Title: The Sex Offenses and their Treatments
Subtitle: The Problem—The Solution—Commentary
Date: 2004
Source: Author House
Notes: An attempt at marshaling psychology studies in the defense of Christian Fundamentalist beliefs. More specifically, the belief that evil is literally rooted in specific areas of the body, which can be cut off to become pure again.
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    Front Matter

      Title Page

      Publisher Details

  Volume I – The Problem

    I. Background on Sexuality and Crime

    II. The Sexual Century in Review

    III. The Hazards of Sex

      A. Crime

      B. Disease

      C. Aggression

      D. Jealousy

      E. Lost Spirituality

    IV. The Seriousness of the Crime

      Table 1. Sellin and Wolfgang Seriousness of Crimes Results

      Table 2. National Survey of Crime Severity Results (1985)

      Table 3. Uniform Crime Reports Offense Categories

    V. Propensity, Periodicity, Progression, Prediction, and Prevention

    VI. Description of the Sex Offenses

      A. Lust Murder

      B. Necrophilia

      C. Cannibalism

      D. Rape-Murder

      E. Sadism

      F. Masochism

      G. Rape

      H. Pedophilia

      I. Homosexuality

      J. Incest

      K. Abortion

      L. Fetishism

      M. Pyromania

      N. Mysophilia

      O. Prostitution

      P. Bestiality and Zooerasty

      Q. Scoptophilia

      R. Exhibitionism and Voyeurism

      S. Pornophilia

      T. Partialism

      U. Tranvestism

      V. Adultery

      W. Fornication

      X. Frottage

      Y. Oral-Genital Sex

      Z. Masturbation

      AA. Sodomy

      BB. Stalking

      CC. Sexual Slavery

      DD. Domestic Violence

      EE. Fondling

    VII. Other Sex-Related Problems

      A. Lyncanthropy

      B. Vampirism

      C. Satanism

      D. Whitago

      E. Amok or Amuck

      F. Symphorophila (Greek symphoro, “disaster,” plus philia)

      G. Erotomania

      H. Erotophobia

      I. Othello Delusion

      J. Infanticide

      K. Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

      L. Prison Sex

      M. Munchausen’s Syndrome

      N. Jealousy

      O. Interracial Sex

      P. Gender Identiy Disorders

      Q. Osphresiolagnia

      R. Sexual Harassment

      S. Apotemnophilia

      T. Sexual Addiction

      U. Mate Swapping

      V. Concubinage

      W. Polygamy

      X. Cohabitation

      Y. Satyriasis

      Z. Promiscuity

      AA. Priapism

      BB. Triolism

      CC. Gigolos

      DD. Hubris

      EE. Saliromania

      FF. Gerontosexuality

      GG. Klismaphilia

      HH. Nudism

      II. Erotolalia (Obscene Phone Calls)

      JJ. Koro

      KK. Couvade Syndrome

      LL. Paraphiliac Coercive Disorder (PCD)

      MM. Autassassinophilia

      NN. Sexual Trauma

      OO. Computer-Driven Sexual Exploitation

      PP. Cybersex

      QQ. Autonepiophilia

      RR. Self-Injury

      SS. Thrill Seeking

      TT. Stripping

      UU. Bareback Sex

      VV. Hookups

      WW. Groupies

      XX. Erotic Tourism

      YY. Hate Crimes

      ZZ. Other Paraphilias

    VIII. What Do We Know?

    IX. Comments on the Offenses

    X. Famous Sex Criminals of History

      A. Background

      B. Sex Criminals

      X. Comments

  VOLUME II – The Solution

    I. Background

    II. Punishment

    III. Capital Punishment

    IV. Prison

    V. Probation

    VI. Parole

    VII. Fines

    VIII. Educational Treatments

      A. Sex Education

      B. Megan’s Law

    IX. Prison Furlough

    X. Three Models of Adolescent Sex Offender Treatment

    XI. Psychotherpy

      A. Evaluation

      B. Behavioral Therapies

      C. Psychoanalysis

      D. Other Sorts of Psychotherapy

      E. Comments on Psychotherapies

    XII. Religious Treatments

    XIII. The Legal Solution

    XIV. Civil Commitment

    XV. Psychic Considerations

    XVI. Biologic Treatments

      A. Chemotherapy

      B. Anti-Androgens

      C. Anaphrodisiacs

      D. Opiates

      E. Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, and Alcohol

      F. Anxiolytics

      G. Serotonergic Drugs

      H. Anti-Convulsant Drugs

      I. Comments on Drugs

      J. Androgens

      K. Diet

      L. Electroconvulsive Therapy

      M. Psychosurgery

      N. Other Treatments

    XVII. Castration

      Table 4—Anabolic Steroids

  VOLUME III – Commentary

    I. A Survey of the Literature

      A. Hammurabi

      B. Moses

      C. Dionysus

      D. Juvenal

      E. Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius

      F. Rishi Vatsyayana

      G. Don Juan

      H. S.A.D. Tissot

      I. Giacomo Girolama Casanova

      J. Cesare Bonesana

      K. Compt Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade

      L. Leopold von Sacher-Masoch

      M. Jeremy Bentham

      N. Cesare Lombroso

      O. Freiherer (Baron) Richard Von Krafft-Ebing

      P. Sigmund Freud

      Q. Henry Havelock Ellis

      R. Grigory Efimovitch Rasputin

      S. Theodore Hendrik van de Velde

      T. Dr. F. E. Daniel

      U. Dr. Magnus Hirschfield

      V. Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey

      W. Dr. Benjamin Karpman

      X. Johan Bremer

      Y. Dr. George K. Sturrup

      Z. Menachem Amir

      AA. Shere Hite

      BB. A. Nicholas Groth

      CC. William B. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson

      DD. Reay Tannahill

      EE. Nigel Davies

      FF. Michel Foucault

      GG. Dr. John Money

    II. The Law

    III. The Cruel and Unusual Punishment Question

    IV. Cruel and Unusual Case Law Questions from West Florida’s Digest (2d 1986)

    V. Denial

    Denial References

    Footnotes

    About the Author

    Back Cover

Front Matter

Title Page

The Sex Offenses and their Treatments

The Problem—The Solution—
Commentary

by
Victor T. Cheney


1663 Liberty Drive, Suite 200

Bloomington, Indiana 47403

(800) 839-8640

www.authorhouse.com

Publisher Details

2004 Victor T. Cheney

First published by AuthorHouse 08/25/04

ISBN: 1-4184-2951-1 (e)

ISBN: 1-4184-2950-3 (sc)

Library of Congress Control Number: 2004106069

Printed in the United States of America

Bloomington, Indiana

Volume I – The Problem

I. Background on Sexuality and Crime

There are many things in this world that we can properly classify as important, but there are only five items that we must classify as essential to survival. Survival is the bottom line and the first purpose of all human activity. These five essentials are air, food, water, sleep, and sex. This book is written about the last item in its more aberrant manifestations. As television host Dick Cavett said when he introduced Masters and Johnson, the famous sex researchers, on his program June 7, 1979: “After all the attention given to sex all these years, you would think there’s not much left to be said.” But there is much to be said, and scientific studies are still proving that much of what we “knew” about sex was wrong. There is also much that we still do not know. Pubic hair, for example, we all have it, so it must be important for something; yet, does anyone really know what its purpose is? Our young people know far more about their automobiles than they do about their own reproductive systems. We are just beginning to come to grips with an understanding of the immense power of our own sex drive, which is so essential to the survival of our species. The pleasure of sexual intercourse is the bait that lures us into the pain and expense of the birthing, feeding, clothing, and rearing of children. It is also the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge in some, but not all, interpretations of the story of the biblical Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:16–17).

Plato (c. 300 BC) depicts the nature of male sexuality when he states, “… in men the nature of the genital organ is disobedient and self-willed, like a creature that is deaf to reason, and it attempts to dominate all because of its frenzied lusts.”[1] Our bodies are at constant risk for temptation, sin, and disease. Even the strongest men are repeatedly overcome by the power of the sexual urges; their bodies are often uncontrollable and a source of betrayal when the sight of a woman, a dream, or a sex object elicits a spontaneous erection.

The ancient wisdom about good and evil has been told to us many times in the Bible and in the Talmud for thousands of years. Since the Garden of Eden, when the serpent tempted Eve and Eve led Adam to Sin (Genesis 3), we have learned there was something sexual about evil. God cleansed the earth via the great flood because men became sinful (Genesis 6, 7). Two of God’s Ten Commandments deal specifically with sexual sinning (Exodus 20:14, 17), and the Talmud nicely explains why God created this impulse, as well as the impulse for goodness. God made the evil impulse for the preservation of the human race.[2] The Koran (17:37) also commands that you shall not commit adultery, for it is foul and indecent.

The New Testament provides an answer to sexual sinning in the words of Christ Himself in Matthew: “… if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away; it is better to lose one of your members than for your whole body to go into hell” (Matthew 5:27–30, the New Revised Standard Version), and “… there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven” (Matthew 19:12). The Talmud provides us with additional details so we can recognize eunuchs and their pictures down through the ages: “He has no beard, his hair is soft, his skin is smooth, his urine is not excreted in an arch … and the semen is thin like water. If a man has no beard or pubic hair by twenty years of age, one must assume that he is a congenital eunuch” (Tosefta Yebamoth, 10:6). Eunuch attendants are frequently pictured with the high and mighty on ancient wall carvings because they were the most trustworthy servants in most old cultures.

Sex is one of the driving forces of human existence. God made sex exquisitely thrilling to ensure the continuation of our species. We hunger for it in mind and body. Sex is a very big business in countries like ours where money is so important. In 1995, we had approximately 3,000 sex clubs employing some 250,000 dancers and pulling in at least $3 billion a year. The combination of “babes” and booze is an unbeatable moneymaker. The biblical story of the dancer who was given the head of John the Baptist on a platter (Matthew 14:6–11 and Mark 6:22–28) is another illustration of the power of the attraction. The sex clubs often increase crime and spread disease and are strongly opposed by the decent people and their churches, but the clubs continue to expand. Some misguided people even call sex clubs “a necessary evil” to provide a source of relief to the sexual tension of healthy men.

In the sexual behavior of all of the higher vertebrates, there is a very complex chain of relationships with feedback mechanisms of several kinds. This elaborate series of highly labile physiological mechanisms is developed in each individual as a result of genetic influences involving several types of genes. It is not surprising that sexual behavior should be extremely variable. Chromosomal differences are reflected in hundreds of variations in body types, including the genital abnormalities found in people born with Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. In the human race, these physical contributions affect behavioral patterns, which are influenced and modified by social and psychological factors to a greater degree than the lower classes of creatures; therefore, our sexual behavior varies more among human individuals. The strength of the sex drive, from relatively low to very powerful, has a much greater range than most of us are aware of. Some people think about sex all the time. Sexual thoughts may be concentrated on individuals of the opposite sex, but may also be directed toward individuals of the same sex. The Soriono people of Eastern Bolivia are said to hardly ever engage in homosexual practices, while among the Arunda tribes of Central Australia, almost all of the men practice homosexuality to some extent.

Sexuality is one of the primary driving forces of human behavior. Much has been written, studied, and discussed about the more favorable expectations for love and to create a family, but there is also much that is evil and not so well known. We are still trying to sort some of these out, trying to determine which are natural, normal, and good, and which are really unnatural, harmful, and bad. Sex for procreation and love is considered good (or at least necessary); sexual murder, maiming, and rape are bad. But what about the great penumbra of other sexual behaviors outside of the clearly good and clearly bad? There are many different opinions on homosexuality, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Who is right? These must be sorted out with clarity. Population growth has already reached the midnight hour of decision in many countries. These countries are unable to feed their huge, teeming populations. New and deadly epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases are out of control in most of the world. Sex crimes proliferate. We are not coming to grips with these problems effectively enough. The tough solutions necessary are not being heard and employed.

Human sexuality is often tangled hormonally and impacts our lives on the most basic levels. The big objectives, the fundamental purposes of our being, are connected with our sexuality. The big questions: Why am I here? Is it to serve God, country, family, or tribe by rearing children? What do I want to do? Do I want to enjoy life? Gain fame or fortune? Have a good time? Sex is often considered in these kinds of deliberations. Other big, unresolved questions come to mind as we investigate the sex criminals: Why do they behave as they do? Is their behavior motivated chiefly by biological or sociological influences? Are sexual habits formed by nature or nurture? Here we are presently at a state of knowledge that is roughly analogous to our knowledge of the weather. We know most of the factors that influence the weather, but our success rate in predicting the weather in any given area a day hence is far from perfect—only slightly better than guessing, perhaps 65 percent.

The three recognized realms of the human personality are the body, the mind, and the spirit. The body’s hormones compose the primary causative agents of behavior, especially criminal sexual behavior. We often hear, however, that the primary causes of deviant behavior are in the mind or the spirit. Explanations like: “He thought he could get away with it,” “He learned it from his friends,” “The devil made him do it,” or “He’s crazy,” are the most prevalent. In actuality, the endocrine system is the primary ruling factor in sexual behaviors. The sex drive is akin to the body’s other needs—eating, breathing, sleeping, etc.—except that the sex drive is more complex. Deviance in the sex criminal is powered by the same influences, but to a different degree or direction than that of the normal population. In the male, the locus of the drive is in the gonads and their powerful hormones. The main hormone is testosterone, and it acts on the brain and other organs through the bloodstream causing, in some men, an everpresent demand for the release of sexual tension.

The quality of life in America has dramatically decreased more than in many of the other developed nations because of increasing crime. Our politicians and criminologists have tended to act on the belief that criminals are primarily products of a destructive environment. Criminologists in other countries tend to perceive the more biological differences reflected in criminals. To me, it is apparent that we, in our country, are on the wrong track. Several studies of identical twins who were separated in early childhood and reared separately in completely different environments have clearly shown that up to 61 percent of their aggression characteristics were innate. We must reorder our thinking and our policies in order that we may take advantage of some of the tried and true medical treatments for the hormonal imbalances that motivate criminals.

Our nation has been in the grip of an enormous crime wave. According to the Uniform Crime Reports of the FBI, the chance a person had of being the victim of a major violent crime nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. It took only five years in the 1980s to triple again. The risk continues to grow exponentially. It is no minor coincidence that during this same period we also had a “sexual revolution,” the development of the deadly AIDS virus, and the legalizing of homosexual behavior, abortion, and pornography. The incidence, seriousness, and types of the sex crimes escalated along with other violent crimes, and no one seemed to see the relationship of cause and effect. Very few of the academics studying these problems examined biological influences as a possible explanation. Even fewer were willing to recognize the hormonal factors involved in violent crimes, and almost none of them would state flatly that testosterone, the hormone of lust and aggression, was a root cause.

As the levels and intensity of crime continues to grow, crime in general and violent crime in particular has become the main concern of the average American citizen—especially those living in the largest cities. More and more prison cells have been built, but prisons still cannot keep up with the increased number of convicts. Demands for keeping violent prisoners locked up for longer periods continue to grow. “Three strikes and you’re out” became the political slogan for those who wanted to permanently immure violent offenders. In 1994, some states added fifty more death penalty crimes, cranked up endless crime prevention programs, added thousands of policemen to our forces, and spent vast sums of money ($30 billion in President Clinton’s anti-crime bill of August 1994 alone) in all but futile attempts to stem the tide.

Edwards and Hensley[3] point out “sexual victimization has grown in professional and public perceptions to become one of the most serious social problems of industrialized society. Concern for protecting communities while managing sex offenders has evoked both reactive and proactive legislative responses …” The emotional nature of this problem has limited the rational discourse, and a “new penology” has emerged with laws concerning additional “civil commitment” and community notification after the offender has completed serving his sentence. These laws have been found to have serious adverse effects and are under considerable discussion at the present time.

II. The Sexual Century in Review

In order for us to understand and put into historical context the information contained in the following pages, it is helpful to have some idea of what has happened in the past. A brief outline of some of the more important events that have shaped human spiritual, mental, and physical aspects of sexual development is provided here.

At the turn of the century in 1900, there were no radios and no televisions. There were only ten miles of paved roads, 8,000 automobiles, and few electric lights. One’s universe was bound by walking distances unless one used horses. Every month, more than a million readers turned to the Ladies’ Home Journal magazine for a glimpse of what was happening in other people’s lives.[4] Prior to 1900, a woman in public, with her bustles and corsets, carried about 27 pounds of clothing. If she went swimming, her bathing suit had to extend to within three inches of her knees. Entertainment in the city was provided by vaudeville, penny arcades, baseball stadiums, dance halls, bars, and peep shows, which were beginning to become more carnal. But there was also a war on vice going on, led by Anthony Comstock and his New York Society for the Suppression of Vice. Prior to 1900, Comstock had arrested 2,385 people and destroyed 73,608 pounds of books, 877,412 obscene pictures, 8,495 obscene negatives, 98,563 articles about immoral uses of rubber, and 6,436 decks of indecent playing cards. Comstock had been instrumental in getting politicians to pass a bill intensifying the punishment of those who used the mail to send obscene material. The United States was one great society for the suppression of vice. The life expectancy for an average man in 1901 was 48.23 years and 51.08 years for the average woman.[5] By 1997, it was 73.6 years for the average man and 79.4 years for a woman in the United States.[6] The U.S. population in 1900 was 76 million. The population in 1910 was 92 million. By 1910, there were 458,377 automobiles registered in the United States. The number of divorces in 1900 was 55,751, and in 1910, 83,045 couples divorced.

In the 1909 Webster’s Dictionary, the word homosexuality first appeared and was defined as “morbid sexual passion for one of the same sex.” In 1906, a major change in attitudes and methodology appeared with the work of the German sexologist Ivan Block, who coined the term Sexualwissenshaft, or “sexual science.” Bloch is important because he saw in history a foundation for understanding human sexuality.

There was considerable furor over houses of prostitution and “white slavery” from 1906 to 1910. The FBI was enlarged to monitor the international traffic, and in 1909, Congressman James Mann sponsored the White Slave Act, or Mann Act, to limit the slave traffic between countries and states. In 1901, Dr. Prince Morrow began a study of venereal disease and reported that 75 percent of men in New York City had at one time or another been infected with gonorrhea and 5 to 18 percent had syphilis. Other doctors put the overall venereal infection rate at 35 percent. At the turn of the century, Havelock Ellis was the first modern sexologist to challenge religious beliefs and other current medical technology with a number of case histories, which provided a landmark view of the role sex played in American life at that time. He refused to label masturbation a disease, stating it was a natural function.[7] Other writers of the time on sexual subjects linked repression to character. Historian Bryan Strong wrote, “If a man was pure, he was also frugal, hardworking, temperate and governed by habit … If he was impure, he was also a spendthrift, disposed to speculation and whiskey drinking, and ruled by his impulses.” In 1905, Sigmund Freud published his Three Essays on the Theory of Human Sexuality claiming that sexual instincts require gratification and that abstinence was unnatural.

The invention and proliferation of the movies in the first two decades of the twentieth century made use of characters who then entertained through sight and sound together. The population of the United States rose to 105 million in 1920, and the number of automobiles registered was about 6.8 million. The gross national product in 1919 was $84 billion, up from $35.3 billion in 1910. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in 1914. The assassination touched off World War I, but America, separated from Europe by an ocean, remained uninvolved in the war until after the sinking of the Lusitania by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson, after a diplomatic controversy with Germany, ignored his election promises and called on Congress to declare war against Germany. On a single day, 10 million American men registered for the draft. The war provoked a puritan crisis, and the Secretary of War ordered the closing of all bawdy houses within five miles of every naval base and banned the sale of alcohol on military installations. A hygienic form of sex education was instituted in all of the training camps to warn the recruits of the dangers of venereal diseases (VD). Even so, when the young soldiers got to France, prostitutes in the brothels of Paris infected many.

In 1938, Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, professor of biology at Indiana University, became acutely aware of how little was known about the biology of sexual behavior, and he began his famous studies. Kinsey published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male in 1948, raising an enormous amount of publicity and controversy. World War II, from 1941 to 1945, incited the “war aphrodisia” that had been noted in World War I. This is the live-for-the-moment mentality that swept over men and women alike during wars, greatly increasing sexual activity. At least 650,000 wartime babies were born out of wedlock in the United States. Obviously, the end of the war would have more impact on the number of cases. American servicemen took 50,000 British war brides. Black soldiers were often stationed in Britain and Italy. Interracial sex sparked riots between black and white troops in Manchester, Newberry, and Launceston. By 1950, when the U.S. population reached 151 million, 16.4 million men had served in the military. In 1950, only 3.1 million American homes had television sets. By 1955, the number was 32 million.

On August 20, 1953, the long-awaited second volume of the Kinsey Report was released on sexual behavior in the human female, and sex again became front-page news. During the first few weeks of publication, 200,000 copies were sold. Kinsey discovered that date of birth was the single most important indicator of sexual behavior. Women born before 1900 were morally circumspect; those born after 1900 seemed like a different breed. Statistics showed 86 percent of unmarried women born before 1900 were still virgins at the age of twenty-five, while 65 percent of women in 1953 were virgins at twenty-five.

Kinsey’s 1948 book had reported “37% of the total male population has had at least some overt homosexual experience between adolescence and old age.” The September 1950 issue of Coronet magazine said that homosexuality was the “new moral menace of our youth.” Senator Clyde Hoey looked into homosexuals in the government and identified 4,954 deviants, mostly in the military. Hoey believed that these people could be easy targets for espionage agents, who could use the threat of exposure to extort confidential information. During the war, the Pentagon had tried unsuccessfully to weed out homosexuals. In 1952, ex-GI George Jorgensen underwent the first public sex-change operation, going to Denmark a man and returning as Christine Jorgensen, a woman.

The government produced statistics that showed sex crimes other than prostitution were escalating from 46 per 100,000 in 1953 to 54 per 100,000 in 1955. Protecting white girls from black sexuality had been a major concern for centuries, and when the Supreme Court made the decision in favor of school integration, many white parents feared having their young daughters sit next to black boys. Our government likewise soon repealed the laws against interracial marriage.

The 1950s brought Marilyn Monroe, Bridgitte Bardot, Elvis Presley, Liberace, and Hugh Heffner. Books like Lady Chatterley’s Lover and Lolita were widely circulated at this time. By 1958, mail-order porn was a $500 million-a-year business.

The first female contraceptive pill was marketed under the name “Enovid” in the United States in 1960. Many believe that sexual liberalization would never have taken place without the pill.[8] The pill enabled women for the first time in history to prevent undesired pregnancies with an unprecedented degree of reliability, and its introduction was followed by two decades of the so-called “Sexual Revolution” with the increased commercialization of pornography and sexography on an even broader scale. Sex education was introduced into the public schools as the state legalized increasing forms of perversion, contributing to the decriminalization of behavior in many spheres of sex and marriage. The 1968 Vatican II pronouncement against the pill led to a steep decline in U.S. attendance at mass. Adolescents and young adults increased their sexual activity.[9] The beat generation of hippies with their decadent Woodstock jazz festivals, drug use, and “free love” became prominent in the late 1960s.

The December 1965 issue of Playboy became the first national magazine to advocate legal abortion. The Playboy Foundation funded early test cases in both abortion and gay rights. The 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade legalized abortion, and the walls came tumbling down. Prior to that time, as many as 5,000 women had died during illegal abortions in a year. Twenty-five years later, polls showed that at least 23 percent of the population was still against allowing abortion, and a fight continued against the laws. Some of the people even thought abortionists should be punished by death.[10] By 2001, 40 million babies had been aborted.

Dr. Alex Comfort published his earthmoving Joy of Sex in 1972. Since then, it has sold, in all its various editions, 8 million copies. Some writers apparently believed that this book was one of the main influences in increasing sexual behavior and thus the AIDS plague and the herpes epidemic.

Gay and lesbian psychiatrists in the American Psychiatric Association (APA) worked for years to raise awareness for gay concerns. At the December 1973 meeting, APA’s board decided to depathologize homosexuality.[11] The 1968 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, second edition, (DSM-II) had classified homosexuality as an illness, but in the DSM-III, the diagnosis was renamed “ego dystonic homosexuality.” The 1994 DSM-IV does not contain any reference to homosexuality. It was no longer a disease category according to the APA. It was okay to be gay according to the APA.

Sigusch classified the last decade of the twentieth century as the “neosexual revolution,” referring to the large-scale recoding and reassessment of the sexual sphere. Monogamy, reproduction, virginity, marital fidelity, abstinence, and asceticism became viewed as cultural waste products—characteristics of the old repression that was to be combated. “Emancipation” would go hand in hand with growth, but at the same time, sex would become the source and scene of oppression, inequality, violence, abuse, and deadly infection.[12] The homosexuals, lesbians, fetishists, cross-dressers, sadomasochists, and bisexuals came out of their closets in increasing numbers flaunting their perversions and organizing effective advocacy groups.

In 1980, the handsome, twenty-eight-year-old airline steward Gaetan Dugas, later known as the AIDS “patient zero,” brought the AIDS virus out of Africa and infected countless gay lovers.[13] By October 2, 1985, the morning that Rock Hudson, the famous movie star, died of the disease, the name of the disease was familiar to almost every household in the Western world—AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). On the day the world learned of Rock’s death, some 12,000 Americans were already dead or dying of the disease, and thousands more were infected. Bisexuals brought the AIDS virus out of the gay community and spread it to women; the women transmitted it to innocent babies. By the end of 1997, an estimated 30.6 million were infected worldwide, and about 40 percent were women, more than half of whom were aged fifteen to twenty-four.[14] Madonna’s book Sex, at $49.95 a copy, celebrated homosexuality, sadomasochism, and exhibitionism. The book sold 150,000 copies the first day it was released in October 1992.

On August 17, 1998, television network cameras surrounded Bill Clinton, President of the United States, after four hours of testifying before the Office of Independent Counsel and a grand jury, and while sitting in the Map Room of the White House. He confessed he had a “relationship” with Monica Lewinsky and had misled people, including even his wife. As Sigusch suggested, marital fidelity had worn thin over the past few years. Infidelity and adultery were headlined across the nation at the very highest level of government; this incident drew more time on TV than any other story except the war in Kosovo.

The U.S. News & World Report, in its last issue of the century, summed up the sexual century by pointing out that “the birth control pill did not trigger America’s sexual revolution. In fact, it’s inaccurate to speak of a revolution at all. Rule changes in the mating game around the time of the doughboys’ return from World War I started what was really a sexual EVOLUTION: Between 1920 and 1950, the percentage of U.S. women engaging in premarital intercourse more than doubled.”[15]

The January 1, 2000 Newsweek magazine went even further in their prediction of what would happen in the future. “In the next century, you’re going to have better sex than you’ve ever had before. You won’t have a single sexual fantasy that will go unfulfilled … All the communication technologies we’ve ever invented—the telephone, movies, the Internet—have eventually been used in the service of lust. Tomorrow’s advanced technologies will be no different … Virtual sex is risk-free, with no chance of AIDS or pregnancy. Fidelity and monogamy will have to be completely redefined. Is it cheating if you have virtual sex with another person? … Perhaps instead of sex, we’ll tap directly into our brain’s pleasure centers and find emotional intimacy by virtually experiencing each other’s dreams.” I wonder what the future will hold for the terrifying sexual misuses of the new technologies. The 2001 Durex survey showed that Americans have sex more times per year (an average of 124 times) than any other country, and the average age at first sex is younger (age sixteen). American men also average more partners (eighteen) than any other country.[16]

III. The Hazards of Sex

In the fifth century before Christ, the Greek Sophists recognized that there were three main types of the sexual appetite. They called them epithumia, eros, and mania. Epithumia is sexual desire of more or less manageable strength. Eros is more urgent, passionate, pleasure-directed life instinct, which underlies libido. Mania is a highly excited state of energy that often makes the world seem made for the individual experiencing it. Socrates explained that epithumia doubled in eros, and eros doubled in mania, so we have known for a very long time that our human sexual urges can be very powerful and potentially dangerous. In the sexual psychopath laws of the 1990s, we recognized some men’s “utter lack of power to control their sexual impulses,” and this became the basis of many civil commitment laws, which kept sex offenders locked up even after they had served the sentences for their crimes.

I do not wish to mitigate all that is good about sex, for “God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them, and God said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it …’” (Genesis 1:27–28), and this has been good for the past 50,000 years or so. But, in recent years, we have become more aware that there are many hazards connected with our sexuality, and I believe that we must somehow come to grips with this reality. Some of us have developed excessive levels of testosterone (T), which has resulted in many serious problems. T gives us sexual desire, excitement, pleasure, physical strength, and violence at even minor provocations. T also causes us to abuse women, children, and those weaker than we are. In ancient times, it caused the Nephilim to mate with the daughters of men and their descendants to become wicked, so that the earth became corrupt in God’s sight, and He destroyed it with the flood (Genesis 6).

