of this philosophy (if persuaded of its saving power)? Granting that the answer to this second question is "Xes," please address yourself to the task of attempting an answer to the first question.
Please assume that you yourself are at this moment confronted by man’s •'severest challenge", and must respond to it by preaching (to a large and receptive audience) one compact sermon which will consist of a succession of short precepts (40 to 60 in number).
Assume that the Truth has been revealed to you in a dream and that you have been enjoined to proclaim the Truth. As a "prophet" with a "message” for mankind you should "speak with authority".
The best procedure would be to write down rattier rapidly whatever ideas come to mind, without regard for organization, because this exercise will constitute only the first draft of your Sermon. Stop after 1| hours. Take home a copy of the draft and then (at your leisure) please spend 3 hours in rewriting it. Return the final draft in the addressed manila envelope.
The chief purpose of this research is to learn something about creative processes when engaged in solving a critically important moral problem, under stress and after a period of incubation.
Printec below is a selection from a passage in a 20th century novel, in which the main character expresses an often-heard view of America. Read the passage over and then, on the attached sheet, write down any comments you have on a) the character’s reasons for feeling as he does, and b) your own opinion of his views:
... and sometimes he wondered whether America really was the great death-continent, the great Nol to the European and Asiatic and even African YesI Vas it really the great melting pot, there men from the creative continents were smelted back again, not to a new creation, but down into the homogeneity of death? Was it the great continent of the undoing, and all its people the agents of the mystic destruction*. Plucking, plucking at the created soul in a man, till at last it plucked out the growing germ, and left him a creature of mechanism and automatic reaction, with only one living inspiration, the desire to pluck the quick out of every living spontaneous creature. ...
And all the peoples who went there, Europeans, negroes, Japanese, Chinese, all the colors and all the races, were they the spent people, in whom the God impulse had collapsed, so they crossed to the great continent of the negation, where the human will declares itself "free” to pull down the soul of the world? Was it so? And did this account for the great drift to the New World, the drift of spent souls passing over to the side of Godless democracy, energetic negation? The negation which is the life-breath of materialism. And would the great negative pull of the Americans at last break the heart of the world? ...
White men had had a soul, and lost it. The pivot of fire had been quenched in them, and their lives had started t©> spin in the reversed direction, widdershins. The reversed look which is in the eyes of so many white people, the look of nullity, and life wheeling in the reversed direction. ...
Oh America, with your unspeakable hard lack of charm, what then is your final meaning? Is it forever the knife of sacrifice, as you put out your tongue at the world?
Charmless America*. With your hard vindictive beauty, are you waiting forever to smite death? Is the world your everlasting victim??
Your comments should not be in the form of an organized essay, but should rather be random reflections and jottings on the two questions about. Please make them on the attached sheet.
A. On this side of the sheet write down any thoughts, impressions or surmises you have about why the character in the novel feels as he does. What do you think are the reasons, experiences, motives, etc., which led to this view?
B. On the reverse side of this sheet, write down your own view of the character' s comments. Do you share any of his views? Do you think he is on the right track oi’ not? How does the view expressed compare with your own?