Today, sex is a principle focus for many of our thoughts, words, and deeds. Much about sex appears each day in our newspapers, magazines, and books. The Library of Congress has more books on sex than on any other subject. We hear about sex on our radios, and we see it on our televisions and in movies. Sex sells, excites, titillates, and often leads us into trouble. It is more than a coincidence that the United States is also the most violent nation in the industrialized world with over 1.7 million people in prison and more than 3 million people on probation and parole.

Sex can be compared to guns and explosives. Guns in the hands of our police and soldiers defend us from criminals and enemies of our country, but in the hands of criminals, they take our property, lives, and money. Explosives in the hands of the miners and workmen allow wealth to be extracted from the rocky depths of the earth and open tunnels through mountains, but in the hands of the depraved, they slaughter innocent people and destroy property. Unfortunately, parents rarely warn their children early enough about sex and guns, and the result is thousands of unwanted pregnancies, venereal diseases, accidental injuries, and deaths.

A. Crime

At least thirty-five of the 100-odd sexual deviancies that I enumerate in the later chapter on the sex offenses are also crimes in the legal sense. But there is also a universe of crimes, which are caused directly or indirectly by our sexuality, that are rarely associated with the sex urge. Dr. Banay wrote: “The fact is that, from a psychomedical viewpoint, there are few crimes that do not spring from some degree of sexual dynamism, since nearly all behavior contains elements of underlying sexual factors.”[17] Stekel’s work, pioneered some forty years ago, depicted the sexual fundamentals of compulsive theft, fire setting, and other offenses.[18] A young man stole a car to take his girl for a ride out of town, or to a party; stole jewelry for a woman; stole money to buy a prostitute or other good times.

Sex and booze often go together. Drunk driving after a party or strip joint visit causes untold accidents and deaths each year. Tens of thousands of tickets, incarcerations to sleep it off, and police records on an otherwise clean slate all involve the sex hormones and neurotransmitters, and nearly all of us would be better off without these troubles.

Crime figures began to stop their almost continuous climb in 1995, and some types of crimes even became less prevalent. President Clinton patted himself on the back for this—crediting his policies of additional police forces. Some criminologists credited the previous policies of getting tougher and keeping prisoners in prison longer. Billions of dollars had been spent for several years in building more prisons and hiring more police, but there were others who pointed out that the crime rate was still way too high and was even continuing to increase in some categories of crime. In Florida, with the nation’s third highest overall crime rate, criminals committed 12,942 forcible sex offenses, 41,142 robberies, and 94,777 aggravated assaults in 1996. How can we be comfortable with these numbers?

B. Disease

Those of whom are best endowed—including the beautiful, young woman; the handsome, athletic, young man; the man with large genitals; the woman with large breasts; and the homosexual with a greater sexual appetite—are generally the most at risk for the hazard of sexual diseases. There are many examples of diseases from sex. John Holmes, who was endowed with a 15-inch penis and made dozens of pornographic movies, became a drug addict, thief, and murderer, and died of AIDS at the age of thirty-six. More than 50 million persons in the United States have genital herpes.[19]

Other examples are the “great pox,” which decimated European cities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the near-annihilation of Native American populations from the Europeans who brought venereal diseases to the defenseless inhabitants in “opening up” America; and the loss of half of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands in 1820 from sexual and other diseases brought by the white Europeans to the native population. Older individuals often succumb to the strain of sex: France’s emperor Napoleon III suffered a stroke while engaged in copulation, and Nelson Rockefeller died during the act.

C. Aggression

Substantial research suggests that testosterone (T) plays a role in aggressive behavior in men, and research indicates that women with high T levels are more sexually active, competitive, masculine, rambunctious, and drink more alcohol than women with lower T levels. T levels correlate with aggressive dominance in prison and other criminal behavior.[20]

D. Jealousy

At least half of all spur-of-the-moment murders and assaults are motivated by sexual jealousy. We also see it in most of the lower animals, with the males fighting to acquire and hold the females. We have seen it in the development of the Trojan Wars. We see it almost daily in our newspapers. The Northwest Florida Daily News on February 16, 1998 told of two cases in Florida. A Jacksonville man was charged with two counts of murder on February 15 in the shootings of his wife and her boyfriend, whose nude bodies were found by neighbors. On February 14, in North Lauderdale, Helen Cummings was rummaging around in her husband’s car when she found pictures of him with another woman. She then walked into her bedroom and shot Tyler Cummings five times in the chest with a .357 magnum revolver.

E. Lost Spirituality

The Bible instructs us in this matter in several places. In 2 Timothy, chapter 3, Paul exhorted Timothy to avoid the people who in the “last days” will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, arrogant, unholy, implacable, profligate, brutish, reckless, swollen with conceit, or lovers of pleasure. Some of them will make their way into households and capture women, be overwhelmed by their sins, and swayed by all kinds of desires. We see these traits very frequently today in our huge criminal population and in those who are sexually addicted or preoccupied. We may well be sliding into the “last days,” but I believe that we have sufficient time to alter our behavior by castrating the worst among us before the “last day” comes upon us.

IV. The Seriousness of the Crime

“If criminology is to be credible as a science, it must solve some of our crime problems” (Dr. C. R. Jeffery, Florida State University professor). Ideally, the most serious of our crime problems should be solved first, but what are the most serious crimes? Questions immediately arise. Who is to say which crimes are the most serious? The most serious to whom? Any crime might well appear to be the most serious to any given victim. The most serious crime is the one that happened to him or her, regardless of what someone else might think. We need to find out what the greatest number of people viscerally feel are the most shockingly evil, hated, abominable, and wicked of all the multitudes of crimes. There is still considerable variation on this subject among the experts.

The most legitimate purpose of having a government is to protect the people from their aggressors. To best do this, those in charge in the government should clearly know the rank of each crime in the order of its seriousness. Ideally, they should concentrate on solutions to the worst problems first. Scholars have made many attempts since the early nineteenth century to devise a system to measure the degree of seriousness of various offenses. Many of these systems determined the length of prison terms authorized by the law. Several difficulties associated with multiple systems include:

  1. The statutory punishments prescribed by the law for any given crime vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

  2. The descriptions for similar crimes vary.

  3. Morals and mores vary widely from location to location and from time to time.

  4. Each title for a crime in the legal system covers a considerable variety of illegal conduct.

The criminal statutes generally provide for more severe penalties for offenses committed against a person than offenses against property. Judicial sentences also mete out more punishment for violent crimes against a person than against property. Judges have also shown considerable variations on the punishment awarded for similar crimes. Another yardstick, which has been used to measure the seriousness of crimes, is the amount of money spent on the various types of crime. The Econometrics Studies by the Hoover Institute made the following calculations for 1979: The average larceny cost the public $747.00, the average robbery costs $1,234.00, and a crime against a person costs $15,973.00.[21] One of the most prestigious studies of the seriousness of crimes is by Sellin and Wolfgang.[22] Their rank order was based primarily on the extent of the injury. Below is a partial list of their results.

Table 1. Sellin and Wolfgang Seriousness of Crimes Results

Element Score Value
Victim killed 26
Forcible sex (intimidation by weapon) 12
Forcible sex (no weapon) 10
Victim hospitalized 10
Victim treated at hospital and discharged 4
Intimidation in connection with theft, etc. by weapon 4
Intimidation, physical or verbal only 2
Stolen, damaged property, or both. Value:
Over $80,000
$30,000 to $80,000
$9,001 to $30,000
$2,001 to $9,000
$251 to $2,000
$10 to $250
Under $10
Theft of motor vehicle (recovered undamaged) 2
Minor injury to victim 1
Forcible entry to premises 1

Note the non-linearity of the assigned score values. Life statistics frequently show a logarithmic or exponential progression rather than linear as with more mechanical statistics.

Criminologist Don C. B. Gibbons investigated the reactions of San Francisco area adults to twenty acts ranging from second-degree murder to drunk driving, and sociologist Kenneth J. Hodge repeated the study at the University of Florida[23] with excellent correlation (Spearman’s rank-order coefficient—rho equals .9534). The U.S. Department of Justice, however, published their National Survey of Crime Severity in 1985 with marked variation of seriousness for some of the same crimes. The results were as follows:

Table 2. National Survey of Crime Severity Results (1985)

Crime San Francisco Adults University of Florida National Severity Index
Murder 1 3 35.6
Robbery 2 1 21.0
Burglary 3 2 9.7
Manslaughter 4 5 19.5
Rape 5 4 25.8
Embezzlement 6 6 6.2
Price Rigging 7 7 9.7
Child Molesting 8 8 25.2
Assault 9 14 10.4
Narcotics 10 10 20.6
Auto Theft 11 11 10.8
Bad Checks 12 13 3.6
Misrepresenting Advertising 13 9 1.9
Draft Evasion 14 12 no data
Exhibitionism 15 15 4.7
Homosexuality 16 18 1.3
Tax Evasion 17 17 6.1
Marijuana 18 18 10.5
Statutory Rape 19 19 1.6
Drunk Driving 20 20 no data

There was a span of some seven years between these studies, which accounts for some of the variations. The National Survey of Crime Severity was by far the largest with some 50,000 respondents, and it also utilized a different methodology.

Another system of grading the seriousness of crime has been used by the FBI since early 1970 and is found in the Uniform Crime Reports, the annual publication of crime statistics. This system contains twenty-six offense categories in a general descending order of seriousness as follows.

Table 3. Uniform Crime Reports Offense Categories

1. Criminal homicide
a. Murder and non-negligent manslaughter
b. Manslaughter by negligence
2. Forcible rape
3. Robbery
4. Aggravated assault
5. Burglary—breaking and entering
6. Larceny—theft
7. Auto theft
8. Other assaults
9. Arson
10. Forgery and counterfeiting
11. Embezzlement and fraud
12. Buying, receiving, possessing stolen property
13. Weapons: carrying, possessing, etc.
14. Prostitution
15. Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution)
16. Narcotics
17. Liquor laws
18. Drunkenness
19. Disorderly conduct
20. Vagrancy
21. Gambling
22. Driving while intoxicated
23. Violations of driving laws
24. Parking violations
25. Other traffic violations
26. All other offenses

Most of the systems of rating the seriousness of crime consistently place murder and rape among the most serious of crimes, but are ambivalent about the grading of the seriousness of the other sex crimes. In 1965, the Institute for Sex Research found it unprofitable to categorize the sex offenses according to a scale of seriousness because of disagreement among both the public and professionals about what offense is more serious than another.[24] For example, one person may hold that an offense involving force is ipso facto more serious than one involving a voluntary relationship, yet the next person may feel that the seduction of a child is more serious than the rape of an adult, and a third person may claim that incest is the most pathological of all. One measure of seriousness might be the effect upon the victim, but in many cases we cannot be sure of the effect even years later. The same offense does not produce a uniform effect with all individuals. What to one person is an inconsequential, dim, childhood memory may to another be an unforgettable, life-molding trauma.

One of the problems of coming to grips with the relative seriousness of sex crimes stems from the insufficient range of descriptive language in the legal categories, which the criminal justice system deals with. Serious sex crimes are often unjustly bargained down to nonsexual offenses.[25] The term sexual pervert commonly recurs in the legal literature, but not all sex offenders are considered sexually perverse. A young man indulging in sex with a girl who happens to be just below the legal age of consent is not some kind of depraved monster.[26] He is only doing what comes naturally. “What constitutes a sex crime is dictated by the prevailing social attitude of a particular culture … the mores of one country may be entirely different from those of another.”[27] “A sex crime is any criminal act in which some type of sexual satisfaction is the motivating force for the crime.”[28] “At least 85 percent of the male population could be convicted as sex offenders if law enforcement was strict. But the public, not knowing of the near-universality of illegal sexual activity, heaps the penalty for the whole group on one who happens to be apprehended.”[29]

The sexual customs, culture, and laws that govern the sexual behavior of American men today are still strongly influenced by religion. Judeo-Christian religious and secular laws derive from the Law of Moses originally set down about 1491 BC. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) was one of the greatest Christian writers who did much to establish our present laws on sexual morality. St. Thomas’s idea was that any deviation from the conjugal male superior coital position was unnatural and, therefore, more sinful. Accordingly, he ranked homosexuality, sodomy, fellatio, coitus interruptus, and bestiality as more serious sins than rape, incest, and adultery.[30] A 1978 Gallup Poll found that 94 percent of the U.S. population believes in God and that 65 million adults believe that the Bible is inerrant.[31]

Several other factors also have an impact on our consideration of the seriousness of the sex crimes: they are usually repetitive in nature and frequently have a regular cyclic pattern, they will frequently fold over to other sex crimes besides those which become known, they often are perpetrated by criminals who are involved with other crimes besides the sex crimes, and they receive more attention from the public and are more severely penalized. Abel et al. (1983) collected a sample of 411 sex offenders and found that these offenders had actually attempted 238,711 sex crimes and completed 218,900. Over a period of twelve years following his deviant arousal, each offender had committed an average of forty-four crimes a year. Weinrott and Saylor replicated these observations with ninety-nine sex offenders and found that they had committed over 8,000 sex crimes and 19,518 non-sex offenses in the twelve-month period preceding incarceration—50.6 percent of Abel’s rapists had perpetrated pedophilia, and Weinrott found 32 percent had; 16.8 percent of Abel’s convicted child molesters had also raped, and 12 percent of Weinrott’s had in one year’s time; and 29.1 percent of Abel’s rapists had exposed themselves compared to Weinrott’s 33 percent.[32]

Large amounts of information have been printed in our periodicals and books on the Ted Bundys and Green River Killers of our era. A large part of our criminal justice system is devoted to them: The McNaughton[33] child molestation case occupied more court time and cost more than any other previous case on record. Several severe punishments have been meted out to child molesters consisting of multiple, consecutive life sentences.

An excessive, imbalanced sex drive is at the root of several other types of crime, which are never listed in the crime statistics as sex crimes. Kleptomania (shoplifting) and pyromania (arson) are among those that have been shown to have sexual motivations.[34] Spousal abuse, assaults, and murders of unfaithful spouses and lovers are caused by sexual imbalance and dysfunction, but it never appears as such in the records. These “domestic” crimes are the most dangerous to the police authorities, and it has been clearly shown by tightly controlled experiments[35] that police action does not deter repetition. Robbing, stealing, forging checks, and committing fraud to obtain money or notoriety are never listed as sex crimes, but libido and self-esteem are certainly involved. Without the emotional roller coaster of high testosterone levels, they never would have happened. Why is it that there is not more recognition of the contribution of the sex urge to more and worse crimes than any other motivation? Our learned psychologists and sociologists are fascinated with dozens of other contributing factors, and we have spent hundreds of billions of dollars trying to correct those causes, but they have almost entirely overlooked the sex hormone drive. Perhaps their evil influence is overlooked because these hormones are thought to engender admirable behaviors through masculine, protective impulses. We shall see.

My contention that the sex crimes include the worst crimes known to man was reechoed by Professor Barbara Hudson of the British University of Northumbria in her presentation to the American Society of Criminology’s annual meeting held at Boston, Massachusetts, on 16 November 1995. She said that “… the worst case, of course, is the sex offender” during her talk on race, crime, and justice in the risk society. One has only to read some of the Marquis de Sade book The 120 Days of Sodom written in 1785 while Sade was a prisoner in the Bastile. This book describes about 600 cases of horrendous sadistic, necrophilic, and lust murder behavior in the filthiest, detailed language. A quick scan can reveal the depth of evil that the sex urge of men can generate.

Special laws requiring community notification of the presence of sex offenders released from incarceration is another indication of the seriousness with which the public regards their crimes. Earl Shriner passed the first of these in Washington State in 1990 as a result of the brutal sexual assault on a seven-year-old boy by a then recently released sex offender. By 1996, twenty states had enacted similar laws, twelve other states allowed public access to sex offender information, and eight more states were considering similar legislation. In June 1996, President Clinton signed a similar national law known as Megan’s Law. Attending his public signing of this bill was the mother of Megan Kanka. Megan was a seven-year-old girl who had been sexually assaulted and murdered in Hamilton, New Jersey, by a released sex offender who had moved in across the street from the Kanka home.

Oddly enough, a majority of professional sex offender treatment providers did not approve of the Megan’s Law idea, and they published several articles in this vein in literature (including the Journal of Interpersonal Violence for June 1996 and Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, April 1996). Perhaps they felt the Megan’s Laws reflected the public lack of confidence in their ability to prevent sex offender recidivation—which, indeed, it did.

All crime is potentially defined as deviant, but all deviance is certainly not a crime. Social and legal codifications of deviance vary over time. The “deviantizing” of behavior that was previously not considered overly deviant, or perhaps even “normal,” is essentially a political process (Schur, 1980; Pfohl, 1994) that may be triggered by sudden increases in political power among certain types of people.[36]

Another factor that tends to increase the seriousness of the sex crimes with the passing of time is the relentless increase in the world’s population and the concurrent resulting increase in the numbers of people with sexual perversions. Even though most of these perversions remain at a very low percentage of the population, their numbers increase with the overall population. Many perverts have a history of being less than 0.01 percent of the population, but their numbers will grow to about 30,000 as the U.S. population grows to 300,000,000. Many of the people in these tiny minorities are highly motivated by the discrimination they feel against them to become activists and organizers of political pressures for their protection. Some of them are quite intelligent and vocal. The World Wide Web computer network has facilitated rapid, anonymous search and communication facilities so these people can get with others with similar interests and gain strength in uniting. This all adds up to a serious undermining of the moral strength of our nation as time goes on. We need to do something stronger to meet this growing threat. Castration of the worst offenders fills the bill.

V. Propensity, Periodicity, Progression, Prediction, and Prevention

Many people have a certain propensity—a natural inclination or leaning—to commit a sex crime. With women and eunuchs, this propensity is usually quite low, but in healthy men, it can become an overpowering urge because sex is essential to racial survival and highly reinforcing with immediate gratification and ecstasy in orgasm. This is the greatest pleasure known to most human beings. Orgasm is a state of pure bliss triggered by body play, mainly genital stimulation, and indicated by the most pleasurable moaning or screaming. Orgasm is an emotional and physical release that results in a feeling of utter contentment and relaxation. Men are hard-wired by their hormones and nervous system to seek the ecstasy of sex over and over, usually by sexual intercourse—coitus, copulation, mating, and love—but sometimes by deviant means, which I shall describe in the following chapters.

Some races are more inclined than others. The black race is highest, the white race next highest, and the yellow race has the lowest propensity to commit sex crimes. The average testosterone levels follow a similar pattern: highest in the black race and lowest in the yellow race. A 1996 study showed that among American high school students, only 28 percent of blacks were virgins, while 50 percent of whites and 73 percent of Asian-Americans were. Several other studies have shown similar tendencies among the races. Within each race there are certain ethnic groups that are more inclined than others toward sexual violence. In the black race, the tallest African tribal stock is more inclined than the shorter tribes. In the white race, Hispanics and Mediterranean peoples are generally higher than Nordic or Anglo. In the yellow race, Chinese and Koreans are lower than the Japanese in aggression and violence. So, we can readily see that only half of the male human race has a propensity for the violent sex crimes, and of that half, only about 50 percent have what may be classified as a high propensity.

Twenty to twenty-five percent, then, of the world male population should be viewed as strongly, naturally inclined to commit this type of crime. This percentage is further reduced by the age constraints: Very little sex crime occurs before puberty (around age ten, but can be as late as age seventeen), and after about age thirty-five, the propensity gradually declines with age. Various diseases can reduce propensity for sex crimes also—both the mental and the physical pathologies can have this effect—so we end up with only 10 or 15 percent of our population with a high proclivity for committing the violent sex crimes. Certain somatic types also should be mentioned as having a higher propensity for these crimes: the hairy, macho, muscular, mesomorphic-type man may be distinguished as having a greater propensity than the thin, asthenic, ectomorphic type or the fat, endomorphic type of body build. Although there are complex biological and social factors involved behind the sex crimes, genetics also plays a role, contributing at least 30 percent of the propensity in the mesomorphic males, aged fifteen to thirty-five, in certain families.

Periodicity is the quality, state, or fact of being regularly recurrent, and it is a well-known feature of the sex crimes often used by the investigators who specialize in this kind of crime in anticipating the next attack. In establishing the modus operandi of any given rapist or lust murderer, a pattern of more-or-less regular frequency is usually discernable. Ted Bundy and several others followed this pattern. Investigators frequently recognize the criminal’s repetitious behavior pattern without really knowing why or how it is caused. On the other hand, physicians, psychiatrists, and psychologists have known of the cyclic variations of many bodily functions, but have only rarely associated these variations with behavior.

Landau and Fridman reviewed the history of the study of the seasonality of criminal behavior and wrote that it:

… is considered to be a classical topic in criminological research. One hundred fifty years ago, the Belgian statistician Adolph Quetelet (1842) stated the following: “The seasons, in their course, exercise a very marked influence: thus, during summer the greatest number of crimes against persons are committed and the fewest against property; the contrary takes place during the winter.” More than a century later, Sutherland (1947) restated this “thermic law of criminality”: Statistical studies show very uniformly that crimes against property reach a maximum in winter months, and crimes against the person and against morals, in the summer months.[37]

In Landau and Fridman, not all of the studies reviewed showed the same season timing, but there were others that did: Michael and Zumpe (1983) investigated annual rhythms in violent crimes committed during two to three consecutive years (in the period of 1975 to 1979) in sixteen different locations in the United States. They reported that assaults and rapes peaked in the summer (between July and August) and robbery did so in the winter (between November and December). Field (1993) analyzed monthly crime data of England and Wales over a period of ten years. He reported that although personal crime (including violence against the person and sexual offenses) “peaked in summer, robbery and burglary peaked in the winter … ” The conclusion of Cohn (1990) is that although most violent crimes against the person (e.g., assaults, collective violence, domestic violence, and rape) increase with heat, the relationship between heat and homicide is uncertain.

Dr. Richard Livingston, a psychiatrist at the University of Arkansas, reviewed data on 585 boys born between 1948 and 1970 who were referred to the psychiatric clinic for behavior or learning problems. Overall, boys born in May, June, or July displayed more than twice the risk of developing dyslexia as boys born in any other months … Births in these three months accounted for 40 percent of all instances of dyslexia. Livingston stated, “I suspect different types of early brain insults can cause dyslexia.”[38]

The sex urge and all of its manifestations (the 105 named paraphilias, crimes, and perversions in the next chapter, as well as the numerous normative expressions) have frequently shown a cyclic characteristic. There is a regular ninety-minute cycle of the luteinizing hormone release in men, which causes the gonadal sex hormones to be released into the blood supply and hence to the brain. Generally this goes unnoticed. During sleep, however, this cycle manifests itself in periodic erections and sexual dreams. Unbidden, without consciously willing it to happen, we are more sexual during the cyclic hormonal peaks.

The paraphiliac has learned that a certain type of release, usually masturbation, would best satisfy his cyclic sex urge. After a time, however, this fails to suffice, and he looks around and happens to find something else. The child next door, exciting pictures in a magazine, perhaps a dog or horse—whatever he happens to notice at this particular time when his hormones peak. These objects or animals can become an erotic stimulus.

Just as we learned to eat different foods to satisfy our hunger, we learned different ways to satisfy our cyclic sex urge. The cycles cannot be denied or wished away. They are the stuff of life itself, essential to the survival of the species. No more than we can stop our cycles of breathing, sleeping, urinating, or defecating, we have to feel them repeatedly—over and over, sooner or later. The implications of the patterns of cyclic crimes (those that exhibit some degree of consistency) are that they can be more predictable. We can observe the behavior and learn its pattern and predict when a lust murderer or serial rapist will try to strike again, and be more watchful at those times. We have it within our capability today to identify these people early in their criminal career by their patterns of behavior. If we had the proper enabling laws, we could castrate these people and prevent their repetition of the horrendous crimes even before they had progressed to the most obscene levels of murder or rape. Some men have a very strong drive, while others hardly are aware they have any hunger for sex. Those that have the high sex drive, in turn, do not desire sex constantly at the same level all the time. Immediately after satisfying the lust (and sometimes for days or weeks or even months), men do not even think about it. Should external sexual stimuli arrive at the same time as the hormones peak, the cumulative effects can be overpowering to the criminal, whose conscience does not control him.

The periodicity of violence and the sex crimes has been known from ancient times. Men knew that animals and humans had sexual cycles. They came into “heat” at regular frequencies, and they ovulated, copulated, and menstruated in cycles, which was thought to be controlled by the phases of the moon and the seasons, just as the ocean tides are around the world. More recently, it has been discovered that we all have internal “clocks” in the hypothalamus that cycle through regular periods. Women have their monthly periods, and men’s sex hormones rise and fall in regular cycles each day and also every ninety minutes day and night, but also in a seasonal manner: “In the spring young men lightly turn to thoughts of love.” Sex crimes like rape peak in the spring of the year, and murders peak in the summer. “… The general observation that one effect of the steroid hormones is to perform a frequency modulation of the oscillatory system … This generalization appears to be true for … optimal driving frequency of the hippocampal theta rhythm.”[39] Scientists often refer to the “photo-periodicity” of animals. When the length of days increases in summer, there is an increase in the sexual ability and hormone melatonin produced by the pineal gland in the middle of the brain. In humans, the pineal gland is usually rudimentary, so length of day has only a moderate effect on sexual ability. There is also a correlative link between the human sleep-wake cycle and body temperature rhythm. One rhythm is modulated by the other.[40]

Progression, or the escalation of the seriousness and violence of sex crimes, has long been argued, and opinions still vary widely. If we knew more of how violent sex offenders’ behavior progressed, perhaps we could predict future behavior and take some steps to prevent future serious crimes. Stermac and Hall (1989) studied fifty sex offenders at the Clark Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, Ontario, and found that sixteen offenders did show a pattern of increasing severity of offenses, sixteen did not increase the intensity of their offenses, and eighteen of them were first-time offenders and could not be rated on their scales of increasing intensity of crimes. The researchers concluded that those whose crimes escalated from less severe to more severe were younger than the others (mean age 24.8 years) and reflected a significantly greater number who had psychiatric histories (93.5 percent) than the others in the study.[41] In the United States, a generalized progression has occurred in the intensity, frequency, and variety of the sex crimes since our “sexual revolution” (1960s through the 1980s). The public has heard more examples of lust murder, necrophilia, cannibalism, and pedophilia with ever-increasing frequency and gorier details. Names of lust murderers like Ted Bundy and Jeffery Dahmer have now become familiar to most of the adult population. The statistics of rape and child molestation convictions have continued to increase almost on a linear scale. Date rape, spousal rape, sexual harassment, and most recently “stalking” have been added to the statutes in most states as preventative efforts and as awareness increases.

Elliott, who used self-reported data from the National Youth Survey (NYS), found much clearer evidence of progression.[42] In this 1976 survey, the same 1,725 youths, ages eleven to seventeen, were interviewed nine times over the sixteen years and were ages twenty-seven to thirty-three when last interviewed in 1993.[43] Elliott observed that:

The picture of serious violent careers that emerges from this analysis of self-reported violence differs in several respects from that derived from official record studies. The prevalence of serious violent offenders is substantially higher; onset occurs much earlier; the demographic correlates are substantially weaker; evidence for escalation in frequency, seriousness, and variety of offenses over the career is much stronger; evidence for the sequencing of serious forms of violent behavior is stronger; and the continuity of serious violent offending from the juvenile into the adult years is similar for males and for females.

It is possible to establish the sequence of the types of serious violent behavior used in this analysis. Aggravated assault precedes robbery in 85 percent of cases and rape in 92 percent. Robbery precedes rape in 72 percent of cases. Thus, the typical sequence is from aggravated assault to robbery to rape.

The overlap of these behaviors within a serious violent career is quite high. Three-quarters of those with a rape or robbery also have an aggravated assault in their repertoire. Only 30 percent of those with an aggravated assault, however, also have a rape or a robbery. The most frequent form of serious violent behavior is an aggravated assault; 88 percent of all serious offenders report this offense. About one-third have a robbery in their repertoire and 15 percent a rape.

The sequences established here suggest a clear escalation in the seriousness of criminal behavior over time in a criminal career. The cumulative ever-prevalence (to age twenty-seven) of serious violent offenders in the National Youth Survey sample is 30 percent, 42 percent for males and 16 percent for females. By age eighteen, nearly 40 percent of black males have become involved in serious violent offending, compared with 30 percent of white males; at age twenty-seven these rates are 48 percent and 38 percent respectively. More than half of all black males who would become involved in serious violent behavior by age twenty-four had initiated their involvement by age fifteen; half of whites had initiated by age sixteen. When these ever-prevalent rates are compared with the age-specific rates presented earlier, it appears that over 60 percent of all males who will ever be involved (by age twenty-seven) in serious violent offending are actively involved by age seventeen.

Progression has also been observed by FBI Special Agent Robert R. Hazelwood and his colleagues in serial rapists and has been reported in several areas[44][45][46] as well as in lectures at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and other organizations. Serial rapists often begin as voyeurs peeping in women’s windows and then progress to rape.

Formerly, there was little evidence of progression, and it was generally believed that a man tended to become fixated on a certain type of sexual act and stick with it for life. This was deemed to be especially true of the sex offender, who was thought to learn one type of crime and become obsessed with that one deviance to the exclusion of all others. The public and police have been badly misled in this, perhaps because it was easier to understand, to explain, and to examine a single-track notion. Peepers stayed peepers; rapists, pedophiles, fetishists, and homosexuals were just that—they didn’t switch around. The police would often apprehend peepers and let them go because they were on the lookout for rapists to the exclusion of other types of offending behavior. Several times it developed that these peepers were in fact also the rapists for whom the police were searching. Peepers can also be fetishists who can also be burglars who break in and steal women’s panties and who also rape women.

Progression is a tricky trait to explain because it follows irregular paths. The peeper does not always become a burglar who becomes a rapist, but there is a general trend toward increasingly exciting behavior for the individual. It is a lot like the drug addict who starts out smoking pot and then goes on to sniffing glue, then to cocaine, heroin, or amphetamines. Similar neurotransmitters, hormones, and CNS components are involved in both the drug addict and the compulsive sex offender, and the synergistic effect of alcohol and drugs on the sex crimes is well established. The FBI learned from a study of serial rapists that 25 percent of offenders increased the frequency and amount of injury to their victims as time went on. There is a startling geometric progression that operates in the proliferation of the sex crimes, which makes it imperative that early intervention be as effective as possible: The average sexually aggressive adolescent offender may be expected to abuse 380 victims during his lifetime, and there is a strong tendency for each youthful victim, in turn, to become an offender in later life.[47]

There is good evidence that difficult infants are more prone to be overactive and physically aggressive from preschool through sixth grade, at least according to Professor Diana Guerin of California State University at Fullerton.[48] According to her article, parents usually do the wrong thing in trying to force such children to obey by openly conflicting with them over their behavior. This teaches the child that they must use force as their parents did to get their desires satisfied.

Many crimes that are labeled “B and E” (breaking and entering) by the police are actually rape attempts, which were somehow diverted or foiled or only partially successful intrusions. It is understandable to use this mislabeling in the criminal justice system, but it entirely obscures the sexual component of these crimes on the record books. The unfortunate result is that we will probably never know the full extent of the crimes that are sexually motivated and therefore preventable through the castration treatment.

Just as the drug addict shows a regular pattern in the use of his drug, the sex criminal tends to repeat and increase the frequency, degree, and seriousness of his crimes. Drug “kicks” and sexual pleasure are similar in that they employ some of the same neural pathways and neurotransmitters and are very strong behavioral reinforcers. They often habituate the individual who is susceptible into recurrent, episodic sex crimes. Lust murderers like Ted Bundy frequently return to the dead body of their victim, which they have hidden, for as long as a month after the murder. Knowledge of this characteristic may become important from an investigative standpoint. We should not compartmentalize our thinking to a single simple typology. Similarly, with the treatment phase, we must recognize that a single sex criminal may have many facets to his sex urge. Albert Fish was not only a pedophile, he was a sadist, masochist, and lust murderer as well. The sex offender is often a very complex individual with his sex drive liable to manifest itself in many different and bizarre ways. It is very disturbing for many of us who have studied these types of men for years to realize that our sex offender classification system is probably oversimplified and therefore misleading.

Prediction. Given the endless varieties of human nature and societal variables, prediction of dangerousness has always been a risky venture. We are today much better equipped than formerly to render such judgments utilizing the knowledge outlined above under the headings of propensity, progression, and periodicity. Elliott (1994:16) theorizes that there are three primary predictors of an onset of serious violent offending: peer normlessness (weight .41), attitudes toward deviance (.31), and delinquent peers (.28).

The word prediction rhymes with the word addiction, and, in fact, the study of addiction reinforces the ability to make predictions. We know that a person who is addicted to drugs, alcohol, sex, gambling, or food will automatically seek more of his particular weakness as time goes on. As he has imbibed in the past, he will imbibe in the future. Knowing this, we should be enabled to take the powerful preventive measure that I am advocating to stop the destructive behavior in the addiction. Prevention is the highest kind of control—the best kind. It saves much more for society, as well as for the individual. Corrections and punishments after the crime is committed are much more expensive, time consuming, painful, and ineffective. We can prevent sexual crimes with castration, which will also prevent many other types of crimes. Criminally pathological sexual addiction is heralded by behaviors, which are typically:

Obsessive and compulsive (out of control).
Desperate and irresponsible.
Preceded by excessive fantasies.
Accompanied by denial and dissociation.
Associated with avoidance due to shame, fear, and despair.
Controlling that which will achieve the sex aim of the addict.
Risk taking.
Showing narcissism and deception.
Living a double life.
Tolerating abusive relationships.
Endangering one’s professional and family life.[49]

Our very worst criminals—serial killers, lust murderers, necrophiliacs, serial rapists, fixated pedophiliacs, and most of the other paraphiliacs—all show the characteristics of addiction so their behavior is highly predictable. They will continue their heinous behavior until they are relieved of the hormonal fuel that drives their engines of destruction by the simple relief-giving operation of castration. But our religious, psychiatric, legal, medical, academic, and radical activists, etc., all argue against it. It will be a long time coming in this country. We argued for thirty years about the dangers of cigarette smoking in a similar manner. Fifty thousand people a year died of the effects of cigarette smoke, and many others became sick with lung diseases and heart trouble from the same cause. We continue to argue about tobacco- and marijuana-smoking dangers to the health, even today when it is perfectly obvious that it is deadly. We have been badly misled in a similar manner over the castration treatment. Its advantages far outweigh its disadvantages in most cases.

Animal abuse has been found to be predictive of violent behavior against humans. Saint Francis of Assisi (1182–1226) noted a disturbing correlation between animal maltreatment and human violence. “If you have men who will exclude any of God’s creatures from the shelter of compassion and pity,” he declared, “you will have men who will deal likewise with their fellow man.” Some of the studies that have documented this trait are as follows:

Walker showed that 9 percent of families in Bucks County, Pennsylvania,, had been reported to both the child protective and animal protection organizations.[50]

Hutton found 82 percent of families who were investigated for cruelty to animals were also known to social services as having “children at risk.”[51]

Deviney, Dickert, and Lockwood found 88 percent of families reported for child physical abuse also had abused or neglected their animals.[52]

Tingle, Barnard, Robbins, Newman, and Hutchinson reported that 48 percent of convicted rapists and 30 percent of convicted pedophiles, who were questioned, admitted cruelty to animals in their childhood or adolescence.[53]

Ressler, Burgess, and Douglas found 36 percent of incarcerated sexual homicide perpetrators had committed acts of animal cruelty in their childhood, and 46 percent in their adolescence.[54]

Quinlisk surveyed women in domestic violence prevention centers throughout Wisconsin and found that in 80 percent of the homes with pets, the batterers had also been violent against the animals.[55]

Ascione reported finding that 71 percent of the women in Utah who were seeking safe house shelter had observed their male partners threatening to hurt, or actually hurting or killing, one or more pets.[56]

Prediction becomes extremely important in the criminal justice system when sex offenders have served their time and are scheduled to be released from incarceration. Sex offenders released from incarceration vary widely in their probability of re-offense and the degree of harm they inflict if they re-offend. Furr[57] reviewed the literature on prediction techniques with particular reference to five methods:

The statistical index recidivism scale, which is routinely applied to federal offenders in Canada. No research has been done on its usefulness with sex offenders, however.

The level of supervisory inventory, which was developed to measure the level of supervision an inmate will need on an early release program.

The risk checklist for child molesters designed to predict a specific type of future offense by an offender who had already committed the same type of offense in the past based on historical information from the files.

The psychopathy checklist (revised) also requires adequate historical information on the offender and requires a specially trained professional to administer it.

The statistical prediction of a violent recidivism instrument also utilizes comprehensive files and trained raters.

Furr concluded that “sexual offending or violence after release from incarceration cannot be predicted with a very high degree of accuracy among offenders as a whole.” And, “while these instruments show promise as tools for predicting violent or sexual re-offending among sex offenders, further research is needed before they should be applied generally to sex offenders.”

Professor Gottfredson of Rutgers University has studied the prediction of future criminality for over twenty-two years and has written at least eight studies on the subject. In his article, he concludes that:

The prediction of offenders’ behaviors is difficult, and we don’t do it very well. Particularly


disappointing, however, is that the theoretical advances provided by recent attention to parameters of the criminal career … improve only marginally on the behavioral prediction problem …Attempts to modify the criminal career through incapacitation must rely heavily on such predictions and on similar data.[58]

As Gottfredson pointed out, there are at least four types of errors being made with the present prediction methods: the “false negatives” (predicting failure in a person who in fact succeeds in avoiding future crime), “false positives” (predicting success in a person who in fact will fail), and two types of correct predictions. In Gottfredson’s 1994 report of 6,300 California prisoners who were traced over a twenty-year period, the false positives resulted in 30,000 re-arrests. Included in these were 184 homicides, 144 rapes, 2,084 assaults, 655 auto thefts, 2,756 burglaries, 2,800 thefts, and 2,293 robberies. The false negatives accounted for the “lifetime” confinement of 1,413 inmates who were kept in prisons; many of these were later believed to have been unlikely to commit more crimes—another very expensive mistake resulting from inadequate prediction capability. The cost of housing, feeding, hospitalizing, and guarding these men has continued to rise over the years.

Quinsey et al. tend to echo the Gottfredsons:

Unfortunately, past research has been nearly unanimous in concluding that clinicians have no expertise in predicting dangerousness, whether for sex offenders or any other group (Monahan, 1981; Quinsey and Ambtman, 1979; Quinsey and Maguire, 1986).[59]

In 1988, planning began on a large federal project to gather the data that would allow scientists to predict and prevent crime. It was called the “Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods” and used a creative new design. Data collection actually began in 1994. The project is expected to continue for eight years and provide data on twenty-four years, from birth to age twenty-four. Data is and will be collected on 11,000 individuals in nine different age groups. Individual, family, and community data in seventy different communities is also to be included. Health and biomedical factors, such as hormone levels, are expected to be among the data gathered. One of the overall objectives of this project was to develop new methods of prevention of crime by calculating which children are most likely to become serious and persistent delinquents in the community. In the 1960s, diversion programs such as “outward bound” or social service placements rather than jail were tried. In the 1980s and 1990s, the pendulum swung back to the traditional approach of incapacitation. Neither method stemmed the annual increase in violent behavior. And neither approach provided the information about the origins of criminal behavior.[60]

Unfortunately, recent experience raises doubts about the ability of the criminal justice system either to deliver justice or reduce violence on a consistent basis … In seeking to reduce violence and its consequences, the emphasis should be on prevention rather than amelioration. Primary prevention—measures that prevent violent events from happening in the first place and does so across a large population—should be the primary focus.[61]

Even as recently as January 2000, prediction (risk assessment) of the chances of recidivism by sex offenders was still very chancy. “Predicting whether sexual offenders are going to recidivate is difficult … The predictive accuracy of the typical clinical judgment is only slightly above chance levels.[62] Serin, Mailloux, and Malcolm showed that recidivism rates were higher for men with psychopathy and that rapists had higher rates than pedophiles. Prediction accuracy was aided by this information.[63]

We have a different situation, however, with the prediction of future recidivism with the castration treatment. The average recidivism rates with this treatment have fallen between 1.9 and 2.44 percent over a long period of time, so we can safely predict that castrated men, released a year after the surgery, are at least 97 percent certain of not returning to sex crimes. In most cases, their confinement time can be considerably reduced with much money saved. This possibility is impressive enough, but we can do even better. We can offer the castration treatment to men who show a high propensity to commit sex crimes even though they have never been arrested or convicted of such a crime. This should be our ultimate goal. The state of the art of predicting sex crimes will soon be practical.

Prevention. Sex offenses tend to have the features of propensity, periodicity, progression, and prediction in some measure because of their hormonal etiology. They include the most heinous crimes known; but they are not being prevented as well as they could be with our capabilities today. The ancient wisdom is very appropriate today. An ounce of prevention is worth more than a pound of cure.

Prevention of crime is certainly the highest goal of the government and its legal apparatus. The way to prevent the emergence of another Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, Jeffrey Dahmer, or Henry Lee Lucas is now clear to us: We must first recognize all of the components of the offender’s deviant behavior—his physical, mental, and spiritual makeup. Then we must take all of the steps which have proven effective in each realm: castration in the bodily realm, teaching him recognition of his deviant cycle in the mental realm, and strengthening his belief in the Greater Power in the spiritual realm.

We can no longer afford the luxury of a simple-minded, single-track approach. For the repeat offenders—regardless of their age—we must incarcerate them and treat them in all the realms of their personality. The consequences of failure to cover them all should be all too apparent to us in the twenty-first century with the ever-worsening national violence statistics. Unless we employ the strong measures that I am advocating, we are certain to suffer from more and more of these crimes. We can be certain, for example, that the youths who were sentenced as juveniles for the 19 April 1989 rape and assault of the jogger in New York’s Central Park will again rape and maim when they are released into their old haunts. It is very likely that someone will die at their hands in the future.

Building on what we have learned in the past few years, the state of the prediction art should improve in the case of our worst sex offenders to the point that it becomes manifestly practical to include some of the younger (down to age fifteen) violent cases in our clientele for the castration treatment. Those who have repeatedly committed violent acts against animals are good candidates. We know that we can prevent their destructive behavior in the future by this simple, inexpensive, quick, and reliable method.

A brief word of caution concerning the use of the castration treatment is in order at this point. Occasionally, perhaps 3 percent of the time, castrated males maintain sexual desire and erectile functions for long periods after surgery so the operation should be performed while they are incarcerated, and they should be closely monitored for a year or more to prevent a relapse of these few who may still be dangerous. There are enough phallometric tests available to ascertain quite accurately the type and amount of libido remaining in each individual before they are released into the general population.

VI. Description of the Sex Offenses

Under the rather innocuous label of “sex offenses,” there exists a Pandora’s Box of horrors, which I have arranged in my own hierarchy of descending seriousness. I have made use of the aforementioned rating scales and scores to some extent, but because my list is longer than any that I have been able to find in the existing literature, it is necessarily different. The legal descriptions alone do not go far enough to adequately define the full range of sexual conduct that may be subject to criminal sanctions, so I have added several categories from the scientific terminology.

One of the terms, which will appear with several of its derivatives, is the word paraphilia (from the Greek para meaning “beyond, amiss, altered,” plus philia meaning “love”). This word is a medically impartial synonym for the morally judgmental term perversion. “Paraphiliac behavior stands apart from the normal sex life; normal sexuality cannot be a substitute for the craved perversions, which alone can gratify some highly specific need. The paraphiliac experiences the highest degree of gratification during his socially prohibited behavior because the need is so compelling. Often the only purpose of the perverse act is relief from tension, not positive satisfaction.”[64] Paraphilias are unacceptable or illegal forms of sexual activity, which run counter to the accepted social behavior and are characterized by the absence of a normal biological aim such as procreation. “These are people whose desires behave in every way like sexual ones, but who at the same time entirely disregard the sexual organs or their normal use; people of this kind are known as ‘perverts.’” Abnormal sex is another term, which encompasses all criminalized or disvalued sexual behavior with the exceptions of fornication and adultery.[65]

The American Psychiatric Association lists the paraphilias under Sexual Disorders in their Diagnostic Criteria from DSM III-R of 1987 and gives the following criteria for gauging the severity of manifestations of a specific paraphilia: “Mild: The person is markedly distressed by the recurrent paraphiliac urges, but has never acted on them. Moderate: The person has occasionally acted on the paraphiliac urge. Severe: The person has repeatedly acted on the paraphiliac urge.” In 1980, the biomedical term paraphilia was adopted and the legal term perversion was dropped.

Dr. John Money has compiled a list of fifty-two paraphilias and in his 1988 book, Gay, Straight, and In-Between, defines these paraphilias. Paraphilia is defined as a condition occurring in men and women of being compulsively responsive to and for optimal initiation and maintenance of sexuoerotic arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm; obligatively fixated; and dependent on an unusual, personally or socially, unacceptable stimulus either perceived directly or in the imagery or ideation of fantasy (from Greek para-, “beyond, amiss, and by implication altered,” plus philia, “love”). Kinky sex (p. 133): “The stratagem of a paraphilia converts tragedy to triumph and aversion into addiction. It does so by merging lust with a performance or ritual that not only negates love, but also evokes negative sanctions. After the merger, that which was once forbidden or repugnant becomes additively sought after, despite the dangers, risks, and reprisals” (p. 144). “Paraphilia is conventionally classified as a disorder of sex. More accurately, it is a disorder of love, and of falling in love, which is also known as limerence” (p. 149). “Many paraphiliacs, when they carry out their paraphiliac ritual, undergo an altered state of consciousness, termed a paraphiliac fugue state, or a paraphiliac attack. It is akin to the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde phenomenon of dual personality” (p. 184). “Without prevention, society will remain entrapped in an epidemic of paraphilia, the spread of which increases and is measured generation by generation, not month by month, or year by year. Each generation produces more paraphiliac children than did the generations before it” (p. 185).

I will try to sort out the multitude of offensive behaviors in order that we may have a better understanding of the huge variations that have some sort of sexuality in their makeup. This has proven to be an endless task because of the changing mores and additional information on some of these that sexual science has uncovered. These descriptions are of sex offenses that range in seriousness, from the most benign offenses to the most heinous crimes. Indeed, some people will not even classify some of these behaviors as offenses and then only in special circumstances. These presentations also vary greatly in length because of the available information. Some are very common, reflected in news items almost daily, and others have very little information available about them. Arranging these offenses into a graded series facilitates reviewing the array. This may be of use to students and experts in analyzing an individual’s behavior to predict his or her danger as a criminal. There is often a tendency in offenders to proceed from the relatively minor offenses to the more serious, and it is not uncommon for an individual to have more than one paraphilia.

A. Lust Murder

Lust murder is sometimes called “passion killing,” “dacnolagnomania,” or “serial killing.” The perpetrator of this sex offense needs the powerful stimulus to his central nervous system that violent mutilation and murder of his victim provides as a condition for maximum potency. His crime is characterized by periodic (average of three times a month) outbreaks of paroxysmal sexual hunger expressed in cutting, stabbing, or otherwise mutilating the genitalia, breasts, or buttocks of his victim; often he will have a super orgasm when he gets his victim’s blood on him or sees her eyes pop out as he strangles her. Frequently, he has no intercourse and has normal behavior until the next paroxysm. One type of lust murderer is called the “vampire” because he achieves sexual stimulation from drinking his victim’s blood. Stephen Kaplan estimates 300 exist today in America.[66] Fritz Haarman killed several dozen boys in England in the 1900s by biting their necks and drinking their blood.[67] Drinking blood is especially prohibited in the Bible (Leviticus 17:10–14). Another type is called the “cannibal” because he eats the flesh of his victim for part of his sexual stimulation. Anthropophagy is another term for sexual satisfaction from eating the flesh of a victim or drinking the victim’s blood. Animal and fowl studies have shown a sharp increase in cannibalism when their habitat becomes overpopulated. About 140 different species show cannibalistic tendencies under various conditions. Some of the more recent writers are claiming that there is more of this type of serial killers at work today than ever before. They believe that as many as 25 percent of the 20,000 annual reported homicides can be linked directly to serial killers. Norris calls the perpetrators recreational or lust killers.[68] FBI agent William Hagmaier, who specialized in investigating serial murders, told the crowded Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences audience in Nashville, Tennessee, on March 8, 1991, that “there are about thirty or forty of these killers out there now” (freely moving around at large). Holmes and Burger estimated the number at 350; others have estimated their number at over 200 at large worldwide.[69]

The lust murderer is the most heinous of criminals in the entire lexicon of crime. His acts stir the most visceral fear, hatred, and loathing in the majority of the populace, and he is among the most difficult of criminals to apprehend. He frequently makes the best efforts of the criminal justice system look ineffectual and foolish by repeating his horrid mutilations over and over. London’s famous Jack the Ripper, the U.S. Green River killer, and others have never been caught by the police. Others, like Albert Fish, the Boston Strangler, John Gacy, and Theodore Bundy, were set free or escaped from prison at least once before they were executed or permanently imprisoned.

Why are our best experts so inept when dealing with this most heinous of criminals? Is it because science has failed to adequately explain this kind of behavior? Certainly, if we could thoroughly understand the motivations of these dangerous criminals, we would be able to control their behavior much better. Is it because the learned scientists of mind are too embarrassed by their ignorance of the chemistry of the brain and behavior? Or are they simply reluctant to delve into these distasteful and secret machinations? Perhaps the amazing truth will come through a further examination of some of these other chambers of horrors. Is it incomprehensible that the power of the same drive that enables men to heroic acts of love also powers their most heinous acts? It is exactly here that we must come to grips with the darkest evil of our human nature. When we learn the awful truth, we will be better prepared to change our attitude toward the one treatment that has the power to cleanse this dark house.

Egger and Lester have both noticed that at some point in their criminal careers, the serial murderers themselves often search for help in overcoming their insatiable passion for killing.[70][71] Some of them have expressed concern about their loss of control, their violent impulses, or their dysfunctional families and even have decided that they want to be caught. For example, in 1984, Robert Long, in the Tampa Bay area, allowed one of his victims to escape after he had killed ten women. She went to the police after her sexual assault, and they were able to find and arrest Long using the victim’s guidance. If we knew of this tendency in serial killers and had the castration treatment ready in position in our armamentarium, we could actually prevent a large percentage of these crimes before they are continued ad infinitum.

It is my belief that one of the reasons that we are so inept in understanding and controlling this awful behavior—which is certain to increase in prevalence along with the proliferation of sadomasochistic videos and “snuff” films depicting actual mutilation and murder in sexual settings—is that we are poorly informed about the sexual details of these crimes. This certainly was the case with my own personal observations of the Ted Bundy Chi-Omega sorority murders at Florida State University in 1978. My criminology professors simply did not know that Bundy had bit the nipple off the breast of one of the coeds and ate it. They did not know that he had shoved a can of hairspray up the vagina of one of them so far that it was no longer visible. These experts in crime could not know that this was a sex crime without knowing these details. They could only analyze Bundy’s motivation from their own study and experience, so they were 80 to 90 percent incomplete and erroneous.

Dr. John Money, the foremost sexologist in the world at the present time, has come as close as anyone to understanding these people under his classification “erotophonophilia,” which he defines as a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on stage managing and carrying out the murder of an unsuspecting sexual partner (from Greek Eros, “love,” plus phone, “to murder,” plus philia). The erotophonophile’s orgasm coincides with the expiration of the partner.[72]

“The sacrificial/expiatory stratagem requires reparation or atonement for the sin of lust by way of penance and sacrifice. The extreme sacrifice is lust murder: erotophonophilia when the partner is sacrificed, and autassassinophilia when a person stage manages the sacrifice of self. Excluding death, there are varying degrees, from major to minor, of sadomasochistic sacrifice and penance for the sin of lust” (see Money, p. 136).

Many other books and articles have expanded on the sexual aspects of the serial murders of our day: Holmes in his 1991 book,[73] Holmes and Holmes in their 1996 book,[74] Holmes in his 1997 article,[75] Berlin et al.[76] include rape and sadistic assaults along with lust murder as forms of sexual aggression, and Ross[77] shows that lowering testosterone levels can treat lust murder.

Dr. Patrick Carnes has provided us with another concept, which I believe is useful in helping us understand the power of the urges that compel the lust murderer to become a serial killer: sexual addiction. In his 1983 book, Out of the Shadow—Understanding Sexual Addiction, he outlines several steps or levels of addiction that could convincingly explain a progression to the utter horror of the reader about this phenomenon of bizarre sexual murder.

In July 1991, thirty-three-year-old Jeffrey Dahmer of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, confessed to killing seventeen young men, having sex with their bodies, cutting them up, and eating them. In April 1992, fifty-six-year-old Andrei R. Chikatilo of Rostov-on-Don, Russia, confessed to slaying and cannibalizing fifty-three young women and children over a long period of time. The murders began in 1978 when such crimes were considered a capitalist phenomenon and seldom heard of in the Soviet Union. As a result, Rostov citizens were not warned for more than five years while they were being killed by the dozens. This reveals the dire consequences of our misguided public policies, which seek to cover up the gory details, which would show a sexual impetus to these horrid crimes. More victims and protection of the murderer result. Other lust murderers mentioned by Holmes and Holmes are Douglas Clark, Otis Toole, Angelo Buono, and Carol Bundy.[78]

Ousey studied the 1990 homicide rates in 125 U.S. cities and found a disproportionate representation of blacks in homicide offending statistics. The white, average, homicide offending rate was 8.63 per 100,000 persons, while the black rate was more than five times greater, 47.62 per 100,000 persons. The usual macrosocial theories about poverty, unemployment, and income inequalities did not hold up in explaining the stark reality of the wide variance in homicide rate. The higher known testosterone levels in blacks could well explain the difference, as they tend to be 5 percent higher than that of whites.[79]

Keppel and Walter studied sexual murderers and found that typically they were in their early twenties, emotionally immature, preoccupied with projecting a macho image, often bodybuilders with tattoo displays, arrogant, condescending, generally unmarried, often compulsive, and interested in bondage, domination, and piquerism. In the study, Keppel and Walter pointed out that 42 percent of the prisoners serving sentences for homicide in 1995 in the Michigan Department of Corrections had committed sexually related murders.[80]

Ron Langevin studied the psychosexual characteristics of thirty-three sex killers (International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, August 2003, p. 366) and found that 63.64 percent failed the neuropsychological tests, more than double the number in any group.

My personal belief is that these crimes demonstrate an atavistic throwback to the lives of our early caveman ancestors when the hormonal drives for food, violence, excitement, and sex were more overtly displayed. John Povlaches testified in the murder trial of Edward Zakrezewski that killing was “a rush. It’s sort of like riding a huge roller coaster. It doesn’t compare to anything.”[81]

I believe that some day we will be able to identify the DNA that has been passed down through the ages to produce the bloodlust phenomenon shown in lust murder. We may even be seeing some signs of its resurgence in the population. Certainly, if one looks in the video stores, he will find great displays of horror movies, full of blood, gore, and sex. What will be the results of millions of our youths receiving these dramatic, vivid portrayals on the TV screen in their own room or the family room? Let us hope that we do not see the acting out of similar actions as so many of our “experts” have predicted.

B. Necrophilia

Necrophilia is a “fascination with the dead; specifically obsession with erotic attraction toward and stimulation by corpses typically evidenced by overt acts (as copulation with a corpse)” (Webster’s Dictionary). “This horrible kind of sexual indulgence is so monstrous that the presumption of a psychopathic state is, under all circumstances, justified; and Maschka’s recommendation, that the mental condition of the perpetrator should always be investigated, is well-founded. In any case, an abnormal and decidedly perverse sensuality is required to overcome the natural repugnance which man has for a corpse and permit a feeling of pleasure to be experienced in sexual congress with a cadaver. Unfortunately, in the majority of cases reported, the mental condition was not examined; so that the question whether necrophilia is compatible with mental soundness must remain open.”[82]

Necrophilia is one of the paraphilias that the American Psychiatric Association classified under the heading of Psychosexual Disorders in their DSM III. This manual commented that “the essential feature of this subclass is that unusual or bizarre imagery or acts tend to be insistently and involuntarily repetitive and generally involve … repetitive sexual activity with nonconsenting partners. In other classifications these disorders are referred to as sexual deviations. The term paraphilia is preferable because it correctly emphasizes that the deviation (para) is in that to which the individual is attracted (philia).” “Erich Wulffen includes under necrophilia, necro-sadism, associated with lust murder, in which the sex impulse is gratified only by corpses.[83] The necrophilic either kills a woman and has intercourse with the body (necrochlesis or necrocoitus) or otherwise violates or procures corpses for sex purposes, which he rapes (necro-stuprum) or mutilates or even eats (necrophagy). Kronfeld defines necrophilia as a ‘perverse desire to prefer sexual intercourse with corpses rather than with human beings.’ Moll considers necrophilia or vampirism, as ‘sexual desire for corpses, a phenomenon often attributed to sadism.’ Bloch believes that ‘sexual violation of corpses has a sadomasochistic foundation,’ that ‘decomposition, stench, coldness play a part’ (quoted by Brill, 1941).”[84]

Sexual attraction to dead bodies is a rare condition with terrifying overtones often expressed in the world’s literature on werewolves, vampires, grave robbing, cannibalism, and other ghoulish activities thought by some to be totally fictional. This is not so, and the human imagination cannot exceed the actual acts that have been recorded. Those necrophiles who have advanced to the horrifying state of necrophagy obviously are not totally sane, but the other end of the spectrum, merely becoming aroused by helpless (dead) objects, is another story.[85] “The necrophile of fiction obtains his victims by magical means or by grave robbing. The latter method is still reported, but many times authorities assume that a robbed grave represents an attempt to steal jewelry and adornments. The necrophilic aspect of grave robbing may be far more important than we actually know. Most frequently, however, the necrophile obtains access to the dead in morgues and funeral homes where he seeks employment. He may pass unnoticed in the community and live a secluded, lonely life because his victims cannot report him.”[86] Most professionals view necrophilia as the most deviant of all sexual aberrations.

“Generally speaking, necrophilia is not so rare as people believe. According to Herodotus, it was a widespread practice already in ancient Egypt. According to Ploss-Bartels, it is still a racial custom among the Kikambas in Africa; and in some parts of Germany it was the custom, till a few decades ago, that upon the death of a bride the bridegroom spent a night with her … this leads one to believe that Stekel is right when he says: ‘We must assume that there was a phase in human development when these impulses were frequent phenomena. The cases that recur in our civilized age must be regarded as atavistic relics …. Our folk-tales contain many cannibalistic and necrophile scenes—the sublimination of ancient events. The legend of the vampire has never been entirely absent from the popular consciousness. The various religions still contain relics of the blood sacrifice, so that we must not be surprised if sadism also draws within its sphere these acts, which are inexplicable to a civilized being.’ Now and then the world hears of a ‘Jack the Ripper’ and is shocked that ‘such things can be.’ The analyst and the nerve specialist, however, know countless people who are ‘like that,’ but are fortunately stranded in the realm of fancy. ‘Between the realm of fancy and reality,’ writes Stekel, ‘lies the vast empire of the parapathies. A small screw becomes loose—and all the civilized inhibitions go to the devil.’”[87]

McNally has assembled a number of examples of necrophilia from history, literature, and entertainment media. The tyrant Periandes lived with the dead body of his beloved Melissa for a year. Herod (King of Judea 40–4 BC) had sex for seven years intermittently with the corpse of his dead wife Marianne and died of the painful Fournier’s disease (gangrene of the genitals) as a result of his actions. Charlemagne could not bear to part with the body of his dead Saxon Mistress. Queen Juana of Castile kept the corpse of her husband, Philip the Handsome, at her side from 1506 to 1509. The Etruscan Locumon kept their dead buried in holes within their palace walls, so as to be able to keep an eye on them. Medes, Parthians, and Iberians fed their dead to wild beasts. Scythians and Bretons ate their dead. Even today New Guinea’s Fore tribesmen regularly eat selected portions of their dead relatives. Bushmen, who have the praying mantis as their totem, consider that once a girl attains puberty, she becomes identified with the mantis, and her look must be avoided, since it is thought to have become lethal. The actual actions of the praying mantis provide clues to this curious notion of sexual excitement with the dead. Adoration of the beloved dead is fostered in the Christian world, where one can find Saint Anthony, who died in the fifth century, under glass in full view; countless other saints are similarly on display throughout the world.

Historically, it does appear that certain general types of social deviants are repeatedly referred to in specific eras, almost as if the designations give us some clues as to what the given historical societies feared most. For example, the witches and warlocks popular during the Middle Ages gave way to the werewolves of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The werewolves were in turn replaced by the vampire craze of the eighteenth century. The eighteenth-century vampires were replaced by the sadists and necrophiles of the nineteenth century and by the psychopaths of the twentieth century. But the so-called vampires and werewolves of yesterday have by no means disappeared from society. Today they are merely referred to by modern terminologies.[88]

The Encyclopedia of Psychology records that forty-seven case histories of necrophilia have been described in the literature. Many other cases could be added to this list, however, because the term necrophilia was not used before the middle of the last century. The worst of these from the viewpoint of sheer numbers of victims were that of Gilles de Rais (1404–1440), handsome Marshal of France and murderer of an estimated 200 boys, and Countess Elizabeth Bathory (1560–1614) of Transylvania, beautiful, highly born murderess of 650 girls and young women, according to a servant’s testimony at her trial in Bytca, Czechoslovakia, January 2, 1611[89]. Then there is the case of Sergeant Bertrand (1822–1855), a soldier in the French army who exhumed several human bodies and cut the abdomens and dismembered them, and also had coitus with the females or masturbated (Masters, pp. 118–123). Vacher, the Ripper, (1869–1901) is another example. He killed eleven girls and boys and had sexual intercourse with their bodies.[90] From December 1, 1887 to September 10, 1889, the bodies of ten women, whose throats and abdomens had been cut open, were found in various lonely quarters of London. In some instances, their genital areas had been cut off. “Jack the Ripper,” as the murderer was called, was never discovered, but it is evident that his crimes had many characteristics of the necrophilic. Francois Bertrand, the “Vampire of Montparnasse,” was accused of desecrating graves and mutilating putrid corpses for sexual gratification. Other necrophiles were Ed Stein, who robbed graves in the 1950s in Wisconsin; Douglas Clark, the Hollywood Strip killer; and John Christie, who killed at least eight women and sexually abused them after death.

In the world of literature, there have been many novels with necrophilia themes. Among these are: De Sade’s Juliette (1797); Emily Bronte’s Jane Eyre (1847); Clemence Houseman’s The Werewolf (1896); Bram Stoker’s The Lady of the Shroud (1909); George Sylvester Viereck’s The House of the Vampire (1912); Guy Endore’s The Werewolf of Paris (1933); Sidney Horler’s The Vampire (1935); Eugene Ascher To Kill a Corpse (1955); Simon Raven’s Doctors Wear Scarlet (1960); Jeff Rice’s The Night Stalker (1973); Asa Drake’s Crimson Kisses (1981); and many more.[91] The short stories with similar themes are too numerous to mention.

The combination of the titillation inherent in sex and the morbid fascination that many people have with death, graves, and murder has not been lost on filmdom’s moguls. They have produced many films that used necrophilia in whole or in part of them. Hollywood’s erotic shocker in 1960 was Hitchcock’s Psycho with its famous shower scene as an example. In 1979, the public was deluged with several R-rated horror films with necrophilic content, which made the rounds of the drive-in theaters. Some of these were Cemetery Girls, Grave Desires, Corpse Grinders, Frightmare, and Dracula’s Saga.[92]

In the 1950s, E. C. Comics started featuring horrible creatures such as vampires and werewolves in their comic books and magazines, and in the 1970s, Marvel Comics came up with a couple of series called The Tomb of Dracula and Dracula Lives.[93] The publishers of Penthouse and Playboy magazines have also recognized the economic advantages of publishing necrophilic themes as demonstrated in the January and April 1986 issues of Playboy with articles titled “The Last Closet” and “The Lady in Black,” with nude photographs of a beautiful female undertaker. Even the songwriters have used the theme.

An article in The Sun told how a mortician, Alan Chabasse, fifty-two, of Nantes, France, had cut up corpses and sold the body parts to wealthy cannibals. Police said the cannibals were part of a growing underground trend in which people paid up to $1,000 for a human arm or leg, and then roasted it like a delicacy. “It’s part of a crazy back-to-nature movement,” said a detective. “These wealthy people want to simplify their lives by imitating pre-historic man—and that includes cannibalism.”[94]

I shudder to think that perhaps this necrophilous entertainment is providing fantasy material, which may induce borderline deviates to begin acting out this disgusting paraphilia. Indeed, there are already far more cases involving unrecognized necrophilia than the public realizes. Every few weeks, news items that have been motivated by it appear in the daily press. The Northwest Florida Daily News of February 7, 1988, carried an article headlined “Graves Robbed; Bones Scattered” that told of two mausoleums broken into in Tallahassee, Florida. The bones had been removed from the caskets and strewn around. The July 8, 1988 Pensacola[Florida] News Journal carried an article about a Jacksonville funeral parlor where forty-one unembalmed and unrefrigerated human bodies were found and ten others were unaccounted for. Another case, about a beheaded woman whose body was found in the Tennessee River, appeared in the July 11, 1988 Pensacola[Florida] News Journal. A slash on the abdomen and the missing head are indications that the murder could have been motivated by necrophilia. “As a man thinketh in his heart so is he … A man does not come to the pothouse or the gaol by the tyranny of fate or circumstance, but by the pathway of groveling thoughts and base desires. Nor does a pure-minded man fall suddenly into crime by stress of any mere external force; the criminal thought has long been secretly fostered in the heart, and the hour of opportunity revealed its gathering power.”[95]

The sex urge is responsible for some very strange and troubling behavior in mankind, and necrophilia is among the most repulsive. As the great criminologist Cesare Beccaria wrote in 1764 of the sex crimes, they “derive their force and direction from two causes: the variable laws of men, and that very strong attraction that draws one sex toward the other. This attraction is similar in many respects to the force of gravity which moves the universe; for this, like the other, diminishes with distance; as one regulates all the movements of the heavenly bodies; the other, while its period lasts, regulates most of those of the spirit.”

We have now learned about one of the most horrible deviations of the human sex drive. Probably now, armed with this knowledge, we will notice other cases which were motivated by necrophilia lurking behind the headlines. What will be done about it? Very little, I trust. But perhaps you can agree that we need to do something—to find a treatment that will arrest the performance of the most gruesome phases of this paraphilia. There does exist a treatment that has the potential to do this, but we shrink from employing it when we learn that it involves castration.

Ivan Bloch has described another similar type of sexual deviation, which he calls “symbolic necrophilia wherein a prostitute or other woman must clothe herself in a shroud, lie in a coffin, or on a bed of death, and pretend to be dead whilst the necrophilic satisfies himself sexually by various acts.” According to one explanation, necrophilia is associated with sadism, and defenselessness of the corpse is an important factor. Another authority has it that it is the result of an attempt to keep sexual impulses under control by endowing them with extreme disgust.[96]

C. Cannibalism

The Greek term, which is frequently used, is anthropophagy, meaning “the eating of one’s own kind.” The word cannibal is derived from a Spanish form of Carib, a West Indies tribe who were famous cannibals. Strangely, cannibalism is mentioned several times in the Old Testament: in Leviticus 26:29, Deuteronomy 28:53–57, 2 Kings 6:28–29, Jeremiah 19:9, and Lamentations 2:20 and 4:10.

Richard von Krafft-Ebing, the famous “father of sexology,” wrote of several cases in his various 1880s editions of his book, Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing usually attributed his cannibal cases to lust murder and sadism, which were the equivalent of coitus to the killers.[97] Karpman agreed with him that cannibalism is “one of the more extreme reactions that is essentially sadistic.” John Money writes: “In lust murder, the translocated phylism could conceivably be killing for food.”[98]

Sometimes the body’s yearning for sex becomes mixed with the hunger for food. The body’s hunger for sexual activity becomes mixed with its hunger for something to eat. This mixture can produce cannibalism in some individuals. True, it is rare, but it does happen to a few men in the chance occurrence of a certain combination of circumstances. Some of the men who were convicted sadistic murders have admitted that the sight of a tender woman’s flesh had made them feel hungry enough to eat it. Albert Fish murdered Grace Budd, twelve, a pretty, New York City schoolgirl, then cut her up and feasted on her body in a stew for nine days in 1934.[99] About 2 am, January 15, 1978, Ted Bundy, thirty-two, attacked three of the Chi Omega sorority girls at Florida State University in Tallahassee, and bit the nipple from the right breast of Lisa Levy, tore the flesh of her left buttock with his teeth, and extensively ripped and slashed her vagina and rectum.[100] Bundy later confessed to her murder and that of thirty other women over a period of several years.

Cannibalism is not necessarily an old, far-off phenomenon. It happens today in our time and place as my newspaper reported December 21, 2000: “Nathaniel Bar-Jonah, 44, raped and butchered Zachary Ramsay, 10, then made stew and pot pies which he ate and fed to neighbors in Cascade County, Montana.” One therapist in a hospital where he was interred in 1980 wrote that his sexual fantasies “outline methods of torture extending to dissection and cannibalism; he expresses a curiosity about the taste of human flesh.” Another case was reported in my January 9, 2003 newspaper: “Joey Cala, 41, murdered his mom and ate some of her heart.”

At about the same time in history that Christ was on earth, our ancestors in Celtic Britain venerated preserved human heads. They were headhunters. They were cannibals and their high priests—the Druids—endorsed the custom of human sacrifice for many centuries. Julius Caesar briefly mentions them in his Gallic War.

D. Rape-Murder

The rape-murder criminal usually kills his victim to prevent discovery, accidentally, in a panic, or to destroy evidence. “The factor of aggressive sexual reaction to inner fears plays a greater part in directing the actions of rape-murderers than has been recognized. The rapist who murders the object of his sexual impulse is motivated by the fear of social consequences of his act and, to an even greater degree, by fear of the strength of his own sexual aggression. The murder is the response to the pressure of guilty feelings and is not a true lust murder since the killing is not a sadistic aspect of the sexual act … Mental disease is frequent in such cases.”[101]

The rape-murderer runs the lust murderer and necrophiliac a close third in the heinousness of his crime. The three types are seldom clearly differentiated in the courts and media and so they are likely to be indistinguishable to the average individual. Even some of the professionals are likely to be confused, because these crimes share many of the same features of sex, violence, and repetition. Ted Bundy exemplifies the lust murderer while Robert Frederick Carr, III, who probably raped fifteen and killed four women, typifies the rape-murderer. The bestseller Carr: 5 Years of Rape and Murder created a sensation at the bookstores in November 1979 when it was first released. Susan Brownmiller estimated in her famous 1975 book, Against Our Will, that there are perhaps 400 rape-murders per year in the United States. Gleuck has estimated that about 3 percent of all rape victims were murdered. Between 1976 and 1994, the murders with known circumstances were 317,925; 1.5 percent involved rape or other sex offenses.[102]

The 1985 National Survey of Crime Severity placed rape-murder second, with a score of 52.8 in seriousness, only to the mass murderer who had killed twenty people by planting a bomb in a public place, which was scored at a severity of 72.1. Much study has been devoted to whether the victim would be better off to submit to a rapist or to resist with all of her power. The general consensus varies with the times, cases, and individuals. The media’s coverage of sexually motivated homicides, coupled with officials’ use of the phrase “raped and killed,” implies that rape and murder are intertwined. The fear of murder often comes with being raped.

E. Sadism

The sadist achieves sexual satisfaction through inflicting pain, suffering, or degradation on other people. Sadism is the desire to hurt another person for sexual release or satisfaction. I have rated it fifth in seriousness because it always involves suffering and sometimes results in death. The infliction of pain is an end in itself. The sadist is not impelled by a desire to be cruel; his objective is to arouse certain emotions. Sadistic crimes include murder, attempted murder, bodily injuries, whipping, cutting, slashing, and damage to property. Sadistic acts are often done repetitively as a ritual.[103] Tyrannism is a term for specifically sexual sadism.

The roots of active algolagnia or “algophilia” can be readily demonstrated in the normal individual. The sexuality of most men shows an admixture of aggression, or a desire to subdue, the biological significance of which lies in the necessity for overcoming the resistance of the sexual object by actions other than mere courting. Sadism would then correspond to an aggressive component part of the sexual instinct which has become independent and exaggerated and has been brought to the foreground by displacement. [104]

The term sadism comes from the name of the French Marquis de Sade (1740–1814), famous pervert and author of five pornographic novels, which comprise an encyclopedia of sexual perversions of the eighteenth century. Larry Singleton, who cut off both forearms of fifteen-year-old Mary Vincent with an axe in northern California September 28, 1978, is a just one example of a sadist among many. The 1973 Playboy survey showed that 4.8 percent of males and 2.1 percent of females had obtained sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on other people. Among the respondents who were under age thirty-five, the percentages were 6.2 percent and 2.9 percent. This was taken to mean that there might be an increasing tendency in younger men and possibly an increasing incidence of this aberration in the population as time goes on.[105] Roy Hazelwood, Director of the FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit, Quantico, Virginia, informed the ACJS (Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences) meeting, March 6, 1991, in Nashville, Tennessee, that all the sexual sadists that they had studied believed that women were all bitches or whores, believed in a supreme being, were upper-middle-class, and were guilt-ridden, and three out of seven had a stern religious upbringing.

The sadist who finds pleasure in pain and punishment frequently is eloquent enough to express himself in terms that the rest of us can understand. “Torture is foreplay, rape is romance, snuff is climax,” wrote University of Michigan linguistics student Jake Baker in a story he put on the Usenet computer network in December 1994.[106] FBI agents under a federal statute that prohibits interstate transmission of a threat to kidnap or injure arrested Baker on February 16, 1995. He faced expulsion from his college and a possible sentence of five years. Lesbian sadism has been named “sapphosadism,” and sexual gratification from the mutilation of female breasts has been given the term mazoperosis.

F. Masochism

The masochist seeks to be humiliated, dominated, enslaved, bound, hurt, or degraded by his sexual partner to increase sexual pleasure or meet dysfunctional emotional needs. It is often referred to as B and D (bondage and dominance) by those who are involved in those practices. Vincilagnia is another term for sexual arousal from bondage. Masochism is the complement to sadism; it is the need for suffering and punishment as sexual experience. Carried to its extreme, manslaughter or suicide sometimes results.[107] “Masochism is the seeking of that which would normally be painful, for sexual reasons. It is linked to the desire to be humiliated.”[108] In Morton Hunt’s 1974 sampling, 2.5 percent of the males and 4.6 percent of the females who were surveyed reported experiencing pleasure from having pain inflicted on them by their sexual partner. Recently it has been shown that some people can enjoy a real high, similar to that experienced from the injection of opiate drugs, from suffering. These feelings of pleasure appear to be due to the “endorphins” (endogenous morphine), which act on the pleasure centers of the brain in order to ameliorate the experience of pain. This may provide a biological explanation to add to the various psychological explanations for masochistic behavior.

The term masochist comes directly from the name of an Austrian novelist, Leopold Baron von Sacher-Masoch (1836–1905), whose Venus in Furs (1888) gave a detailed description of the pleasure of pain. Frequently, sadism is turned into masochism as a result of a deep religious sense of guilt and is often found in martyrs who seek to eradicate the “sinful lusts of the flesh” by self-flagellation. By itself, masochism seldom results in crime, but sometimes appears in convicted offenders.[109] Masters and Johnson point out that “the masochist who desires ‘heavy’ pain or bondage may have great difficulty in finding a cooperative partner. For this reason, some masochists resort to inflicting pain on themselves in bizarre ways, including burning themselves, hanging themselves (causing several dozen U.S. deaths annually), or searching out the services of a prostitute who will provide the necessary stimulation.”[110] “ … Many masochists are men who occupy high status positions (such as executives, politicians, judges, and bankers), and some experts theorize that private acts of submissiveness and degradation provide the masochists with an escape valve from their rigidly controlled public lives. Seeking sexual pain or humiliation may also be a way of atoning for sexual pleasure for a person who was raised to believe that sex is sinful and evil.”

Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, the famous sex researcher, threw a rope over an exposed pipe in the ceiling of his basement office in Wylie Hall, University of Indiana at Bloomington one evening in August 1954. He tied a knot around his scrotum and wrapped the other end of the rope around his hand. Then he climbed onto a chair and jumped off. Shortly after this incident, he took to bed, suffering from traumatic orchitis believed to be due to an infectious process resulting from lowered resistance of the injured tissues to bacteria. Kinsey died August 25, 1956, from an embolism caused by a bruise on one of his legs. The world’s foremost expert on sexual behavior at the time would sometimes insert a pipe cleaner or swizzle stick into his urethra, tie a rope around his scrotum, and then tug hard on the rope while the Kinsey Institute photographer was photographing him.[111] About one-third of patients who have been diagnosed as masochistic have also performed sadistic acts in which they inflicted pain on another person. Such patients are described as having a sadomasochistic disorder.

The term sadomasochism (abbreviated S & M, S-M, SM, or S/M) is widely used to suggest the combination of the two contrasting phases of this paraphilia. Another term is algolagnia, the finding of sexual pleasure in inflicting or suffering pain. It is said that neither phenomenon is ever found in its pure state. S & M has also been defined as “exchanges involving eroticized mental, emotional, or physical pain.”[112] Sigmund Freud wrote: “He who experiences pleasure by causing pain to others in sexual relations is also capable of experiencing pain in sexual relations as pleasure. A sadist is simultaneously a masochist.” Freud also wrote an essay “A Child Is Being Beaten,” which sheds some further insight into the psychology of S & M as involving the desire for punishment for moral and emotional restitution for sins performed, imagined, or experienced. S & M is strongly condemned even in our own presently permissive years. It is one sexual deviation that remained frightening, abhorrent, and intolerable to the far left as well as the far right. Today, however, there are indications that it is on the increase in our society, especially among young people, judging from the proliferation of S & M pornography (about 5 percent of all pornographic magazines deal with S & M), advertising for partners, and the stores selling devices of torment, which we can find in our major cities. Cooperative Motivational Research is the name of an S & M club, which publishes S & M advertisements in its journal.

The Eulenspiegel Society was the first known group to publicly foster S & M meetings and activities; it was founded in New York City in 1971. By 1990, the National Leather Association—an umbrella organization for S & M groups and clubs—reported “an international network of well over 400 leather/SM/fetish organizations.”[113] Another S & M group is the Society of Janus in San Francisco. A 539-page book titled Different Loving by Gloria G. Brame, William P. Brame, and Jon Jacobs was published by Villard Books of New York in 1993. This book thoroughly explored S & M activities in the United States up to 1993. The 1994 film Exit to Eden had an S & M scene in it.

Masochism is a form of mental illness in its more extreme manifestations. The endorphin rush caused by the searing pain of branding, piercing, and tattooing body parts (infibulation) may sometimes be the main goal. Others are adopting another form of “body art”—branding. Strips of surgical steel heated to 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit are pressed into the skin to produce scars in a variety of shapes. Branding has caught on in the West Coast, and salons have set up shops in the East. Two years ago, Primal Urge, a branding salon in New Hope, Pennsylvania, performed only two or three brandings each month. Now Primal Urge brands a customer nearly every business day.[114]

Newsweek’s first edition in 1998 carried an article claiming that the mainstreaming of S & M has turned us in America “into a jaded culture of kink.” “New York is the Sodom of the S & M craze” where restaurants like Planet Kinkywood have an S & M theme with all the requisite tools and private cells. The menu “includes Verbal Abuse and Spanking at just $20 a pop.” San Francisco is the Gomorrah where every Wednesday night Bondage-A-Go-Go is featured at the Trocadero Transfer club with flogging and electric shock as the “introductory course” for “SandM 101.” “Aren’t they jaded? Is there no shame anymore?” In Woody Allen’s movie Deconstructing Harry, he casually instructs a hooker, “Tie me up, beat me, then give me a ——.” Governor Pataki of New York registered a complaint against the increasingly corrupting influence of kink when a woman’s studies conference at one of the state universities conducted a seminar on “Safe, Sane and Consensual S & M: An Alternate Way of Loving.” This was reminiscent of the Brames’ Different Loving book on S & M.[115] The National Inquirer issue of February 19, 2001, featured an eight-page article on a special investigation of Hollywood’s Secret Sex Club with garish photographs of celebrities in a New York club called The Vault. The hosts at this club said they had hosted many famous personalities over the years for all sorts of perversions, including “gays, vampires, goths, tickle torturers, people who like to wear diapers, military fetishists—even people who like to crawl around on all fours, like dogs!” My own feeling is that the popularizing of sadomasochism bodes the greatest possible evil for the twenty-first century. To me, it is reminiscent of the Roman coliseum where martyrs were fed to wild beasts, gladiators fought to the death, and the people and their rulers cheered excitedly at this grisly spectacle. The Roman Empire didn’t last very long after the people began getting their kicks from this sort of thing.

Two other books dealing with S & M practices were published in 1996 and reviewed in considerable detail in The Journal of Sex Research.[116] Alternate Sources by Trevor Jacques was designed to be a “single, global resource directory for all the alternate sexes and sexualities,” and listed forty-three categories with 4,075 organizations worldwide. Bound to be Free: The SM Experience by Charles Moser and J. J. Madeson had the “mission of explaining and demystifying the world of sadomasochism” (p. 11). A 1998 article confirmed what many of us had suspected for a long time: that S & M is increasing in the United States in prevalence, visibility, openness, and intensity.[117] In the mid-80s, the S & M scene in New York City was less open; people met at parties, but there were far fewer establishments catering to this sexual deviance, and they were not advertised in periodicals as they are now. The establishments that did exist were not so well equipped, and many of the mistresses in them were psychotic. The television series Roots, showing the dynamics of the master-slave relationship and the details of domination and submission—the whips, handcuffs, shouted orders, pleading—had a profound impact on inspiring some of the viewers who were inclined toward S & M.

The psychological roots of sadomasochism are not clear at the time of this writing, but there is considerable conjecture that they have a great deal to do with feelings of guilt. The masochist derives a morbid sexual pleasure from suffering as atonement for his extremes of guilt. It gives him a penitential release from the weight of his shame, yet it is flawed. His release is so ecstatic that there is uncertainty as to whether he seeks the pleasure more than the pain. A spanking may provide him a momentary catharsis, but self-hatred will return as before because he knows that he commits acts that are thoroughly condemned on all sides. His obsessive act of contrition then hatches fresh remorse in an inescapable circular quest for yet another absolution. He has so converted pain into pleasure that there is no real atonement. He goes round and round converting guilt to pain to pleasure to guilt again. The sought-for cycle of sin-retribution-forgiveness is denied because the real cause of guilt is not being straightforwardly addressed.

Although sadomasochistic sex play can be done with the bare hands, usually various implements such as canes, belts, whips, handcuffs, ropes, chains, gags, and blindfolds are employed. The dominant partner typically ties the submissive partner and whips, paddles, pricks, cuts, burns, or humiliates him or her. Both get sexual pleasure from these tortures.[118]

DSM-IV points out that “sexual masochism is usually chronic, and the person tends to repeat the same masochistic act. Some individuals with sexual masochism desire may engage in masochistic acts for many years without increasing the potential injuriousness of their acts. Others, however, increase the severity of the masochistic acts over time or during periods of stress, which may eventually result in injury or even death.”[119]

On April 9, 1996, Christopher Murray strangled Robert Levy with a belt in West Palm Beach, Florida. On April 30, 1997, Murray pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to seven years in prison. Circuit Judge Edward Garrison had heard hours of testimony about Levy’s obsessive suicide impulses, his masterful powers of manipulation, and his insatiable hunger for the most extreme brutal forms of sexual degradation. Levy had paid Murray, a male prostitute, $2,000 for the killing in a highly detailed plan. “He wanted to be tied up; he wanted to be taped, stabbed, and urinated on. He had this fantasy of someone tying him up and doing exactly what he wanted.”[120]

Several articles on S & M appeared in 1999. Psychology Today published an article that claimed that one of every ten people that read their words had experimented with sadomasochism and that it was no longer considered a pathology.[121] The Journal of Sex Research reported on a study of 164 male sadomasochists showing that they were socially well adjusted and that their odd behavior was mainly a facilitative aspect of their sexual lives. Sixty-one percent of the study members had leading positions at work, with gays primarily in white-collar occupations. The heterosexual participants had fewer sessions than the gay and bisexual participants. Gay men were fonder of leather outfits, anal intercourse, rimming, dildos, and uniform scenes. Gays also used alcohol and poppers (amyl nitrate) more than the heterosexuals.[122]

Alison, Santtila, Sandnabba, and Nordling studied 162 men and twenty-two women who were members of sadomasochistically oriented clubs and found that there were significant differences between the heterosexuals and the gay male subjects in terms of their involvement in the hypermasculinity and humiliation regions. As expected, the gay male subjects were more likely to engage in larger numbers of the behaviors in the hypermasculinity region compared to the heterosexual male subjects. In their study group, results showed that for the gay male group the administration and reception of pain was more intense.[123]

G. Rape

The rapist obtains carnal knowledge of a woman forcibly, unlawfully, and usually against her will. Penetration, however slight, is a necessary element of the crime, but ejaculation is not. In sixteen states, the penalty was once death or life imprisonment. Four hundred fifty-five men were executed for rape in the United States between 1930 and 1976; 405 were black. But the death penalty was suspended in 1977 over the Furman v. Georgia case. Under biblical law, rape was a capital crime (Deuteronomy 22:25–27). It was still punished in 1996 by death in China. Today, the average time actually served in prison in America is only about five years. Rape rated a very high figure of 25.8 on the National Bureau of Justice Statistics 1984 Severity of Crime Survey whether or not the victim required hospitalization. Many people still consider rape the most serious of all major crimes against the person, short of homicide.

The problem of proof in rape cases is always serious because there are few crimes in which false charges are more easily made. New York requires corroboration as a consequence of this.[124] “Over the past several decades the enormous cost of rape, both to victims and society, has become increasingly burdensome. The costs include a network of medical and psychological services to aid recovery, and the investigation, trial, and incarceration of offenders.”[125]

Victims suffer greatly from “rape trauma syndrome,” the initial phase of which includes physical reactions of generalized pain, vaginal discharge or itching, urogenital problems, sleep disturbances, and eating disturbances. Emotional reactions include fear of death or personal injury, panic attacks, terror, nervousness, rage, uncontrollable crying, humiliation, degradation, guilt, shame, anger, and embarrassment. Recovery can take months, years, and even decades. The symptoms of rape trauma are included in DSM-IV as an example of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 309.81). Becker and Kaplan reported in studies that showed that 97 percent of rape victims met the criteria for PTSD at initial assessment, and 46 percent continued to meet the criteria at two-month follow-up.[126] PTSD is also experienced as a result of military combat, torture, severe automobile accidents, earthquakes, and floods. Depression is frequently found in rape victims. Kilpatric et al. found that 19.2 percent had attempted suicide compared to 2.2 percent of nonvictims.[127]

Arata (1999) studied the effects of rape on the victims and reported that the majority of women experienced a decrease in their symptoms over time, but some rape victims go on to experience chronic distress. Those whose distress became chronic were most likely to blame themselves for the rape, including seeing themselves as having deserved the rape, being a bad person, or not being able to take care of themselves. The self-blaming woman also tended to see the world as an unsafe place, believe there are many disturbed individuals around, and believe no one is ever available to help when it is needed. Arata’s study also showed a strong connection between child sexual abuse and later difficulty coping with rape self-blame. Furthermore, these rape victims were more likely to avoid normal activities, eat and/or smoke a lot, take prescription drugs to relax, sleep, and cry a lot.[128]

As a general rule, in the Latin nations and also in the English-speaking nations, there appears to be a strong tendency to overlook the sexual basis of rape. The Nordic countries, on the other hand, generally attribute sexual causation. To me, it is strange and incongruous that American writers on the subject should not consider rape a sex crime. Dr. Dorothy J. Hicks wrote in Modern Medicine of February 15, 1977, “Rape is not a sex act. It is a violent crime that has nothing to do with sex except that the sex organs are involved. Rape is an attempt to humiliate a victim who happens to be vulnerable and handy at the time.” Germaine Greer in The Female Eunuch wrote: “It is a vain delusion that rape is an expression of uncontrollable desire or some kind of compulsive response to an overwhelming attraction … The act is one of murderous aggression, spawned in self-loathing and enacted upon the hated other.”[129] Nancy Gager and Cathleen Shurr wrote in Sexual Assault: Confronting Rape in America, “Rape is not an isolated phenomenon of ‘sick’ males, but rather an inevitable part of the entire social matrix which denigrates women …”[130] Susan Brownmiller wrote in Against Our Will, “It is nothing more or less than a conscious process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a state of fear.”[131] Sexual violation has a special urgency (Susan Estrich, Real Rape, Harvard, 1987). Guttmacher wrote, “Rape is fundamentally an act of aggression and its sexual component is primarily sadistic.”[132] Yet other writers familiar with the hormones will say: “Rape is an act of aggression, without question. It is also (contrary to current political thinking) a sexual act.”[133]

Rape is a deceptively simple four-letter word that covers a wide spectrum of events. As might be expected, there is a great variability in the typology of rapists. They range in seriousness, nature, motivation, and frequency from the serial sadistic rape—mutilation—murderer with dozens of victims down to the single-case date rapist, which happened by the rarest set of circumstances. The public has been confused for many years by dozens of different pictures of different types of rapists in the news. It is helpful to rank-order rapists in some sort of a system, but at the same time one must realize that there will be almost as many differences as there are individual rapists. Groth classifies them into three broad categories with the sadistic rapist the most dangerous but least common (about 5 percent of all rapes).[134] The sadistic rape is characterized by ritually inflicted pain. The second category is the power rape, comprising 40 percent of all rapes. “In these assaults, it is not the offender’s desire to harm his victim, but to possess her sexually.” The third category is characterized by physical brutality and includes about 55 percent of all reported rapes. In any given case there may be elements of two or more of these categories to a different extent.

Special Agent Hazelwood, of the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, built on Groth’s classification of rapists with a fourfold hierarchy of rapists, and another classification of serial rapists as increasers and non-increasers. The increasers increased the amount of force used in their rapes over time with more serious injuries and greater frequency (a mean of nineteen days between rapes) compared to the non-increasers. In Hazelwood’s classification:

  1. The power-reassurance rapist is characteristically motivated by doubts about his masculinity and sexual adequacy and seeks to reassure himself through rape.

  2. The power-assertive rapist “regards rape as an expression of his virility, mastery, and dominance.”

  3. The anger-retaliatory rapist rapes as an expression of hostility and rage.

  4. The anger-excitation rapist experiences excitement and pleasure in response to his victim’s suffering. As Hazelwood and Burgess explained: “the underlying purpose of the assault[becomes clearer], thereby allowing the officer better insight into the type of person he is seeking.”[135]

In 1994, two respected researchers of violence had the courage to stand up against the prevalent feminist views of rape causation and the finicky American Psychological Association, which demands rigorous scholarly screening, and agreed to be the publishers. After many years of study, Tedeschi and Felson wrote, “The most prevalent motivation for the use of sexual coercion is to force sexual compliance and gain sexual satisfaction.”[136] They then cited the results of several studies that supported this viewpoint. A 1995 report showed that more young people believe rape is due to biological factors than believe that male dominance is the primary factor.[137] Morneau and Rockwell wrote: “Certainly a raped and beaten woman does not feel that she has been involved in a sexual experience. It is, however, important that the police investigator remember that the act was sex to the rapist. It was what he harbored in his mind as a sexual encounter, one in which he felt he would experience a maximum sexual enjoyment—an experience that would make him feel good.”[138] Amir’s 1971 study reinforced the idea that the primary motive for rape is sex. Karpman wrote, “In some men only the resistance of the woman makes them potent. This is probably the mechanism of rape.”[139] Karpman also quoted Hirning,[140] “There is no specific personality type or sexual psychopathology peculiar to forcible rape; many psychopathic individuals are in this category.” Mosher took the opposite approach and showed with considerable data that the most macho men had the greatest proclivity to commit the crime of rape.[141]

There are probably a hundred postulated reasons for the crime of rape, but most of them have failed to produce effective solutions toward stopping rape. We spend billions of dollars every year on rape prevention, treatment of offenders, treatment of victims, and facilities of all kinds. But the rate of rape continues to be excessively high. Some of the postulated reasons for rape depict some small, fleeting part of the motivation, but the underlying hormonal causes are largely ignored in such explanations as: desire to dominate women, power-assertive demonstration, expression of virility, self-loathing, hatred of women, desire to denigrate a woman, desire to humiliate a victim, “sick” males, murderous aggression, intimidation, keep all women in a state of fear, sadistic rape, anger, retaliatory for slighting, power reassurance, physical brutality, aggressive instinct, prove his masculinity, machismo, produce sexual compliance, or gain sexual satisfaction.

Berlin et al. pointed out that rape is frequently associated with substance abuse.[142] Intoxication can predispose toward rape, either by reducing sexual inhibitions and impairing social judgment or by reducing contact with reality … Intoxication with alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine tends to be disinhibiting and judgment impairing … PCP, amphetamines, and certain hallucinogens may induce a psychosis-like state in which a person loses contact with reality. Both PCP and amphetamines can induce psychoses whose effects are evident long after injections … Some of the most lurid cases of rape and sadistic sexual activities, including lust murder, have occurred during PCP-induced psychotic states.

There may be many different reasons for the crime of rape due to the extreme variability of men and human interactions, but it must be emphasized that it is nearly always primarily a sex crime. Some of the factors that demonstrate the sex urge as the principle cause of rape are:

  1. It is legally classified and defined as a sex crime. Federal and state laws define it as “the sexual intercourse with a female forcibly and against her will.” Intercourse means coitus, the sex act of a man and a woman, and can hardly be more descriptive and still remain within the bounds of decorum, which a respect for the law dictates.

  2. Penetration of the female by the penis of the male is essential to the definition of rape. This is impossible with an unwilling female without the erection of the penis. To achieve an erection, there must be male sex hormones present in the blood, and the brain must also receive stimuli experienced as sexual being. Nerves at the lower end of the spinal column act under signals from the brain to contract the muscles at the base of the penis and prevent the blood from draining out through the veins. Engorgement continues as long as there is proper stimulation, but ceases abruptly as soon as inappropriate impulses from the brain are received. Fear, guilt, anxiety, and hatred usually generate these inappropriate stimuli and make it impossible to maintain the erection. The emotions which feminist authors hypothesize as causing rape are inimical to the achievement of the necessary erection.

  3. Orgasm was the objective of most rapes that come to the courts. The primary prosecutorial evidence that a woman has been raped is the presence of semen in or on the female. The enzymic acid phosphatase in the semen fluoresces brightly under black light illumination for easy detection. Semen usually becomes the primary forensic clue in rape convictions. Semen convicts more rapists than any other single piece of evidence because the blood type, DNA, and other identifying characteristics of the donor can be recorded from it. The production of semen is the very essence of sex.

  4. Rape is a sex crime: 1) the peak age group (fourteen to twenty-five years) for sexual activity correlates with 60 percent of all convicted rapists. 2) The rate of rape increases in spring, the season for mating in most animals. Havelock Ellis noted peak months for rape in France were May, June, and July. Gustave A. Schaffenberg (1913) found sex offenses in Germany reached a maximum in June or July and fell to a minimum in winter. Similar trends are annually documented by the FBI Uniform Crime Reports. 3) As the so-called “sexual revolution” has progressed, so has the incidence of rapes. Rapes known to law enforcement personnel increased from a yearly average of 3.7 per 100,000 population in 1933 to 24.3 in 1973. Reported cases totaled about 50,000 cases in 1976, 94,500 in 1989, and 302,091 in 1996 in the United States with estimates of the numbers of unreported cases ranging from two to ten times these numbers. 4) Stürup found that castrated men do not rape. His recidivism rate among castrated rapists was zero.[143]

Some of the error in attributing the causes of rape to some source other than sex stems from the data accumulated by psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, administrators, and police—many of whom are women who only dimly understand the nature of the male sex urge. When questioned by these people, the rapist will admit to almost any other reason besides sexual lust because of his personal embarrassment and insecurities. These other circuitous explanations seem more justified than the more reprehensible sexual lust on its own. There is something shameful about sex that makes most Americans want to hide it. We were brought up on biblical teachings about the abhorrent and reprehensible sexual sins, which are certain to shame the perpetrator. These attitudes have been preached, lectured, and told to us by parents and teachers from our earliest childhood. We have been scolded, we have had hands slapped, and we have gone without supper for sexual misdeeds in our early lives. Most rapists find it far easier to deny the shameful desire for sex and to admit to the macho “he-man” feelings of anger, hate, jealousy, dominance, etc. They do not even like to admit the concupiscence even to themselves. Furthermore, they may not even be aware of these salacious sexual itches that are so subliminal that they may not even surface to the level of the realm of conscious thought. The perpetrator, himself, is often unable to accurately describe the real reason that he committed such an abominable act.

The police rate of clearing the crime of rape by successful arrest and prosecution has been inexcusably poor for a long, long time. In 1977, the Battelle Law and Justice Center estimated that 3 percent of rape reports resulted in conviction. In Florida, in 1986, only about 20 percent of all reported rapes resulted in a conviction, and 30 percent of these were given lighter sentences than the sentencing guidelines called for.[144] In 1995, law enforcement agencies reported that about a third of all reported forcible rapes were cleared by an arrest—an estimated 34,650 arrests out of 97,460 rapes reported to police nationwide.[145] Prison does little or nothing to improve the rapist’s behavior. In fact, rapists learn how to evade arrest and prosecution in discussions with other imprisoned rapists. We are obviously on the wrong track in understanding the reasons and remedies for this very serious crime. Sensational news items of “successfully treated” rapists again repeating their crime within a few months of being released continue to demonstrate this point. In some jurisdictions, up to 65 percent of rapists who have been incarcerated are arrested for rape again.

Reginald Muldrew, forty-seven, nicknamed the “Pillowcase Rapist” for the way he threw pillowcases over his victims’ heads to prevent them from identifying him, is an example. He had been linked with as many as 200 sex crimes in the Los Angeles, California, area from 1976 through 1978. He was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison. Muldrew was released after serving only sixteen years and a year later broke into a woman’s house, put a pillow over her face, and fled with her purse.

Violence has always been one successful method of getting what is wanted. Whatever works, wins out. This is an inexorable law of evolution. When the caveman wanted a woman, he knocked one on the head and dragged her away to his cave. Not because he hated, despised, or was jealous of her, but simply because that was the way to obtain a woman. The thin veneer of thousands of years of civilization has been completely inadequate to change the millions of years of ingrained behavior. There is still the instinctive male tendency to take by force what he wants. Violent, aggressive copulation, meeting all of the descriptive elements of rape, is the norm in some primitive human cultures, in several animal species, and in a few bird species.

The past 5,000 years of recorded history are replete with references to women as chattel. They were usually the personal property of their husbands, fathers, or masters. Women were much like slaves, bondsmen, or cattle—albeit very independent-minded ones. Their low status made them vulnerable to dominant acts against their person such as rape. I find it regrettable that the very influential women’s movement writers should be so misled in the primary causes of this crime. Promulgation of some of these beliefs has made it more difficult to come to grips with a better solution. The concept of forcible intercourse that a rapist has is inimical to the concept of sex that women have. Women want to be held, comforted, caressed, and loved—valued as special—so women rationalize that it is not sex that motivates a man to rape; it must be hatred, loathing, or sheer aggressive expression. Sudden, forcible intercourse is not sex to women. Women cannot understand that for some men, aggression is a part of sex: successful and direct—it gets the job done.

Barbara Ehrenreich wrote an article for Time magazine about a forthcoming book entitled A Natural History of Rape by Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer. The article debunked their theory that rape represents another seed-spreading technique. “Sure it’s nasty, brutish and short on foreplay. But it gets the job done,” she wrote.[146] In the January 2000 issue of The Sciences, the authors of the book were quoted as saying that they just want to correct the feminist fallacy that “rape is not about sex.” Another review of the Thornhill book called it “an intellectual masterpiece … courageous, compassionate, and scholarly analysis of rape.”[147]

Women’s rights advocates lobbied strongly during the 1977 Oregon legislative session and secured the passage of a law that allows a wife to charge her own husband with rape. This law was tested in the Rideout case, and, although the husband was acquitted in December 1978, the law was allowed to stand. By April 30, 1988, all fifty states had similar laws that made it a crime for a man to rape his wife. Under these laws, the husband was treated like any other man who forced a woman to have sex. But some, about twenty states, later made some allowances, which made wife rape a lesser crime than other rapes. The ancient custom as explained by St. Paul states: “The wife does not rule over her own body, but the husband does …” (1 Corinthians 7:4). And by Moses “ … Your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you” (Genesis 3:16). The prevalence of marital rape is estimated to be between 7 percent and 14 percent, and the women are just as likely to suffer psychological problems as those raped by strangers.[148]

A still more recently recognized type of rape is called “date rape.” This was the subject of a MacNeil/Lehrer special program on television July 25, 1986. A woman goes out on a date with a man who then takes excessive advantage of her trust and forces himself on her to a degree greater than she had intended to allow. This is actually much more common than the rape in which the rapist lurks in the shadows and then leaps out to drag the woman into the woods. Date rape has become especially common among college students, and several cases have appeared in the news. In court, the woman will often admit to indulging in heavy petting, but then testify that she was forced to have sex. Sometimes there is only a very fine line of demarcation between the two conditions. Although the incidence of college rape is high (with some 28 percent of the nation’s female college students having reported being raped), there has been very little reported in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR). This may help clarify the wide discrepancy in the trends reported in the UCR and the National Crime Survey (NCS). The Florida Department of Health launched a statewide public information program focusing on date rape in 2001.[149]

Neil Malamuth ran a survey at the University of California in Los Angles in 1985 asking the male students: “If you could be assured that no one would know and that you could in no way be punished, how likely, if at all, would you be to commit such acts as forcing a female to do something she didn’t want to do?” and “rape?” The headlines screamed the shocking answers: 35 percent admitted some likelihood of rape.[150]

Another type of rape is called “statutory rape.” It is an act of sexual intercourse performed upon a person who is under the “age of consent” (this is age sixteen in twenty-eight states, age seventeen in six states, age eighteen in fifteen states, and age thirteen in one state) and not the spouse of the perpetrator.[151] Victims may be either male or female. This type of rape was once a capital felony with penalties ranging from death or life in prison down to ten years in prison. But by 1997, Louisiana was the only state where death was a punishment for rape of a child under the age of twelve. Consent for the act is not a defense, nor is a genuine belief, based on reasonable grounds, that the child is past the age of consent. In many of these cases, the term rape is often euphemized to some less inflammatory term such as carnal knowledge. In Florida, if the victim is under eleven, the crime is referred to as “sexual battery” of a minor, and it carries a mandatory sentence of life in prison. The laws on this crime do not require the penetration of the female by the penis of the male, but it may be adjudged rape if a finger or some other object is inserted into the vagina or anus. The sexual abuse of a child was rated very high on the National Survey of Crime Severity with a value of severity of 25.2, while statutory rape of females was rated at a low 1.6. Data on the incidence has continued to rise. By 1994, three-fourths of females who had sex before fourteen say they were coerced. Men over the age of twenty impregnated two-thirds of teenage mothers.

After many years of ever-increasing penalties, statutory rape became so common that it was the usual origin of teenage mothers. Sexual education for teens does not work. According to a study by the Alan Guttmacher Institute, 39 percent of fifteen-year-old mothers say the fathers of their babies are twenty years old or older. Among the babies of seventeen-year-old mothers, 55 percent of the fathers are adults. “Today, 65% of teenage mothers are unmarried, up from 48% in 1980. These teens and their children are at high risk of poverty, school failure and welfare dependency.”[152]

Another study by the Alan Guttmacher Institute found that about 7 percent of sexually active girls ages fifteen to seventeen had partners who were at least six years older than they were. But these girls accounted for 19 percent of the teen pregnancies. The earlier study had suggested that men were taking advantage of younger, more vulnerable partners, and this had sparked a call to crack down on statutory rape predatory men. The increased percentage of pregnancies with older men was also explained by the finding that older men use condoms less, and girls are more confident in older partners’ ability to provide for them and their children. Older men are more likely to be employed and better educated than teen dads.[153] Young women are usually more attractive to men than older women.

In Florida, the law states that no one under the age of sixteen can consent to have sex with anyone. Girls sixteen and older can consent to have sex, but the partner cannot be older than twenty-three. If the male is over twenty-three, he could face fifteen years in jail and also be labeled a sexual predator for life. The male who pleads innocence because he thought the girl was older than sixteen is out of luck. Ignorance is not a defense despite the fact that many teen girls dress and look older than they really are.

The sad reality of the feelings of many of these young mothers is expressed in Nancy Curtis’ poem “Teenage Lament.”

… My material for a prom formal—

never made—as it sits amid the

remnants of the fabrics left over

from my maternity tops.

My medals from band and choir,

forsaken in the clutter of a jewelry box.

My friends passing by my window,

Laughing over the gossip column

in the school paper.

And giggling over who will be the first

to experience

The new morality—and freedom!

For cleaning—what a drag!

For him—always arguing.

For ironing—senseless hours.

For dishes—useless.

For cooking—a bore.

For sex—a hang-up.

Oh, God, if you are there,

please let someone take this crying

baby off my hands.

And let my feet dance one more.

I am so old. And I was never young.

Several high-profile cases of statutory rape were featured in the news media in August 1995, which shed more light on the details of this crime. One such case was that of the U.S. representative from Chicago. Mel Reynolds had been elected to Congress in 1992 as the image of a young, black educator and former Rhodes Scholar who portrayed high-minded politics triumphant over racial division. Despite this, he had pulled up to sixteen-year-old Beverly Heard as she walked outside her high school in 1992. He took her to dinner and then masturbated in the car while driving her home. A week later, they had sex for the first time. Then, between June and November, he paid her for sex two or three times a week, as much as $100 a time.[154] This U.S. representative was charged with criminal sexual assault and faced a maximum of eighty-six years in prison.

In another case, thirty-nine-year-old Assistant Pastor Danny Drake, of the Christian Center of Jacksonville, Florida, was convicted of seducing a fifteen-year-old girl in the church on New Year’s Eve in 1992. Drake pleaded guilty and served a year in jail. The church, however, was given a $925,000 fine because the church fathers knew about the sexual activities of Drake and did nothing to stop them.[155]

Rape has been one of the leading concerns of the influential feminist movement for more than three decades. Several important political actions resulted: The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994, with its “stop” (services, training, officers, and prosecutors) provisions, has been established; rape crisis centers have been established in every major city in the country for treating, counseling, and aiding rape victims; special facilities have been established in all police forces for prosecuting rapists; and some areas have set up special organizations such as Families Enraged About Rape (FEAR) and Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) to fight back against one of the worst of all violent crimes. The average cost of the SANE program is about $2,074.00 per victim, which amounts to about $12 million per year for the 100 programs in use in 1999.[156] In spite of all of these most ardent and dedicated organizations and individuals, rapes have continued to become more numerous and more brutal. Prison terms have failed to stem the tide of this heinous crime. Society needs to recognize the power of the sexual component and learn to treat this crime for what it really is—a crime motivated by biochemical imbalance of the hormones. We must provide effective medical treatment to the perpetrators to remedy this.

Truly efficacious methods for stopping rape are crucial to public safety. Rape is a violent crime that no one should ever have to endure.

Dr. John Money coined the word biastophilia.

Biastophilia: A paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on the surprise attack and continued violent assault of a nonconsenting, terrified, and struggling stranger (from Greek biastes, “rape or forced violation,” plus philia). Acquiescence on the part of the partner induces a fresh round of threat and violence from the biastophile.[157]

“The stratagem of marauding and predation requires that the partner in lust be kidnaped, abducted, coerced, or violently assaulted, as no decent person would consent to be defiled by lust. The extreme example of this stratagem is rapistic violence and assault or raptophilia (from Latin rapere, “to seize,” plus philia”) (pp. 182-183). “The proposal to add paraphiliac rape (to DSM III) had to be scuttled because of a perceptively intelligent move on the part of radical feminists in psychiatry and psychology who objected to the possibility of an illness or insanity defense for accused raptophiles. They objected to the possibility of meaningless, ineffective psychological treatment instead of the more effective death penalty—they do not differentiate paraphiliac rape from date rape and spouse rape” (p. 139).

Doctor Money is the world’s foremost sexologist and more frequently right in his writings than most of the others. He is quoted as saying: “This business about rape being an act of violence rather than a sexual act is a joke. You might as well say someone having an epileptic fit has a social (not a biological) problem.”[158]

Another form of rape is gang rape—also called multiple rapes. This type is exemplified by a case that appeared in the newspaper Pensacola News Journal on July 24, 1991:

A thirty-three-year-old woman told investigators she was held for thirty-four hours and repeatedly raped after she was forced to accompany two men to a boardinghouse at knifepoint about 11 pm, Friday, July 19, 1991. She said she was held in one room and raped by a group of men sixteen to fifty-five years old. She escaped at 9:30 am Sunday when an unidentified woman helped her open a window. The woman directed her toward State Road 46 where a motorist driving into Sanford, Florida, picked up the victim. The victim returned with sheriff’s investigators Monday and helped identify four suspects who were charged with sexual battery by multiple perpetrators and held without bail in the county jail … Conviction could carry prison life terms.

Another form of rape is prison rape. Relatively little information has been compiled in statistical form about these rapes because the victims are incarcerated, and reporting a rape can be extremely dangerous for them. Most men are too ashamed to even want to report being raped by another man. The increase in the number of prisoners has led to prison overcrowding in recent years, so it is usually impractical to segregate prisoners by age, size, or type of offense. The result is a frequent mixing of rapists and vulnerable young men in the same cell. The October 2003 issue of Popular Science (p. 72) reported that one in ten inmates in a survey had been the victim of a sexual assault. Many repeatedly.

Male-on-male rape is very poorly reported in general. The FBI does not even have a category for reporting this crime, and most of the states still do not. In twenty-one states, rape is defined legally only as the forcible penetration of a woman by a man. Most states use the euphemisms “sexual misconduct,” “unlawful sexual intercourse,” “sexual battery,” or “criminal sexual conduct.” In 1994, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that 15,000 men reported they had been victims of rape or attempted rape, but the actual number of male-on-male rapes is unknown.[159] The 1995 Sexual Offences Act changed the definition of rape such that vaginal or anal penetration of a person of either gender is now considered rape. In the United States, between 5 and 10 percent of total rapes reported to treatment centers are against men. Research has shown that sexual assault on men is a frightening, dehumanizing experience that leaves them feeling debased and makes them vulnerable to emotional disorders and substance abuse in later life.[160]

Other types of rape that have been named are: anonraptus (rapists who attack only elderly women) and anthropophagolagnia (rape with cannibalism).

Prior to 1992, the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that there were a total of 133,000 rapes and attempted rapes each year in this country. After better, more specific questions were employed in 1992, the government more than doubled its estimates to 310,000. In its report of August 16, 1995, the Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics figures recorded 170,000 rapes and 140,000 attempted rapes per year with a possible total of all types of sexual assault of 500,000.[161] The Justice Department report of November 1998 estimated a total of 465,000 rapes a year. The American Medical Association’s data reported in the Ann Landers newspaper column, of February 28, 1997, that over 700,000 women are sexually assaulted each year and that sexual assault continues to represent the most rapidly growing violent crime in America.

Mary Koss concluded that “the 14% rape prevalence released by the National Victims Center (1992) appears to be the middle ground.”[162] Despite the assessment problems and wide range of estimates, experts believe that the United States has the second highest incidence rate of forcible rape of any industrialized country. Even when we take into account the inaccuracy from unreported attacks (a problem in all countries), we find that the rate in the United States is thirteen times that of England, four times that of West Germany, five to ten times that of France, and twenty times that of Japan.[163] In 1998, South Africa had the highest incidence of rape in the world with a rate of 104.1 per 100,000 people; in the United States, the rate was 34.4 per 100,000.[164]

When statistics for both rape and attempted rape of adult women are combined, the acquaintance becomes the most prevalent type of rapist. Fourteen percent of the 930 women were victims of rape or attempted rape by acquaintances; 12 percent by dates; 11 percent by strangers; 8 percent by husbands or ex-husbands; 6 percent by friends; 3 percent by boyfriends; 3 percent by relatives other than husbands; and 2 percent by friends of the family (p. 51). Sexual victimization among college women is about three times greater than among women in the general population.

For a long time, the studies have shown that disproportionately high percentages of rapes are committed by members of the black race. Amir found that 82.5 percent of those arrested for rape in Philadelphia were black, as were 80.5 percent of the victims.[165] Russell showed that the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports generally indicated the race of criminals as being 48 percent blacks, 51 percent whites, and 1 percent other.[166] The 1969 National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence reported 60 percent involved black offenders and black victims; 30 percent involved white offenders and white victims; 11 percent involved black offenders and white victims; and 0.3 percent involved white offenders and black victims. The black population is thought to comprise about 12.5 percent of our total population, and the Asian population about 3.8 percent. The percentage of rapes in the Asian population is so small that it is seldom reported despite the fact that many share much of the same poverty, poor education, poor housing, and other disadvantageous conditions that are frequently blamed for the black’s high rates of violent crimes. Black males have an average of about 10 to 20 percent higher testosterone levels than white males, while Asian males have about 3 percent less than white males. Rape is a hormonally activated crime, and the variations in the hormonal level among rapists and non-rapist men also demonstrate this fact.

On April 18, 1997, Colonel Paul Johnston, the judge at the court martial of Staff Sergeant Delmar Simpson, drill master at the Aberdeen Proving Ground who was accused of raping six female recruits, ruled that physical force was not needed to define rape in the case. The judge ruled that drill sergeants have so much power over trainees that they do not have to use a weapon or threaten force to be found guilty of the crime of rape. Judge Johnston further stated women need not resist or object either. Simpson, thirty-two, was found guilty and sentenced to twenty-five years, received a dishonorable discharge, and forfeited all military pay and allowances.

The U.S. Department of Justice reported that in 1992 an estimated 21,655 rapists nationwide were convicted, and eight in ten had pleaded guilty. Over two-thirds of convicted rapists received prison sentences with the average term imposed being just under fourteen years. Only about 2 percent of convicted rapists received life sentences. On any given day about 34,000 offenders, convicted of rape or sexual assault, were under the care, custody, or control of corrections agencies. About 60 percent of these were under conditional supervision in the community. Since 1980, the average annual growth in the number of prisoners has been about 7.6 percent. The number of prisoners sentenced for violent sexual assault, other than rape, increased by an annual average of nearly 15 percent—faster than any other category of violent crime, and faster than all other categories except drug trafficking.[167] Under Florida law, an adult who commits sexual battery against a child who is less than twelve years old can be executed if the child’s sexual organs are injured.

Schewe and O’Donohue reported that about 9 percent of the male population commits acts that meet the legal definition of rape or attempted rape. Only about 10 percent of all rapes are reported to police, and only 50 percent of these result in arrest. Of those that are arrested, 66 percent are prosecuted, and 85 percent of these currently result in conviction.[168] In a study of 561 offenders, rapists reported a lifetime average of seven incidents, but it is known that some rapists rape far more than others.[169]

Weiss and Zverina also found that only a small fraction of rapes and attempted rapes were reported to police. Reports were made only 3.4 percent of the time. Part of the explanation for this low figure could be reflected in cases of husbands and partners as perpetrators among the women in their study. Weiss and Zverina observed that this served to prevent the reporting of these crimes for social reasons with the family.[170]

The most frequent explanations given for these horrendous crimes by psychologists, sociologists, and liberals involve the power, dominance, and control that the perpetrator feels when he commits these crimes. I submit that these terms, along with similar ones used (anger-excitation, anger-retaliatory, physical brutality, power reassurance, power assertive, murderous aggression, and sexual coercion) are synonyms for the euphoric rush that is activated by the sex hormones. The sex hormones (testosterone mainly) excite certain neurotransmitters and hormones in the brain and body (mainly dopamine, but also adrenaline, vasopressin, and nitrous oxide), which produce the rush that is described as “power and control.” We are really talking about the same thing in different terms. In Stürup’s study, none of the rapists who were castrated have recidivated.[171] Castration reduces the testosterone, which enables lust and penile erection. Most men who are castrated not only lose their desire to rape, but also the ability to achieve the erection necessary for penetration.

November 25, 1999, was International Day Against Violence Against Women. It was marked by various activities worldwide to raise awareness of sexual, emotional, and physical abuse of women. South Africa launched its “Take a Stand” movement, the Womankind Worldwide held a forum in London, and The Lancet published an article on rape in war.[172] Rape has always been common in wars but this aspect of the history of conflict has not been accorded a high profile—probably because rape in war has been considered insignificant compared to the death, destruction, and wounding from military weapons. This may be changing because in 1996, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia cited sexual assault as a crime against humanity. And in 1998, the International Tribunal for Rwanda found rape to be an act of genocide. As many as 5,000 babies were born to rape victims after the 1994 genocide. Many of these children have been abandoned and killed.

The Yugoslav tribunal at The Hague, Netherlands, opened their rape trial on March 20, 2000. This was the first time an international court tackled the wartime rape problem. During the 1992 to 1995 Bosnian war, an estimated 20,000 to 50,000 mostly Muslim women and girls were raped by Bosnian Serb soldiers. On April 4, 2000, one of the victims, in the seventh grade at the time, told how she was raped countless times in Serb rape camps in the town of Foca, southeast of Sarajevo.[173][174] In February 2001, three former Bosnian Serb soldiers were convicted of running mass rape camps during the Bosnia War and sentenced to twelve to twenty-eight years imprisonment.

H. Pedophilia

Sometimes spelled paedophilia (from the Greek paidos, child), pedophilia is a paraphilia in which perverts use young children as favorite sexual objects. Other terms frequently used for this behavior include pederasty and child molesting. Legal terms used in different jurisdictions are carnal abuse and impairing the morals of a minor. The popular images of a dirty, old man or a weird-looking stranger in a trench coat grabbing kids in the schoolyard are stereotypes, which have been shown to be erroneous. The Kinsey data (Gebhard et al., 1965)[175] flatly disproves these old ideas and shows the average age of child molesters among a wide range to be thirty-five. Many of these men are clean-cut in appearance and apparently are caring citizens. The 1963 Pennsylvania Dangerous Sex Offender study showed that only 4.6 percent of convicted pedophiles were over age sixty, while 23 percent were in the twenty-to-twenty-four age group. In women, pedophilia is rarely detected or prosecuted.[176] The average predator can assault an estimated 140 kids before being caught. Those with male targets average 281.7 acts each (Abel et al., 1987). All states had a statute governing child abuse by 1966, and the Child Abuse Treatment Act of 1974 established procedures for the definition, investigation, and intervention.

The public at large views pedophilia as more obscene, despicable, and outrageous than any other crime. “Adults who sexually abuse children are considered to be among the most serious deviants in our society.”[177] The pedophile is a predator who victimizes innocent, defenseless, trusting children, and pedophiles are being reported more often to law enforcement. Arrests of child molesters have increased considerably in the past few years. The sexual abuse of children cannot be tolerated, and more and more severe penalties are being imposed for this evil behavior.

The mysoped is an aggressive and sadistic child abuser who equates his sexual arousal with fatal violence. The mysoped usually stalks his victim and takes the child by force rather than seduction. Sadism is an integral part of the mysoped’s actions, which often involves the death of the child and sometimes includes cannibalism as it did in the case of Nathaniel Bar Jonah in Great Falls, Montana, in the year 2000.

The incidence of child sexual molestation is estimated to be about twenty times that of rape, amounting to approximately one-third of all adults exploited as children. Becker and Reilly reported that between 30 and 45 percent of the women sampled reported being sexually abused during their youth.[178] The number of incidents in the United States ranges from an estimated 500,000 to 5,000,000 a year. The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that state prisons held 43,552 inmates in 1992 who raped or sexually assaulted children under age eighteen. More than half of the victims were age twelve or younger.

Some mental health experts divide pedophiles into two groups: the regressed and the fixated. The regressed pedophile chooses to molest children only when an adult partner is not available. The fixated pedophile, on the other hand, focuses his attention solely on children. He may prefer either girls or boys, but generally confines his activities to a certain age group whether they be infants (nepiophilia), young children, or teenagers (ephebophilia or hebophilia).[179] Most pedophiles are thought to target preteen boys since they are usually the most easily accessed and most easily persuaded to engage in sex acts. The issue of whether such child molesters are homosexual or not is usually considered academic because the emphasized aspect of the attraction is to children. The fixated pedophile usually has a much larger number of victims, is readily assessed through penile tumescence monitoring while viewing erotic material involving children,[180] and is much more difficult to correct.[181] Sex therapists seldom talk about a “cure” and strive for “relapse prevention” as the best they can hope for.[182] Some researchers have taken issue with the regressed-versus-fixated dichotomy and substituted a continuum of variations in types of pedophiles. About one-third of convicted homosexual pedophiles are re-convicted while only about one-sixth of heterosexuals are.

Kear-Colwell and Boer[183] have pointed out that present treatments for pedophiles are not as effective as they should be, largely because confrontation during treatment by therapists and staff are counterproductive. It is not surprising that men with pedophilic problems are highly defensive and have difficulty in assessment and treatment. Current treatments require the pedophile to disclose his past history of child molestation, but openness in disclosure of large numbers of his victims leads to further time in prison. The pedophile, therefore, must restrict what he reveals in order to avoid further censure and punishment. At least thirteen states have enacted civil commitment laws, which keep the pedophile locked up after he has completed his original sentence.

The long-term effects of child abuse on the victims have been proven to be substantial. The National Institute of Justice reported in 1992 that the effects of child abuse boost American violent crime perpetration by 40 percent and the overall crime volume by 70 percent.[184] Prolonged, unwanted sexual assaults produce long-term impairment of mental health. Many of the victims drop out of school, have significantly decreased self-esteem, have serious suicidal feelings,[185] and tend to become victimizers of children in later life.[186] As many as 40 million Americans have experienced sexual abuse as children ranging from fondling to intercourse. As many as 10 million of these may be suffering from psychological problems, guilt, sexual difficulties, and a tendency to abuse their own children.[187]

West reported that men accused of sex offenses against children often have been sexually abused themselves when they were young. Clinicians are seriously concerned that sexual molestation of children may cause the children to become molesters themselves. While some studies show that the majority of abused boys do not become offenders, there is a statistical association between either early sexual or physical maltreatment and subsequent offending, both sexual and nonsexual. Physical abuse, but not sexual abuse, was significantly linked with adult crimes of sexual violence. Scientific evidence fails to support some of the assumptions underlying the present severe penalty policies. The studies reported by West found relatively low re-conviction rates among child molesters: 13 percent over four to five years in a meta-analysis of sixty-one published surveys, 19 percent after twenty-four years in another English survey.[188]

Researcher Parker Rossman estimated that there were 1.5 million American men over the age of twenty-one who are involved in sexual relations with boys. There are several organizations of these people: NAMBLA (North American Man-Boy Love Association), the Rene Guyon Society in Los Angeles, The Childhood Sensuality Circle in San Diego, the Boston-Boise Committee, and a group called PIE. These groups have attempted to secure the legalization of pedophilia between men and young boys. They have taken advantage of the more favorable recognition of homosexuality that the Gay Liberation Movement and “Rainbow Coalition” have achieved. Also, the historical precedence of ancient Greece has been cited as supporting such behavior. The Clinton administration was curiously silent on this serious problem, and the National Commission on Child Abuse has strongly criticized them.

Author A. Birkin in his book J. M. Barrie and the Lost Boys: The Love Story that Gave Birth to Peter Pan (published by Clarkson Potter, New York, 1979) tells how the famous author of Peter Pan, The Boy Who Never Grew Up was a pedophile. Barrie’s sexual age never grew up with his chronological age. His adoration of the young Davies brothers ultimately ruined them.

A study conducted between 1966 and 1968 at a special prison in England, set aside for the segregation of data on sex offenders from other data, clearly indicates that in the prison environment, sex offenders are at the bottom of the hierarchy.[189] Child molesters, in turn, are considered the lowest form of life by other sex offenders and are treated very negatively. A large percentage of sex offender prisoners were, themselves, sexually abused as children. This may account for some of the hatred observed against child molesters. Even in the closely supervised conditions existing in prison, pedophiles are frequently assaulted, raped, and murdered by other prisoners. Their suicide rate is also higher than that of the general public. One of the most brutal prison riots in U.S. history occurred between February 14 and 16, 1980, at the New Mexico State Penitentiary near Santa Fe, New Mexico. In this riot, the violence was directed primarily against “baby rapers” and “rats” rather than against the prison guards or administrators. Several of the pedophilic inmates were murdered in a most gruesome manner.[190]

The reactions of the criminal justice system against child molesters reached new heights of intensity in the 1980s. Extremely heavy penalties were imposed on molesters, and their constitutional rights to confront the witnesses against them were denied, due to the age of the witnesses, usually two- or three-year-old children. In 1987, Frank Fuster Ascalone, thirty-six, was sentenced to six life sentences plus 110 years in prison for lewd assaults on fifteen children through his babysitting service. In May 1988, Roger Lee Jones, forty-three, of Sarasota, Florida, was the first child molester in history to be placed on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List.[191] Several cases were publicized despite a lack of solid evidence to support statements made by children or parents. In a study by the American Child Psychiatric Academy, as many as 36 percent of the allegations were proved to be unfounded. In 1993 in Florida, sexual battery on a child younger than twelve called for a mandatory term of life in prison without parole for at least twenty-five years. The extremely heavy penalties being imposed are a reflection of widespread conviction that sexual assaults on children are among the most serious of our crimes, and rightly so.

One jarring molestation case began in 1984 when Mrs. Judy Ann Johnson, forty-two, complained against seven members of the McMartin Preschool in Los Angeles, California. Mrs. Johnson alleged that her two-and-a-half-year-old son had his ears, nipples, and tongue stapled, his eyes pierced with scissors, had seen a baby’s head chopped off, and had been made to drink blood at the preschool. She also complained that a female school board member had molested her son. The publicity in this case was so sensational that the original prosecutor resigned and contracted with screenwriter Abby Mann to make a movie about the case and share the profits. His successor as prosecutor of the McMartin case, Lael Rubin, “negligently” failed to inform the defense attorney of the ridiculous allegations made by Mrs. Johnson, indicating instead that she was mentally disturbed and not a credible witness. The furor in the case had been exacerbated by Mrs. Johnson calling dozens of other McMartin school parents with her stories and by the police circulating a letter to a hundred parents asking them to question their children. The resulting paranoia brought 200 accusations against the teachers. In December 1986, Mrs. Johnson committed suicide and was declared mentally ill, and the case against the teachers collapsed. Three of the teachers have filed multimillion-dollar lawsuits against the county child-abuse diagnostic center, former District Attorney Philbosian, and a local television station. The case became the longest criminal trial in U.S. history when it exceeded the two-year and three-day hillside strangler trial of Angelo Buono on April 29, 1989. The McMartin trial lasted twenty-eight months and cost an estimated $16 million.

Another protracted legal case brought the scourge of child molestation home to the parents of the lovely Farmville, North Carolina, community when testimony began in August 1991. Robert F. Kelly Jr., forty-four, was convicted April 22, 1992 of ninety-nine charges of sexually abusing children under his care at his Little Rascals Day Care Center in Edenton. He was found guilty of four counts of rape, forty-six counts of taking indecent liberties, thirty-six counts of first-degree sexual offense, and thirteen crimes against nature. “I’m innocent. I’ll go to prison and fight it from there,” Kelly said as he was led to a deputy’s car en route to prison. In addition to being the longest criminal trial in North Carolina history, it set a record for the longest jury deliberation. Expenses, including court-appointed defense lawyers, counseling for children and their parents, and court costs, have topped $1.2 million. The charges carried a maximum penalty of forty life terms plus 560 years in prison. Kelly spent six years behind bars, and charges were dropped in 1997.

One of the far-reaching effects of pedophilia is its impact on the religious beliefs of a large share of the population. It has been widely reported that at least 2 percent of Roman Catholic priests are fixated pedophiles.[192] Nearly thirty priests in France were convicted of pedophilia between 1990 and 2000.[193]

On June 2, 1998, a Roman Catholic bishop resigned his post after admitting to abusing five boys in three different Florida churches earlier in his career as a priest. He was the first U.S. Catholic bishop to resign for such conduct. Bishop Joseph Keith Symons, sixty-five, of Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, admitted that he had kept an “ugly, dirty little secret” for over forty years and that he had “prayed each day for these persons and their families.” After his resignation, he left his diocese for an undisclosed location where he would be evaluated and treated. Such treatment—mandated and organized by the church—can extend up to a year for pedophilia.[194]

Cimbolic, Wise, Rossetti, and Safer reported that 50 percent of Catholics surveyed said their commitment to the church had been weakened by reports of Catholic clergy sexually abusing children and that this had caused more losses for the church than any other issue. Also, Catholics believe their church was not doing enough to solve the problem.[195] The church’s existing code of canon law says that any priest who has a sexual relationship with someone under the age of eighteen “must be punished with just punishments, not excluding expulsion from the clerical state.” Extensive findings from January 5 to April 25, 2002 indicated that this was rarely enforced.

The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, which met in Dallas, Texas, June 13–15, 2002, voted 339 to thirteen for the “Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People,” with seventeen articles increasing the penalties for priests who sexually abuse young people and reporting them to the civil authorities. The media response was mixed, and many people who had been molested spoke out against it in spite of many of them receiving huge sums of money from the church to keep them quiet. The Roman Catholic Church was not the only denomination to find sexual problems: A South Carolina Baptist minister was sentenced to sixty years in prison for sexually abusing twenty-three children; a New Hampshire Assemblies of God youth pastor was charged with child molestation; and a California Lutheran senior pastor was in jail for molesting two brothers, ages nine and eleven.

Evidently, belief in the Bible and a life devoted to daily prayer are not enough to keep pastors free from the sin of pedophilia. Nor is it apparent that celibacy, as practiced by the Catholic priests at fault because marriage of a plethora of protestant pastors has not prevented them from molesting children. We must return to the castration treatment as advised by Jesus in Matthew 19:12 if we are to stop pedophilic religious leaders from molesting children.

The great distance in social status between the pedophile and the priest serves to accentuate the shock and horror of the faithful laity. The stark contrast between the shining white, holy figure dressed in rich vestments of the priest—attended by organ music, angelic choirs, and dramatic pageantry in ornate cathedrals, churches, and monasteries—and the figure of the priest as a child molester forcing himself by authority and superior strength on a boy is too much. It is an ultimate revulsion and, perforce, induces many to leave their church. Millions have removed themselves, and many churches are closing all across the country. Crime increases in many who suffer the loss of their religious faith, and we frequently see this result in our crime statistics. This must not be allowed to continue. There are several very efficient tests by which the fixated pedophile can be detected. Our priesthood must be tested and the pedophiles defrocked or allowed castration.

Several theories have been used to attempt to explain why men molest children. Araji and Finkelhor reviewed four categories: emotional congruence, sexual arousal, blockage, and disinhibition. Emotional congruence refers to power perpetrators can feel in sexually abusing children. The authors conclude that empirical support for this theory is inconclusive. The sexual arousal theory states that sexual feelings toward children are strengthened by repetition, and an impressive array of experimental research does support this theory. The blockage theory suggests that men turn to children when they can’t engage in sexual relations with adults. The researchers found that the evidence supporting this notion is weak. Disinhibition refers to the effects of alcohol and other drugs. Thirty to forty percent of pedophiles reported use of alcohol, but little evidence supports the idea that pedophiles suffer from disorders of weak impulse.[196]

Since about 1985, on the biological level, a body of information has been assembled that suggests there are brain and endocrine differences in pedophiles. Langevin demonstrated through CT brain scans that the temporal and anterior horns of pedophiles’ brains were dilated.[197] The asymmetry and smaller brain areas on the left frontal and temporal areas in pedophiles is in agreement with the left temporal dilation and suggests a distortion of the cortex in this area.[198] Langevin noted less dense tissue in the left frontal temporal area.[199]

Langevin also reported that the endocrine system of pedophiles differs from that of androphiles and controls. Pedophiles show abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with abnormal levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone compared to controls.[200]

The ability of adults immediately to recall childhood sexual abuse was more deeply considered in 1993 with the sensational accusation of the nation’s second highest-ranking Roman Catholic, Cardinal Joseph Bernardin. A thirty-four-year-old man claimed that the cardinal had sodomized him at age sixteen. TV personalities Oprah Winfrey, Natalie Jackson, and Roseanne Barr all reported recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse by their parents in the 1990s. The increase showed more such cases reported between 1993 and 1998 than had been reported in the previous fifty years, according to Dr. Ian Gotlib, Director of Psychology at Northwestern University.[201] “No exact numbers exist, but at least 300 lawsuits involving formerly repressed memories—mainly sexual abuse—have been filed.”[202] Some experts who oppose hypnosis and other techniques argue that these therapies are likely to create memories of nonexistent events. On the other hand, researchers have shown that memories of actual events can be repressed if the memories are too painful. Such repression is a natural survival technique in which the brain dissociates exceptionally harmful information until it can be safely dealt with.

Americans are at fever pitch over child sexual abuse these days. We haven’t done very well at preventing it, but we’re frantic to root it out and stomp it to death no matter where it lurks—or doesn’t. Woody Allen is accused, day-care teachers are jailed, and women go on TV to describe their latest memories of childhood victimization. Ellie Nesler, forty, pulled out a gun in a Jamestown, California, courtroom and shot the man accused of abusing her son and three other boys. When she was arraigned on murder charges, dozens of demonstrators showed up waving “FREE ELLIE” bumper stickers. Sometimes, amid all the noise, real child abusers are identified and convicted. But all too often, critics charge, the evidence is flimsy, and the pursuit is maniacal.[203]

On September 2, 1998, police in the United States and eleven other countries raided the homes of suspected pedophiles, arresting more than 100 people in one of the largest efforts ever to break an Internet child pornography ring. The British National Crime Squad coordinated the pre-dawn raids as part of a five-month investigation into the Wonderland Club, which exchanged pornographic pictures of children, as young as two, on the Internet. Police found a database with more than 100,000 pornographic photographs of naked boys and girls. The raids took place in communities on three continents—Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States.[204]

“As many of you know, the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) was founded and is now directed by my mother, Pamela Freyd. I will speak about a pattern of behavior my parents have exhibited toward me in my childhood and continuing into the present: a pattern of boundary violation, a pattern of invasion and control, a pattern of inappropriate and unwanted sexualization, a pattern of family and relationship dysfunction, and a pattern of intimidation and manipulation.”[205] In the above quote and in several other major articles—Science News (September 18, 1993), Time (November 29, 1993), US News and World Report (November 29, 1993)—arguments go back and forth with unprecedented fury before the public. The emotions evoked by child sexual molestation reached new heights.

Yet another milestone child molestation case was settled on November 19, 1993, when a jury acquitted a former Sunday school male teacher of charges that he raped, sodomized, and tortured nine young children. After seven months of graphic testimony, the Superior Court jury in San Diego, California, sided with Dale Akiki. The thirty-six-year-old Akiki had been charged with thirty-five counts in what was the longest trial in the history of the county. The youngsters were three and four years old at the time of their alleged abuse in 1988 and 1989. The verdict had broad implications for sexual abuse cases where the memories of very young children are called into question. Akiki’s supporters argued that parents and therapists had brainwashed the children through months of suggestive questioning. “These therapists really took a psychological rubber hose to these kids,” defense lawyer Kathleen Coyne told the jurors.[206] Christ’s guidance concerning child molestation is repeated three times in His own words as reported by the Apostles Matthew (18:3–10), Mark (9:42–48), and Luke (17:2). In Mark’s version Christ said:

If any of you put a stumbling block before one of these little ones who believe in me, it would be better for you if a great millstone were hung around your neck and you were thrown into the sea. If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life maimed than to have two hands and go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. And if your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame than to have two feet and to be thrown into hell. And if your eye causes you to stumble, tear it out; it is better to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell, where the worm never dies, and the fire is never quenched.

Lloyd deMause spent much of his twenty-year scholarly life examining primary historical sources that reveal the extent of child abuse down the pages of history. He states that:

Adequate parenting is a late historical achievement, and most countries in the world continue to severely abuse most children even today. Even in America, about half of all children are sexually molested, and the rates are even higher in non-Western nations. The traumatic effects of this widespread abuse are the source of the periodic wars and social violence that have been the hallmark of mankind until now.[207]

The 1988 National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, or Throwaway Children (NISMART) estimated that each year, 446,700 children ran away from households and 12,800 children ran away from juvenile facilities. It is estimated that from 25 to 80 percent of all runaways are sexually abused. Runaways, particularly chronic runaways, are at higher risk for their physical and sexual victimization, as well as substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, violence, and suicide.[208]

Still other indications of the seriousness of the problem of pedophiles preying on children were the presidential signing of Megan’s Law on May 17, 1996, and the First World Congress Against Commercial Exploitation of Children on August 28, 1996. Megan’s Law was named for seven-year-old Megan Kanka who was raped and murdered by a convicted pedophile who had been released from prison before moving in across the street from her home. The law provided that states must notify a community when a released sex offender moves into the neighborhood. As of August 21, 2000, there were approximately 320,000 sex offenders registered in the fifty states. After about eight years of experience with public notification of released sex offenders, the State of Washington found that there was very little impact on the likelihood that a convicted sex offender would strike again. In the period of time before the state’s Megan Law, 22 percent of sex offenders went out and did it again. Since the law went into effect, the number discouragingly hardly budged—it was 19 percent.

The World Congress of 130 countries targeted the multibillion-dollar child pornography industry management in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1996, and drafted a new agenda calling for tougher criminal penalties against child prostitution and pornography. The Swedish prime minister told the opening session of the five-day conference that child abuse was the “most brutal, the most savage and disgusting category of crime,” and was increasing around the world. In the United States, the cost of incarcerating pedophiles was more than two billion dollars in 1990 alone.[209]

In July 2000, the naked body of an eight-year-old girl, Sarah Payne, was found in a South England field two weeks after she disappeared. Britain’s best-selling Sunday newspaper, the News of the World, decided this “proved police monitoring of these perverts is not enough” and launched a campaign to “name and shame” all of the country’s 110,000 known child sex offenders in a new “Sarah’s Law”—the equivalent of Megan’s Law in the United States. For three weeks, the tabloid published the names, addresses, and photos of eighty convicted child sex offenders. Across Britain, outbreaks of vigilantism erupted, during which homes and cars were vandalized and innocent families mistakenly identified and forced to move. Houses were stoned in Portsmouth, cars were burned, and marchers carried “Don’t House Them Hang Them” signs. Pediatrician Dr. Yvette Cloete fled her home after her windows and front door were spray painted with the word paedo—an abbreviation of the British spelling of pedophile. The vigilantes did not recognize the difference between the words pediatrician (a doctor who is committed to helping children) and paedophile (a person who sexually molests children).[210]

Graupner[211] researched the criminal laws around the world and found that the “age of consent” for sexual relations with children varied widely from age twelve in two countries to twenty-one in one country with the majority (90 percent) being below the age of eighteen.

The Juvenile Justice Bulletin of January 2001 reported that after a a steady increase in substantiated cases over fifteen years (1977 to 1992), national data showed that substantiated cases of child sexual abuse have been decreasing since about 1992. The peak recorded 149,800 cases in 1992, dwindling to 103,600 cases in 1998, a decline of 31 percent. For most states, the decline was gradual rather than abrupt and occurred over several years.

I. Homosexuality

Homosexuality is sexuality between adults of the same gender. The word comes from the Greek word homo, meaning “same,” rather than the Latin word homo, meaning “man.” Other words people use include: pervert, sodomite, invert, Uranian, fag, faggot, homo, queer, fairy, pansy, buttercup, lily, painted Willie, queen, bugger, corn holer, and gay. This last term had been used to describe homosexuals in France but isn’t anymore because the French word gai, in addition to meaning “merry” and “carefree,” also had connotations of carelessness and moral laxness. Homosexuals in America generally prefer the use of the term gay to any of the others. Female homosexuals are called lesbians, and their sex acts mostly come under the term tribadism.

In addition to being endowed with sexual desires directed wholly or in part toward members of the same sex, male homosexuals frequently possess a large penis, hairless chest, soft skin, broad hips, breasts, and a fine head of hair. Besides these physical traits, there are sometimes feminine social characteristics such as passivity, effeminateness, and lack of perseverance, but these are by no means universal. The old belief that a homosexual man could be recognized by his mincing walk or limp wrist has been eroded away in recent years by the emergence of virtually every physical, ethnic, and socioeconomic type of homosexual person imaginable.

Up to 1973, the American Psychiatric and Psychological Associations had classified homosexuality as a mental disorder, but then they changed the classification to “character disorder” and then, after heavy pressure from homosexual activists led by Robert Spitzer, PhD, a Columbia University psychology professor, deleted it entirely from the DSM III diagnostic criteria (Ronald Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry). In 1974, the American Psychiatric Association dropped its definition of homosexuality as a “sexual deviation.” The World Health Organization deleted homosexuality from its international classification of diseases in 1993, and the United Nations held that a total ban on homosexual behavior violates the right to privacy in 1994.[212]

Today, there are still several genetic, hormonal, psychodynamic, and other explanations for the existence of homosexuality. There is a long history of discussions on whether homosexuality is primarily caused by biological factors or sociological ones. Since about 1970, a significant body of evidence has been collected to support a hormonal theory of etiology. Masters and Johnson cautiously observed that “ … We must maintain an intellectually open stance acknowledging that at least in some instances … hormonal predispositions may interact with social and environmental factors to lead toward a homosexual orientation.”[213]

Ellis and Ames reviewed the literature and concluded that complex combinations of genetic, hormonal, neurological, and environmental factors, operating principally between the second and fifth month of fetal life, while the brain was being formed, determined what the ultimate sexual orientation of the individual would be.[214] Dr. Richard Pillard, psychiatrist and researcher at Boston University, became interested to see if homosexuality ran in families because he was gay himself and several others in his family also were. He found that gay men had significantly more gay brothers than straight men did. J. Michael Bailey, a psychologist at Northeastern University, found that 52 percent of identical twins of gay men were gay and 22 percent of gay men’s fraternal twins were gay. The February 2002 Archives of Sexual Behavior published an article that showed that each additional older brother increased the odds of homosexuality by about 33 percent. By 2001, the genes for male homosexuality had been located. Many sociologists still maintain, however, that homosexuality is mostly a learned behavior and that “practice makes pervert,” or that homosexual men had dominant mothers and weak fathers, or that they had some traumatic sexual experiences with women, which made them fear getting involved with women.

An article by Cornell University medical researchers, published in the May 1979 issue of New England Journal of Medicine, pointed to the living proof of the hormonal contribution to homosexuality in truly hermaphroditic persons born with both male and female sex organs who are attracted to both sexes. This occurs about once in 14,000 births, but pseudohermaphrodites with lesser degrees of male and female characteristics occur about once in every 200 births.

Dr. John Money lists seven varieties of hermaphroditism as follows: 1) Female pseudohermaphrodites with hyperadrenocorticism who usually have almost normal female external genitals but with slight to medium enlargement of the clitoris. 2) Female pseudohermaphrodites with phallus, normal ovaries, and normal Muellerian structures who have a penis-like clitoris with a urethra serving as an auxiliary urinary outlet. 3) True hermaphrodites with both ovarian and testicular tissue with either one or two ovitestis or one ovary and one testis with diverse degrees of ambiguity of genitalia. 4) Male pseudohermaphrodites with well-differentiated Muellerian organs. The penis may be fully formed with urethra, or it may be hypospadiac; one or both testes may be cryptorchid, or one testis may be atrophic. Pubertal development is almost always masculine, sometimes rather eunuchoid. 5) Simulant females with feminizing testes in whom the external genital appearance is completely female. The vagina is a blind pouch, however, and menses do not occur. 6) Cryptorchid hypospadiac males with feminizing testes are similar to the above type except that phallus is larger and pubertal development is more completely female. 7) Cryptorchid hypospadiac males have not historically been classified as hermaphrodites unless the hypospadias is extreme, the scrotum bifid, and the testes undescended. The phallus may be only slightly larger than a clitoris. As with many of other type of hermaphrodites, plural incidence within a family may occur.[215]

The Kinsey Institute for Sex Research at Bloomington, Indiana, has defined anyone who has had six or more same-sex experiences as a homosexual. On that basis, they found that some 10 percent of U.S. males qualify as homosexual. In 1988, it was estimated that there were 11 million of these deviants in the United States. Gay leaders have estimated that only about 1 percent of them are “out of the closet,” and the remainder are known only to themselves and perhaps a few trusted friends.[216] Homosexual women, called “lesbians,” or, if they have an obviously mannish appearance, “dykes,” are thought to account for about 5 percent of American women. In one report, 38 percent of the lesbians tested had a higher level of testosterone in the blood than did heterosexual women.[217]

By mid-1993, it had become difficult for the average American to tell fact from fiction concerning the prevalence of homosexuality. We had been astonished enough in 1964 to learn of Kinsey’s 10 percent figure—this figure almost reached 12.5 percent of the black population. Homosexuals used this figure to cast themselves in the role of another oppressed minority, a minority that should have the same civil rights as those granted the black people. By 1992, homosexuals were successful in getting about half of the states to repeal their anti-sodomy statutes, and by mid-1993, eight states had passed civil rights laws protecting gays from discrimination in housing, jobs, and medical care.

Suddenly, several studies emerged that showed that only 1 to 3 percent of the population claimed to be exclusively homosexual. Surveys in Canada, Britain, France, and by the Guttmacher Institute in the United States found that only 1 percent of the total male population was practicing an exclusively homosexual lifestyle, although some 6 percent had at least one homosexual experience. The U.S. Census Bureau reported a 2 to 3 percent maximum figure for the male population, and if statistics for females were included, only 1.5 percent of the total U.S. population was homosexual. The 1964 Kinsey 10 percent figure was found to be flawed for the general population because it had been drawn mostly from the prison inmate population. Despite these figures, the Time Almanac 2000, page 363, said: “There may well be more openly gay men and women in America now than in any other country at any other time in history. The sexual revolution, gay visibility in the media, and the reckonings forced by AIDS—there are a number of reasons for this emergence.” In the year 2000, there were about two dozen gay TV characters prominently featured in several prime-time shows.

The front pages of many of the nation’s newspapers on August 30, 1991, announced another discovery of a possible biological cause of homosexuality. Neuroscientist Simon LeVay of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, found that a segment of the hypothalamus no larger than a grain of sand, called the Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH 3), is only half as large in homosexual men as it is in heterosexual men. Dr. LeVay, who admitted that he was gay himself on national television in January 1992, had obtained brain tissue from forty-one people who had died. Nineteen were from homosexual men who had died of AIDS, sixteen were from presumed heterosexual men (six of whom had also died of AIDS), and six were from presumed heterosexual women. “The significance is that it indicates that we can study this aspect of human nature—sexual orientation—at a biological level with biological tools rather than leaving it to psychiatrists,” said LeVay. Neurologist Dennis Landis, of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, also was quoted as saying that this “would begin to suggest why male homosexuality is present in most human populations, despite cultural constraints. It suggests that it’s a biological phenomenon.”

Intersexuality has long been observed in animals and birds. In cattle, it is called “freemartinism.” Twins in cattle may consist of a male and an intersexual calf known as a freemartin. In the freemartin, the external genitalia may be female or rudimentary male with small testicles, and its behavior may be primarily that of the typical female. A February 2002 Archives of Sexual Behavior study of sheep found 6 to 10 percent of range-bred rams preferred same-sex partners, and female Japanese macaques in some groups preferred same-sex partners. A similar phenomenon has been observed in birds. There is one case on record of a chicken that had reputedly been the mother of many offspring before she suffered tuberculosis, which destroyed her ovaries. The chicken underwent gender reversal and eventually became a fertile rooster who fathered two chickens.[218]

Another portion of the brain that has been linked to sexual orientation is the area of the anterior commissure, with heterosexual men having a smaller anterior commissure than those who are not heterosexual.[219]

Sandra Whittelson of the McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, has found that more homosexual women are left-handed than heterosexual women. Others have made the same observation among men. Since hand preference may be determined in part by the influence of sex hormones on the brain during gestation, Whittelson believes these early hormonal influences could also play a role in sexual orientation. Animal studies also provide good evidence for a biological basis of sexual orientation. Roger Gorski, a neuroendocrinologist at UCLA, California, has been able to produce male rodents that demonstrate female behavior resulting from careful manipulation of hormone levels in newborn rats.

Dr. June Reinisch of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University, Terre Haute, Indiana, has also studied hemispheric laterality and its relationship to understanding sexual differentiation in the human brain. She convincingly demonstrates that mothers who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, during gestation produced babies with reduced laterality and lowered spatial ability.[220] Dr. Reinisch also mentions several other researchers who have made similar findings that tend to support the concept of biological causes of homosexuality.[221][222][223] Dr. John Money is another scientist who acknowledges the prenatal hormonal etiology of homosexuality, but he also emphasizes the importance of the social and psychological causes. Still more light was shed on the hormonal causes of gender dichotomies by Sharpe and Skakkebaek, who found a correlation between disorders of the development of the male reproductive tract and exposure to prenatal estrogen.[224] They pointed out that the increases in reproductive tract disorders in the past fifty years have coincided with changes in human exposure to estrogen. Sharpe and Skakkebaek list these as: endogenous, synthetic, plants, other dietary sources, and environmental estrogenic chemicals. It is quite possible that these same gender benders could also have had an influence on increasing the population of male homosexuals, transsexuals, and transvestites. Under endogenous sources of estrogen, Sharpe and Skakkebaek list a low-fiber diet as possibly increasing the recycling of unexcreted estrogen in pregnant women as well as obesity, which can increase bioavailable estrogen by decreasing secretion of SHBG by the liver. Synthetic hormones come from oral contraceptives, which can also get into the drinking water supply, and anabolic estrogen use in livestock. Plant sources include soya. Other dietary sources include cow’s milk and dairy products. Environmental chemicals include dichloropiphenyl trichloromethane, polychlorinated biphenyl, gas engine combustion products, polluted rainwater, drugs passed on through, and breast milk. Five medical professors responded to the Sharpe and Skakkebaek “a sea of estrogen” article five weeks later, with commentary about additional possible sources of estrogens besides those listed in the original article. These included antiestrogenic compounds in the environment, as well as additional diseases and syndromes that would expose the fetus to estrogens: alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and Klinefelter, Turner, and Prader-Wili syndromes.[225] The negative public health consequences of exogenous estrogen could be enormous and plainly merits more study.

Another study, released at the height of the gays in the military controversy, was published July 16, 1993, in the Science journal and provided new evidence that male homosexuality can be inherited. Dean Hamer of the National Cancer Institute in Washington said, “This is the strongest evidence to date that there is an important genetic component to sexual orientation.” Hamer found the same pattern variations in the X chromosome in thirty-three sets out of forty sets of homosexual brothers, but he emphasized that his study did not conclusively prove that this gene causes homosexuality. Many factors may be involved, he said. “There also could be another gene on some other chromosome. Or it could be that there was some other physical or biochemical factor involved. Or there could be some other non-biological factors related to life experiences or environment or upbringing.” One magazine article told of DNA transplant experiments with male fruit flies published in that week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Odenwald and Zhang that demonstrated that one particular gene produced homosexual behavior.[226] Still another published scientific study outlined the genetics of sexual determination.[227]

Three convincing articles appeared in early 1998 that further defined the biological correlations of homosexuality. Blanchard reviewed nearly sixty years of research indicating that birth order is one cause of male homosexuality.[228] LaLumiere et al. showed it was the last born of a series of boys, not girls, that was most likely to become homosexual and even extended the hypothesis that similar life circumstances could help explain the sexual preferences of child molesters and rapists.[229] Wegesin explained that “high concentrations of androgens are required during the period of sexual differentiation in the brain to masculinize the neural substrates relevant to sexual orientation and neurocognitive function.”[230] “Without the masculinizing effects of androgenic hormones, a female-typed neural substrate predominates.” Blanchard published additional articles in the September 2001 and May 2002 issues of Hormones and Behavior journal that explained in more detail the impacts of family birth order on the development of male homosexuality.

Still, more evidence of a biological basis for homosexuality was published March 30, 2000 in the Nature journal. A study of finger lengths of homosexual men and lesbian women in the San Francisco area showed that the men’s and women’s index fingers were shorter than their ring fingers. Another study in the December 2002 journal Hormones and Behavior showed that this pattern was different in homosexual men and women than heterosexuals. The scientists concluded that higher testosterone produces this and many of the other sex differences including lesbianism in women.[231]

Members of the gay community said the new study could help change the homosexuality perception. “It may help people look at this as a genetic issue, that it is natural and it involves no sort of choice at all,” said George Neighbors of the Federation of Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays in Washington. “If you believe in God or nature, that’s what homosexuality develops from.” But he said the finding could also pose a threat to homosexuals. Neighbors said some gays fear that if a biological basis for homosexuality is found, there may be some people who view it as an opportunity to medically change the sexual orientation. “Is this going to lead people to look for a cure for homosexuality or lead people to manipulate the gene so that it doesn’t exist anymore?” he asked.[232]

Another consideration arises: If there is a genetic propensity for homosexuality, is it likely that it will increase in the population? The answer appears to be yes, since there does seem to be an increase in its prevalence at the present time and also an increase in the whole population. Homosexual genes may be linked to increased sexual drive, perfectionistic performance, perceived personable attractiveness, and cohesiveness as a group—qualities that would aid in heterosexual reproduction.[233]

The scientific evidence that homosexuality is primarily a biological phenomenon has resulted in openly gay behavior and acceptance, increases in the behavior, and progression to more outrageous (formerly suppressed) behavior. After all, so the reasoning goes, if this behavior is innate—inherent in their hormones and brain—why should it be prosecuted? Many gays feel that their homosexual behavior should be condoned for this reason. If they are programmed for constant gay sex, it is comparable to a goat butting or a dog biting or a snake striking: It is a natural behavior; you can’t blame them for it. They should have rights, civil rights, duly recognized in the law of the land to this natural behavior.

Opposed to this view is the realization that this behavior spreads disease, lowers morality, often avalanches to greater promiscuity, and frequently leads to more serious crimes. The measurable damage to public health quality even now is a national calamity, making the castration treatment a viable option. Voluminous scientific evidence has shown that homosexuality is biologically caused, so a biological solution is in order. The recent evidence of real genetic contributions confirms that the only way to stop its spread is by biological means. The exponential proliferation of homosexuals assures increasing deaths among millions of innocent people. If we really want to stop the AIDS plague and all of the other diseases, such as hepatitis, then we must first consider orchiectomy as a way to stop the unremitting spread of them.

Homosexuals are sometimes classified as active or passive, and anal or oral types. About half of the male homosexuals will generally practice anal intercourse while half practice oral intercourse. Many of these are not anally or orally fixated and will change around on occasion. In any given encounter, the active homosexual is the aggressor, and the passive one will be the receiver of the advances and actions of the active. Often the active is the older person and the passive the younger. When the passive partner is a boy, he is called a “catamite” or “Ganymede,” and the sexual engagement is called “pederasty.” Anal intercourse is called “sodomy” (also “buggery” and “back door”) when performed by a male. The word sodomy is derived from the name of the ancient city of Sodom, which was destroyed, along with the adjacent city of Gomorrah, by the Lord in a rain of sulfur and fire due to the practice of sodomy among other wickednesses sometime prior to 1657 BC (Genesis 19:5–24, Jude 1:4–7). Fellatio is oral stimulation of the penis. Other sex acts indulged in by homosexual men are: masturbation, interfemoral coitus (inserting the penis between the legs of the partner), and anilingus (anal stimulation by the tongue … also called “rimming”). In homosexual women, cunnilingus (clitoral stimulation by tongue), tribadism (mutual rubbing together of the vulva), and masturbation by hand or with an artificial penis (called a dildo or consolateur) are the most common sex acts. “Fisting” or “brachioprocticism” (inserting the fist into the rectum or vagina) is another act sometimes employed by homosexuals.

Homosexual behavior, particularly sodomy, has been prosecuted nearly everywhere through the ages. It is forbidden by the Bible (Leviticus 18:22, Romans 1:27, 1 Corinthians 6:9–10, and 1 Timothy 1:9–10) and was punished by death for both participants in Old Testament times (Leviticus 20:13) in several different cultures. It is still a death penalty crime in Saudi Arabia. Philo of Alexandria, who died about AD 50 wrote, “Like a bad farmer, the homosexual lets the fertile land lie fallow … one must proceed ruthlessly against these men … the effeminate man … should be killed without hesitation and should not be allowed to live a day … since he shames himself, his house, his fatherland and the whole human race … because he pursues unnatural pleasure and for his part works toward the dissolution and depopulation of the cities … when he destroys his seed” (Philo, “On the Individual Laws” 3, 37–42). Likewise, the Jewish Sibylline Oracles (c. 800 BC) state: “Nor do they hold unholy intercourse with boys, as do the Phoenicians, Egyptians, and Latins … transgressing the holy law of the immortal God which He ordained. For which cause the Eternal shall impose on all men retribution … and woes … pestilence and fearful calamities.”[234] In spite of repeated strong condemnations of homosexual behavior in Biblical texts over thousands of years, there are those, like Helminiak, who interpret these venerable words to be much less condemnatory.[235] Today, after more than twenty years of the AIDS plague, which was brought to us by homosexuals,[236][237][238] I am shocked that such biased writings can find such wide acceptance. We even have books and posters that claim that the Apostle Paul, St. Augustine, King David of the Old Testament, and Susan B. Anthony, among many other notables, were gay.[239] The federal National Endowment for the Arts gave a $20,000 award to enable the research for this book, which promotes homosexuality.

During the Greek and Roman classical period, homosexuality was not diligently prosecuted, and in Sparta, it was an accepted part of the culture. Nonetheless, in the Byzantine period (c. AD 300–1452), Emperor Justinian once again made it punishable by death or castration in AD 533. Homosexual offenses were punishable by death or castration in England from 1533 to 1861 when life in prison was substituted for capital punishment. By 1991, France, Poland, Denmark, Switzerland, Great Britain, Germany, Norway, Spain, Yugoslavia, and New Zealand had decriminalized many of the forms of homosexual behavior. In some twenty-two countries, including Morocco, homosexuality is still against the law. In India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, homosexual sex is punishable by ten years in prison.

Homosexuality is considered taboo under Islamic law, with suggested punishments ranging from whipping through death by stoning. On September 18, 2001, a sixteen-year-old Egyptian boy was sentenced to three years imprisonment for alleged homosexual behavior.[240] The first conference of gay men seeking repeal of these laws was forced to meet in a secret location near Bombay.[241] In some countries (notably Rumania, Iran, Cuba, former USSR, and Chile), homosexuals were arrested, beaten, tortured, and put to death, sometimes for simply being considered homosexuals without hard proof that they had acted out their perversity. In the United States, as of September 1993, some twenty-nine states had rescinded their old laws against sodomy. In twenty-one states it was still a crime. Rhode Island, Michigan, Georgia, Idaho, and Tennessee had the harshest criminal penalties ranging from five years to twenty years in prison.[242] Twenty years was also the penalty for armed robbery in the same jurisdictions. By 2003, only thirteen states had laws against sodomy, and they were seldom enforced.

In the 1986 Bowers v. Hardwick case, it was decided that homosexuals do not have a constitutional right to engage in sodomy—even in the privacy of their own homes. The Supreme Court upheld the Connecticut sodomy law, which had been on the books since 1662. The American Law Institute, however, continues to argue for the abolition of all laws that legislate against adults involved in consensual sexual acts. The American Psychological Association asked in 1987 for a constitutional amendment that would ban laws against consensual sodomy.[243] On June 26, 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Texas anti-sodomy law effectively sweeping away similar laws in other states.

The 1974 Weinberg and Williams poll on the seriousness of homosexuality found that a majority of the respondents thought that only communism and atheism outweighed homosexuality as the greatest threat to the nation. The 1985 National Survey of Crime Severity, however, rated the statement “two persons willingly engage in a homosexual act” at the low figure of 1.3, which was about the same score as the statement “a person has some marijuana for his own use,” received. American gays first openly revolted against the many decades of restrictions on June 27, 1969, at the Stonewall Bar in Greenwich Village, New York. The police were raiding the bar for disturbance of the peace, but the gay crowd attacked them with bottles and sticks. Since this event, homosexuals have loudly demanded respect for their activities. Each year on the anniversary of the Stonewall Bar incident, mammoth parades and celebrations are held in New York and San Francisco to celebrate Gay Pride Day. The parades have featured nude walkers, signs proclaiming “dykes and tykes,” and a float with a giant crucifix in a garbage pail. “Ignorance and intolerance taught here” banners unfurled on St. Patrick’s cathedral steps as local politicians marched arm in arm with gay rights activists. Gay organizations demonstrate at all important political conventions. They have a huge quilt embroidered with the names of over 8,000 gays who have died of AIDS, which they frequently spread on the oval near the Capitol in Washington, DC, to elicit public sympathy.

Dennis Altman, in his book The Homosexualization of America, points out the changing status of the homosexual population:

Until the end of the sixties, the homosexual in most Western countries, and especially in the United States, was to experience a life that was largely furtive, shameful, and guilt-ridden … The seventies saw the beginning of the large-scale transition in the status of homosexuality from a deviance or perversion to an alternate life style or a minority … cast increasingly in the role of the vanguard of social and sexual change, worthy of considerable media attention.

The increasing credence of the hormonal versus the learned behavior theories of the cause of homosexuality has served to alleviate any guilt. After all, if they were born with this trait, they could not stop themselves … Several worldwide gay organizations have become militantly active in campaigning for more social acceptance: the Gay Liberation Front, the Gay Activist Alliance, the Mattachine Society, the Homophile Society, and others. As of 1984, these organizations had secured passage of legislation forbidding discrimination against gays in jobs and housing in thirty-nine cities and counties. In Colorado, however, in the November 1992 election, voters overturned local gay-rights laws by an amendment to the state law. In reprisal for this, the Los Angeles chapter of the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation wrote to more than 250 industry leaders asking them to support a boycott of the state. Joan Rivers, Barbara Streisand, and the National Council for Social Studies canceled plans to spend vacations or have meetings in Colorado as a result.[244] On February 21, 1995, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to decide whether states can forbid laws protecting homosexuals from discrimination, and ruled six to three on May 20, 1996, in a significant victory for gay rights. The new law was a significant victory for gay rights judging that the law was unconstitutional, in that it was based on “animosity” and “imposed a special disability” on homosexuals.

U.S. Representative Dannemeyer has ably traced the politics of homosexuality in his book Shadow on the Land: Homosexuality in America.[245] The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Director, Jeff Levi, sent a questionnaire to all presidential candidates, in 1988, and reported in an “action alert” letter that all of the Democratic candidates had said that as president they would sign the Gay Civil Rights Bill then pending in Congress. George Bush was the only Republican candidate to reply. He wrote that “no group should have special privileges granted by government.” On August 1, 1990, the head of the Southern Baptist Christian Life Commission wrote to President Bush asking for a meeting to discuss “how your policies coincide with the agenda of the homosexual lobby.” The White House had invited a gay representative to witness Bush’s signing of the Americans with Disabilities Act.[246] President Bush signed the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Act into law on August 18, 1990, providing $882 million in federal grants to sixteen cities. This was the first law ever enacted to provide money to specific locations to fight a specific disease. Most of the victims of this disease were homosexuals.

In a Newsweek feature article, Turque and others reported that there were thirteen pro-gay speakers who addressed the Democratic National Convention. The audience included 108 openly gay delegates, alternates, and party officials. The article also reported that twenty-one states and 130 municipalities offered gay and lesbian people some form of legal protection against discrimination. Sixty-one openly gay officials have been elected nationwide (congressmen, judges, mayors, and city councilors). The number of gay and lesbian organizations nationwide in 1992 was said to be 1,580.[247]

Newspapers, magazines, TV, and radio media were full for the news when the U.S. Supreme Court decided by a six to three vote on June 26, 2003 to strike down a Texas law banning gay sex acts. What gay men and women are doing in the privacy of their bedrooms is their business and not the government’s they said. Two gay men, one young black guy and an older white man, were arrested after police walked in on them in bed having sex in 1998 in Houston, Texas. They were each given a $200 fine and spent a night in jail for the misdemeanor charge. Up to this time, it was unusual to hear about a gay black man, but the increasing prevalence of black AIDS patients and the cover story of the August 3, 2003 New York Times magazine revealed that gay black men were quite common in certain locations. Finally, what had been a death penalty crime for centuries now became a “protected” behavior in America. What will be the result? More AIDS? More of God’s wrath? More Muslim attacks? Quite likely, in my opinion.

Homosexuality has been frequently associated with other paraphilias such as transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, incest, fetishism, bestiality, pornophilia, satyriasis, gender identity disorder, osphresiolagnia, sexual addiction, masochism, and sadism.[248][249] Dr. John Money (Vandalized Lovemaps, 1989) has also documented the greatly increased propensity for homosexuals and bisexuals to fold over their deviance into more serious paraphilias such as autassassinophilia, pedophilia, and bondage.[250] Hazelwood and Dietz studied thirty sadists who had murdered at least 187 persons and found that 43 percent had participated in homosexual activity and 25 percent had attacked males exclusively. History also shows that homosexuals commit more serious crimes than heterosexuals. Heliogabalus, Tiberius, Gilles de Rais, John Gacy, and Jeffrey Dahmer are a few of the more infamous homosexuals who mutilated and murdered their victims. Dr. Park Dietz said at Dahmer’s sanity trial: “His orgasm is more valuable[to him] than your life.”[251] Twenty percent of homosexuals admit to having had sexual contact with animals. Intravenous drug use and alcoholism are much higher among homosexuals than in an average cohort of the same age and sex.[252]

Another article repeated what William Bennett, former National Secretary of Education and one of the leading conservative intellectuals, had written and said about homosexuals.[253] He stated that gay men are responsible for up to one-half of all child abuse cases, that they are ten to twenty times more likely to molest children than heterosexuals, that fully half of all sex murderers are homosexuals, and that the average life span of gay men was fifty-three years.

There has been a long-running struggle between gay activists and the Boy Scouts of America over allowing known homosexuals to become leaders, teachers, and guides in the troops of boys. On August 4, 1999, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the organization violated the state’s anti-discrimination law by excluding avowed homosexuals from leadership positions. The case involved an assistant scoutmaster ousted because he was also one of the leaders of a gay and lesbian group at Rutgers University. The justices ruled that the government’s interest in ending discrimination outweighs the scouts’ constitutional claim of freedom of association. This decision was viewed with great alarm by churches and conservative groups, but with victorious rejoicing by militant homosexuals.[254] Fortunately for the scouts, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled five to four to overturn the New Jersey ruling on July 5, 2000, and settled this issue.

Weinberg studied S & M for a number of years and found that the gay leather sex scene in most middle-sized cities is much more accessible than the heterosexual S & M subculture.[255] “Gay S & M bars are well known in the gay community … and are not difficult to enter … heterosexual sadomasochistic groups are almost invisible … the largest group of respondents were sadomasochistic gays and bisexuals.” His article was heavily dependent on sadomasochistic articles published in homosexual publications.

Research published in November 1995 showed preliminary evidence that transsexuals are like homosexuals in that they may be inherently biologically different after all. A Netherlands’ study of six male-to-female transsexuals showed that a tiny structure deep within a part of the brain that controls sexual function appeared to be more like that type found in women than that found in men. Nature, it would seem, is just as important as nurture in determining how we think and behave as sexual beings.[256][257]

Homosexuals constitute a large percentage of vocal crime victims. A segment of the heterosexual population evidently feels that homosexual behavior is so reprehensible that they see nothing wrong with “beating up on queers.” Nearly half of the homosexual men screened in Philadelphia reported that they had been the victims of violent assaults—about twelve times the national average. Seventy-three percent had been threatened, chased, or had beer cans thrown at them. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual teens are four times more likely to commit suicide than their heterosexual peers.[258]

At a well-known homosexual tryst place called The Chimney in Pensacola, Florida, at 2:30 am, June 15, 1991, “Jack” Braun, forty-three, was slugged from behind with a ball bat, pipe, and 2 x 4 by three boys aged seventeen and eighteen. The juveniles had been drinking and purposely set out to do some “queer bashing.” In this case, the man died of his wounds. One of the boys later bragged to a friend, “I got me a fag.” Several feature articles in the newspapers later headlined how much violent attacks send shockwaves of fear through the public consciousness, and psychiatrists were queried about the causes of such “hate” crimes. Dr. Jacob Cruz repeated the theory that homosexuals are targeted because people suspect that they are responsible for the AIDS plague. “AIDS is a very fatal disease, and people are angry this is happening,” said Cruz. Dr. Scott Benson said that people who commit such hate crimes are sadistic and angry. They identify a person who is different and try to dehumanize them.[259] Another theory is that people attack homosexuals because they may see something of the trait in themselves that family and friends despise, and in questioning their own sexuality, they take their fears out on others in the form of violence.

The apparent successes of the gay liberation movement in achieving favorable recognition and treatment have inspired another violent counter-culture. The skinheads exemplify this neo-fascist conservative movement, an organization that first appeared among the working-class youths of England in the early 1970s. This group openly admitted their hostility toward homosexuals and attacked and beat them up in several major confrontations during the 1980s. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) also objects to rampant homosexuality. David Duke, in his book My Awakening, shares data that shows how homosexuals are created through biological forces.

The word homophobia was defined in a book by Weinberg as “the irrational condemnation of homosexuals” and “the dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals.”[260] It has also been defined as “the pathological fear of homosexualism (from the Greek homos, ‘same,’ and phobos, ‘fear’).”[261] Some scholars have challenged the utility of the “homophobia” label, and others have used different words to define the phenomenon more accurately—homonegativism, homosexophobia, and homoerotophobia are some of these terms.

Marsiglia mentioned several studies of this trait.[262] He used data from a 1988 national survey of 1,459 male youths, fifteen to nineteen years of age, that showed that 88.9 percent strongly agreed that the thought of men having sex with each other is disgusting, and only 12 percent felt confident that they could befriend a gay person. In this study, it was found that respondents with traditional male role attitudes, a religious fundamentalist orientation, and a parent who had avoided liberal colleges were significantly more likely to express homophobic views. The reaction of hatred, revulsion, and fear of homosexuals by heterosexual men was illustrated by the ancient story of Lot (c. 2050 BC). Lot offered his two virgin daughters to the lustful men of Sodom rather than allow them access to two men whom he was sheltering under his roof (Genesis 19:4–8). Homosexuals use the term homophobia very frequently. They often blame homophobia for much of their misfortune, thoroughly assured that their inclinations are biologically natural.

Another corollary of homonegativism has been observed in the workplace particularly among lesbians—an active hatred, fear, or distrust of the opposite sex. In the California aircraft industry, lesbians who rose to leadership positions because of their innate aggression and strength often would make life difficult for men who were forced to work under their supervision. The dominatrix in a sadomasochistic encounter is another example of these androgenized women—the virilistic female lesbianism, which is usually chronic as a lifestyle.[263] Homosexual men sometimes have shown a similar deep-rooted revulsion for women, which can completely disrupt the workplace.

Still another aspect is the heart-rending pain and shame in the family when parents learn that one of their children is homosexual. Their parents reject 26 percent of these homosexuals, and it has been reported that 40 percent become runaways as a result of this rejection.[264]

Most homosexual men are prodigiously promiscuous. Unlike the normal male and female sexual relationship where the woman is naturally far more reticent by nature and conditioning the male hormones drive both gay partners immediately to a constant stream of sex acts. Added to this natural inclination are many facilities that provide them with sexual encounters on demand.

The October 1996 issue of Genre, an upscale gay magazine, published the results of its survey of 1,037 readers. Twenty-four percent said they have had more than 100 sex partners. The magazine employees did not quote higher figures in their questions. “That’s more than we wanted to know,” they said. The supposedly monogamous couples are still one of the largest groups in the gay community still experiencing an increase in HIV infections. Thirty-nine percent of them thought it was “okay to flirt” with another man. Four percent of the Genre respondents said they had “knowingly lied” about their HIV status. Many of those who said they lied also admitted having over 100 partners. Promiscuously spreading the deadly disease, even a small 4 percent of them probably infected 4,000 others.[265] Other articles revealed that some gay men have had “between 2,000 and 3,000 sexual partners.”[266] The Genre studied 250 men who said they have had “more than 100 sex partners,” and many said they’d had at least a thousand. The April 1999 issue of Playboy reported that epidemiologists had discovered that the median number of male sexual partners for an HIV-infected man was 1,100.[267]

Maguen and Armistead[268] reported that adolescents between the ages of thirteen and twenty-one account for 25 percent of newly reported HIV infections, and two adolescents become infected with HIV every hour. While adolescents’ infection rates are increasing as a whole, gay and bisexual male adolescents are particularly at risk. In New York City, 9 percent of gay and bisexual men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four are HIV infected, and in San Francisco (“Sodom by the Sea”), up to 17.9 percent of these young men are infected. In a Houston study, adolescents accounted for 22 percent of all HIV-infected cases, even though only 2 percent reported male-to-male contact. About 10 percent of the males who reported having have sex with males tested HIV-positive.

Coxon and McManus published data from a study of 1,035 gay/bisexual men who recorded their high-risk sexual behavior in a diary between 1987 and 1992. The sex act that carries the highest risk of transmitting the HIV virus, which causes deadly AIDS, is anal intercourse. They found that ejaculation without a condom into the partner’s anus is the rule rather than the exception in gay men’s sexual intercourse (53 percent did so). It was reported by these men that 11.4 percent had eight or more acts of anal intercourse per month, and one individual recorded that he engaged in 104 such acts in a month’s time. Therefore, a mere 2.3 percent of the men are responsible for 23 percent of the acts of anal intercourse. The data thus shows that the sexual activity of even a few such individuals has major epidemiological consequences for the transmission of HIV. Shockingly, Coxon and McManus concluded that HIV-positive men had more sex, more anal sex, and more anal sex to ejaculation than did the HIV-negative men. It’s no wonder that the AIDS plague has lasted so long and has continued to spread. We need to identify and restrain these few who do the most anal intercourse, or castrate them so that they will stop spreading the deadly disease.[269]

Same gender sex is different than that between two different sexes. Homosexuality is easy sex. It is much easier since it is facilitated by a large number of factors: a) Same-sex partners know instinctively and through personal experience what appeals to and pleases the other person. The multiple mysteries of what is exciting and pleasureful to the other one are largely clarified. The cues of sight, smell, and touch are usually much clearer to each because they have the same anatomy, desires, hormones, and milieu. b) The fact that hormones are similar draws both partners together more rapidly, particularly with males because they are both overloaded with testosterone. Testosterone tends to avalanche with sexual activity, sweeping fear and reticence aside in the urge for orgasm. c) There is no fear of pregnancy. d) Less fear, period—fear of the unknown, fear of greater strength, fear caused by strangeness or differences, and many other fear possibilities. There are fewer and fewer laws and conventions in place prohibiting intimate interactions between men. There are many facilities in place to openly serve and encourage same-sex interaction such as gay bars, baths, clubs, steam rooms, gyms, mazes, orgy rooms, glory holes, and certain sports. All sorts of periodicals and publications designed to facilitate same-sex interaction have proliferated. These range from the scientific and erudite to the vulgar and cheap, representing all shades of specializations, perversions, and acts, which were illegal up to 2003.

An article in the Pensacola News Journal described the gay newsletter Out and About, which first came out in 1992.[270] This newsletter is for gay vacation travelers—an estimated $1 billion a year market. Billy Kolber, the editor, said, “Most of the gay guides are extremely sex-oriented,” while Out and About merely notes the “sexual energy” of a place (this means how much of the destination is devoted to sex). There are gay-specific tour operators, cruise lines, accommodations, and resorts that market their business only to gay people. Palm Springs, for example, has thirty gay-targeted guesthouses, which the newsletter describes. The free advertising for this newsletter, which was provided by the news services, publishers, and editors in this article, indicates how widespread in the news media the homosexual influence is.

By the year 2000, technology had advanced greatly, and the homosexual community was quick to take advantage of it. AOL now provides special men-for-men chat rooms. At least 20 percent of AOL’s 21 million subscribers are gay, according to estimates by Internet demographers. That amounts to 4,200,000 gays reaching out for sexual partners through this effective forum. The publisher of a gay magazine was quoted in Time as saying, “It’s changed the world … If you ask gay men under 25 how they meet people, I think 99% would say they’ve met people online, and the vast majority of them would say they use AOL.”[271]

Diseases that spread though gay sex include: the deadly AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, chancre, chlamydia, human papilloma virus, Reiter’s syndrome, granuloma inguinal, scabies, and pediculosis pubis. The types of sex acts most frequently indulged in by homosexual males, sodomy and fellatio, tend to result in diseases of their own such as epidermoid, anal cancer, and those involved in the “gay bowel syndrome” including amebiasis, giardiasis, hepatitis B, shigellosis, and oral hairy leukoplakia.

In the year 2001, San Francisco saw a sharp increase in syphilis with the vast majority of cases among gay and bisexual men who had had unprotected sex with multiple partners. As of September 2001, 116 cases had been reported, compared with seventy-one cases reported in all of the year 2000. Ninety-three of the 2001 cases were among gay or bisexual men. The ninety-three infected gay men reported having 1,225 sexual partners, and could identify only 8 percent of them by name.[272]

Karposi’s sarcoma, which is fatal in some AIDS victims, is almost exclusively confined to homosexual men.[273] Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the main causative agents of Karposi’s sarcoma, and studies in San Francisco have shown that it correlates with the number of years of regular intercourse with men as well as the number of male intercourse partners. Those who had one to five male sex partners in the previous two years were about 22 percent infected, while those who had had more than 250 partners were about 68 percent infected.[274] The average life expectancy of the American male homosexual is only fifty-three years as a result of all these dangers. The average life expectancy of other American males is seventy-two.

Many homosexual men are heavy users of illegal drugs. Several chemical stimulants widely used by gay men include alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and “poppers” (isobutyl nitrite or amyl nitrate). These drugs significantly lower inhibitions and lead to high-risk sexual practices such as receiving anal ejaculation.[275] In 1993, another drug snorted by homosexual men in nightclubs was ketamine, referred to as “special K” by the clientele. Many of these men tried this in an attempt to magnify dance floor sensations.[276]

Cabaj estimated in 1992 that the incidence of substance abuse was approximately 30 percent in the homosexual population, contrasting with 10 to 12 percent in the general population.[277] Weiss reported details that reveal some of the compulsions among homosexuals as follows:

Methamphetamine use is by far the most dangerous and troublesome of the more recent addictions to have affected the gay community. Known as “the sex drug,” crystal meth is the drug of choice for anonymous sexual activity in bathhouses, sex clubs, and over the phone sex lines. Users describe the drugs’ effects as allowing them to be sexual for 24 to 48 hours at a time without coming down, sleeping, or eating. Safe sex is often not even considered for days at a time. One recovering drug and sex addict stated, “When you take crystal meth, you can have sex continuously for hours, even days … the sex just goes on forever.” [278]

Molitor, Facer, and Ruiz collected data from 834 California men who had sex with men (MSM) and found that 61.5 percent had been under the influence of drugs or alcohol during sex. Rates for specific drugs were 86.1 percent for alcohol, 53.3 percent for marijuana, 27.7 percent for amphetamines, 17.4 percent for amyl nitrates, 13.8 percent for cocaine, and 6.7 percent for injected drugs. Some of the MSM in the study used the drugs specifically to reduce social inhibitions and heighten sexual pleasure and performance. Such behavior is very dangerous, especially considering the high prevalence of HIV infection found among this population.[279] Dr. Hans Kubler estimated that over 60 percent of U.S. AIDS patients were homosexual.[280]

It is easy to see why and how many homosexuals have histories, including thousands of anonymous sexual liaisons, which spread disease rapidly and widely. Homosexual men having sex with men were responsible from the beginning for the spread of the AIDS plague in this country and still account for the highest proportion of cases by exposure category (36 percent reported by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996). This is in spite of the fact that the number of homosexuals is less than 3 percent of the total U.S. population.

Dannemeyer describes the typical San Francisco bathhouse:

… every conceivable perversity was practiced, but particularly anal intercourse, the most dangerous of all homosexual behaviors. A man would lie naked on his stomach, a can of vegetable shortening beside him, and wait for some stranger to enter. He would turn his head and nod, and the stranger would sodomize him. Typically, no conversation would take place and the stranger would quickly leave. Then another would enter, and then another. Such scenes would be taking place almost around the clock.[281]

Homosexual prostitution rings offering athletic young men for hire for sodomy and other gay sexual practices are available. Some of these rings have operated from the homes of governmental officials in Washington, DC, such as that of Massachusetts Congressman Barney Frank. One such homosexual ring was broken in May 1990 in Indianapolis, Indiana, when its organizer, James W. Dayton, died after having sex with a male prostitute. Police found 140 pages of names, addresses, telephone numbers, nude photographs, and correspondence in Dayton’s car. These records showed customers in thirty-nine states and Canada, but most of the activity was concentrated in Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan. At least one man killed himself when it was revealed that his name was on the list. Another deputy sheriff in Marion County resigned from his twenty-five-year position as a result of the revelations.[282]

The Vatican’s doctrinal congregation issued a directive on October 30, 1986, to all of the Roman Catholic bishops around the world to withdraw their support from any organization that opposes the church’s teachings that homosexual behavior is sinful. In particular, allowing gay liberationists to meet in Catholic schools and church buildings was condemned as “misleading” and “ambiguous.” An American organization of gay Catholics called Dignity had been meeting in San Francisco churches and holding masses. When they were forced to discontinue these meetings, they responded with a vicious hate campaign of savage mockery. By the year 2000, there was hardly a religious group in America that was not beset by arguments over whether gay people belonged in its pews.

On Saturday, July 8, 2000, tens of thousands of people took part in an international gay pride parade ending at the coliseum in Rome, Italy. On Sunday, Pope John Paul II bitterly denounced the festival and said that homosexual acts are “contrary to natural law.” He condemned the gay pride parade and reminded his listeners of church tenets. “Homosexual acts are against nature’s laws,” he said. “The church cannot silence the truth, because this … would not help discern what is good from what is evil,” John Paul added. World Pride organizers said they chose Rome for the festival in hopes of opening a dialogue with the church. Instead, it highlighted tensions between the two.[283]

The May 20, 2002 issue of Time magazine, with a circulation of more than three million, published an article titled “Inside the Church’s Closet” that revealed considerable formerly hidden information about homosexual priests in the Roman Catholic church. Hundreds of articles in magazines, newspapers, and on television had been published on the priestly sexual molestation of children scandals since January 5, 2002, when the Boston Globe printed their findings on this subject. The Time article quoted estimates of the percentage of gay priests that ranged from 15 to more than 50 percent in different communities of the church: relatively low among the Jesuits, but estimated to be 62 to 75 percent in the East Coast Franciscan community. The reasons given for the high percentage of homosexuals in the Catholic priesthood varied. Some of the homosexual priests felt that the church was a “safe place” and the priesthood was a shelter where they would not have to worry about their sexuality. Others hoped that by taking vows of celibacy, they could cancel out the sexual orientation that had caused them so much shame. And, for still others, there was an allure of the Catholic culture as one of the most homoerotic available with the shared residency of many men.

In addition to the many articles in magazines, newspapers, and books already mentioned, there are several more books documenting the problem of homosexual clergy in the Roman Catholic Church. Some of these are: Jason Berry’s Lead Us Not Into Temptation (New York: Doubleday, 1992); A. W. Richard Snipe’s A Secret World (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1992), also by Sipe, Sex, Priests and Power (1995); Stephen J. Rossetti’s A Tragic Grace (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1996); Philip Jenkins’s Pedophiles and Priests (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Donald B. Cozzens’s The Changing Face of the Priesthood (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000); James G. Wold’s Gay Priests (New York: Harper & Row, 1989); Michael S. Rose’s Goodbye, Good Men: How Liberals Brought Corruption Into the Catholic Church (Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2002); and the Investigative Staff of the Boston Globe’s Betrayal: The Crisis in the Catholic Church (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2002).

My own conclusion is that homosexuality is the basis of most of the sexual scandals that have rocked this church in recent years. Most of the cases have been male juveniles molested by male priests. Another indication that the blame should be on homosexual behavior is the large number of Roman Catholic priests who have died of AIDS (more than 300, up to the year 2000 in the United States.), which was mainly spread by homosexual acts until recently.

Many of the other Christian denominations offer some form of ministry to homosexuals and their families. The United Church of Canada voted on August 24, 1988, to welcome all persons regardless of sexual orientation, allow them to become full members, and allow them to be considered for the ministry.[284] The United Church of Christ has ordained at least five practicing homosexuals. The Methodist and Presbyterian churches allowed homosexual membership but would not ordain gay ministers. In June 2001, the Presbyterian assembly voted to repeal this ban. The Southern Baptists, however, still deny membership to homosexuals whom they classify as “open.” Lutherans debated ordaining gays in August 2001, triggering civil disobedience in which forty-eight pro-gay protesters were arrested for blocking the sidewalk outside the meeting hall.

Aside from the moral and legal aspects of homosexuality, it has long been recognized that homosexual practices spread diseases. Philo of Alexandria (20 BC–AD 50) noted that “… they saddled them with the formidable curse of the female disease.” John Chrysostom (347–407) called homosexuality “the most severe of all plagues … a new and insufferable crime.” Justinian wrote in 538: “Because of such crimes, there are … pestilence …”.[285] Syphilis was the most pestilential disease spread by gay sex acts in those days, but gonorrhea, chancres, herpes, and scabies were spread as well. In modern times, all homosexual men are considered to be infected with herpes simplex II, and most of them have the cytomegalovirus.[286] Their infection level from STDs is also high, including shigellosis, amebiasis, hepatitis B (called “a national tragedy in the making” by Dr. Stanford Kuvin, vice chairman of the National Foundation of Infectious Diseases at their 1988 conference), and AIDS.

AIDS is the nation’s number one health problem, epidemic and fatal with no known cure. It was originally called GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency) because it appeared to be exclusively caused by gay sex acts (mainly sodomy) when it was first identified in the early 1980s. In September 1982, 582 young gay men in San Francisco were diagnosed all with the same mysterious disease. In 1984, it was announced that the HIV virus caused the disease. The name has since been changed to the less incriminatory and less specific term, AIDS, under pressure from gay organizations, and both the name and the disease have since been spread to the general population. In addition to weakening the body’s immune system so that it becomes vulnerable to diseases, AIDS frequently infects the brain and central nervous system to cause neurological disorders, insanity, and death. Between 1980 and 1993, 91,789 homosexual and bisexual men died of AIDS. During 1993, a total of 103,500 new cases of AIDS were reported, 9 percent of which were heterosexuals and 91 percent of which were non-heterosexuals.[287] Several studies have found that homosexual men attempt to commit suicide at rates higher than those of heterosexual men.[288] The result of their many diseases and other problems is that only 1 percent of male homosexuals die of old age, and less than 3 percent are over age fifty-five when they die.[289]

The frequency alone of gay sex acts is believed to facilitate the invasion of the body by the HIV virus, which causes AIDS. The grim fact is that the American male homosexual is the most dangerous, virulent, disease vector (an agent transmitting a pathogen from one organism to another) in our country today. Yet he is seldom held accountable, prosecuted, or even admonished. The female prostitute, on the other hand, is vigorously denigrated, prosecuted, fined, and imprisoned for spreading disease even though she is a far less dangerous vector than the male homosexual.

This strange state of affairs appears to be due to intense activism by gay men and their supporters. ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unlease Power) is an organization that consists of people infected with HIV. They stage civil disobedience demonstrations at sensitive locations such as the Food and Drug Administration offices and churches in order to secure as much attention as possible to their causes. ACT UP has entered Catholic churches and sanctuaries and desecrated the Eucharist on both coasts. Ironically, the Catholic churches have been one of the largest networks of private support services for those infected with HIV. An even more militant group, called Queer Nation, maintains chapters in most major cities.

The International Gay Association (IGA) represents about 350 gay activist organizations in twenty-one countries, ranging from Australia to Europe to Iceland, from the Nordic countries to the Mediterranean nations and the United States. The headquarters of IGA were located in Coventry, England, in 1978. The IGA secretariat offices were in Dublin, and their financial center was in Amsterdam. Their region liaison office exists to respond with “immediate and coordinated action.” To increase their numbers and power, they invited lesbians and others to join them in the 1980s and early 1990s and changed their name to the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). At a July 1993 meeting of the United Nations Economic and Social Council in Switzerland, the ILGA, after many years, finally was granted consultative status in the United Nations. This gives them the power to make recommendations to the United Nations General Assembly on crime and human rights. ILGA membership now includes sadists, masochists, foot fetishists, transvestites, and even pedophiles in the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA). In January 1994, the U.S. Senate voted unanimously to sharply reduce funds to the United Nations unless it severed ties to the ILGA. This vote was introduced by Senator Jesse Helms, who objected to the ILGA’s relationship with the NAMBLA.[290]

The ILGA has served as a source of educational materials, a center for political activity, and as a nidus for recreational activities for its members. They make travel brochures available listing local contacts and exotic sexual pursuits to be found in various countries. As Enrique Rueda noted in his detailed book The Homosexual Network: “In all major cities there are dating services of one sort or another which match homosexuals on the basis of their wishes and characteristics to maximize the probability of a successful encounter.”

The Loving Brotherhood is another international network of men with a novel approach to meeting the needs of its members. Haiti has long been known for its homosexual resorts replete with a wide array of sexual activities.

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major organization of lawyers that has as one of its many objectives the protection and freedom of the homosexual “lifestyle.” Alarmingly, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis, the 1988 Democratic Party’s presidential candidate, publicly announced that he is a card-carrying member of this organization. And on May 1, 2001, Anthony Romero was the first openly gay man appointed to lead the ACLU. Within the structure of many of our national health organizations there is usually a group of influential homosexuals or their sympathizers. The American Medical Association (AMA), the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, the American Psychological Association (APA), and some religious groups and educational associations are some of these. The Journal of Sex Research states that 5.6 percent of psychiatrists are homosexual or bisexual.[291] The homosexuals exert such power within these agencies that they have lowered the influence the AMA and APA might have had in combating the spread of AIDS. The voices of the AMA and APA were completely silent during the six months of debate over allowing gays in the military, although it was obvious that allowing them greater access to military personnel would permit greater spreading of AIDS and the other STDs, compromising fighting ability and lowering morale.

At the same time, homosexuals have been successful in obtaining the largest national budget to fight AIDS than is set aside for any other disease. This is in spite of the fact that many other medical calamities, such as heart attack, stroke, and cancer, each kill far more Americans than AIDS. They continue to push for special advantages and protections. On Sunday, April 25, 1993, a second “March on Washington” was staged to obtain civil rights legislation and admission into the military. The event was planned two years in advance and claimed to attract a million homosexuals to the Capitol. The Washington D.C. Park Service spokesman, however, estimated the gathering at 300,000 or less. The CNN television network devoted an unprecedented twelve continuous, uninterrupted hours to broadcasting the entire event live.

Gay political power in the United States has been greatly increased by the “Rainbow Coalition” of homosexuals, lesbians, blacks, prostitutes, pedophiles, Jews, sado-masochists, transvestites, and fetishists. Originally formed in 1965 by the Reverend Jesse Jackson to advance his black agenda and later presidential aspirations, it has achieved surprising political power and influence for almost all of its components.

Other homosexual organizations continue to form in response to gay problems worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean, where homosexuals are not only disdained but are frequently subjected to violence, an increasing number of gays are immigrating to the United States under American asylum laws. A New York-based Lesbian and Gay Immigration Rights Task Force, made up of lawyers and advocates, has been organized to help with their immigration problems. Up until 1990, homosexuals were specifically denied admission to the United States, but in that year Congress quietly removed this disqualification. In 1994, Attorney General Janet Reno clarified that persecution based on sexual orientation can be ground for asylum. A report by Butler[292] showed that the percentage of adults in the General Social Surveys who thought that sexual activity between two adults of the same sex is always wrong dropped from 74.9 percent in 1988 to 54.6 percent in 1998.

In 2001, China’s psychiatric association removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses in its new diagnostic manual. The 8,000-member Chinese Psychiatric Association has concluded that homosexuality is not a perversion, said Chen Yanfang, the group’s vice president. “Many homosexuals lead perfectly normal lives,” he said on March 8, 2001. Homosexuality is embraced even in China, where an underground culture of gay bars, Web sites, and sports clubs flourishes.

Most homosexuals are bisexual to some extent. Some 65 percent of practicing homosexual men report having engaged in sex with women. Some 20 percent of them have been married.[293] It is these people who now carry the deadly HIV across the gay frontier into the general heterosexual population, along with intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs, and the children of AIDS-infected parents. Many Haitian orphans are HIV positive. In Africa, where 25 percent of the population is dying of AIDS, almost nothing is being done to stop baby-raping, which people there believe cures AIDS.

As AIDS impacts the heterosexual community, the entire population is now at risk. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control reported in March 1992, that 202,843 U.S. citizens have been diagnosed with AIDS. In 1997, they estimated that 775,000 Americans carried HIV.[294] Six percent are believed to have contracted the disease from heterosexual activity.

1. Gays in the Military

During the 1992 elections, gay rights organizations were very active. Several hundred gay delegates attended the Democratic National Convention, and many were featured speakers. President Clinton had been convinced by a powerful gay organization that homosexuals should be openly welcomed into the military. He promised them at a reception in West Hollywood on October 14, 1991, that immediately upon taking office he would issue an executive order overturning the military ban on homosexuals. After he won the election, he was sworn into office on Wednesday, January 20, 1993. On the following Monday, January 25th, he called a meeting of the joint chiefs of staff, secretary of defense, and congressional leaders. This historic two-hour meeting found both sides solidly entrenched. The president was forced to delay his plans for six months. He did, however, declare a military policy known as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” and he stopped them from removing homosexuals already in uniform. The president is the commander in chief of the military, but Congress has the responsibility and authority for supervision over it. Senator Sam Nunn, head of the Armed Services Committee, adamantly opposed lifting the ban. Near the end of the six months, a poll of Congress showed that a congressional law would overrule an outright lifting of the ban. The General Accounting Office estimated that removing homosexuals from the military would cost about $27 million annually. There were about 700 such “administrative separations” during 1992. Both men and women, 16,692 enlisted and 227 officers, had been removed as homosexuals between 1980 and 1990.[295]

To me, the question of whether gays should be allowed in the military is like the question of whether marijuana and other drugs should be legalized. Both questions are playing with fire. We will never know how far it will spread and how much damage it will do. For more than twenty years there have been organizations and individuals dedicated to both propositions. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) representatives have argued that legalizing marijuana would save the large sums of money that are now spent in enforcing the prohibitions against it. Protagonists claim that it would not do any more damage, and, in fact, it would be helpful to some people with certain medical problems such as glaucoma. Harvard Professor Timothy Leary and a former secretary of state were among those who were convinced that decriminalizing drugs would solve the drug war crisis. Then we elected a president who was convinced that homosexuality should be openly embraced in the military.

The military has always been a happy hunting ground for homosexuals. They find in the military forces the cream of American youth. Many of them are from small towns and farms and are naive to the blandishments, temptations, and influence of homosexuals who want to take advantage of their simple minds and make use of their strong bodies.

In Germany, the military laws against homosexual behavior were severe. The death sentence for SS and police members found guilty of homosexuality was passed on November 15, 1941, with Hitler’s approval. The basic idea was that the military should maintain its manly excellence.

Removal of bans results in increases, as it did in the cases of alcohol, gambling, and abortion. After we repealed the prohibition of alcoholic beverages, we saw more alcoholism and alcohol-related death and diseases. The gambling laws have been repealed in nine states as of 2001 with a resulting increase in the number of gambling-addicted people. Some lose all their money, bounce checks, and steal to pay their bills. Many thousands gamble away their children’s inheritance. Hundreds of thousands of fetuses are destroyed each year since abortion was legalized.

Removing the restrictions and laws against homosexuality is just as dangerous as permitting alcohol and gambling, and probably more so. AIDS could spread through the military like wildfire. If homosexuals are allowed free reign in the military, they may well act like gays do in prison. A lot of captive victims will be unable to defend themselves. As a retired air force colonel, I experienced their approaches as a young soldier myself. As an eyewitness with first-hand experience, I have seen how they congregate around army and navy installations like prostitutes did in dance halls, bars, and massage parlors. This phenomenon may be as old as the military itself.

Men have recognized for a long time that homosexuals are very dangerous to the discipline, health, and fighting ability of military soldiers. The institution of the Mameluke (Mamluk = slave) armies that were instrumental in control of the Middle Eastern areas for nearly a thousand years (969–1831) were trained and supervised by eunuchs to prevent the young recruits from being available to the depredations of the homosexuals. David Ayalon (1999) described this in a complete chapter in his excellent book Eunuchs, Caliphs and Sultans (Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press, 39–60).

We are at a crossroads; abandoning the straight-and-narrow ideals here will compromise discipline and foment disorder. The rest of the world watches what the United States does. An openly gay military won’t attract healthy recruits, and the rest of the world will snort in derision. Petted by homosexuals in the Middle East, healthy army personnel were sickened with murderous impulses. America must be kept safe and enjoyable for clean, healthy, well-balanced people. Art declined, like the military could, from wholesome to degenerate, as illustrated by the 2001 Maplethorp exhibition of pictures of urinals.

The entertainment industry has lost many popular idols to AIDS and its complications: Rock Hudson, Michael Bennett, Liberace, Charles Ludlam, and too many others to list. In spite of the bloody warnings flashed by HIV infection and AIDS deaths in their ranks, the gay cohort of entertainers continues to flaunt their homosexuality. Entertainment Weekly magazine, September 8, 1995, mentioned James Dean, Boy George, Elton John, Jason Stuart, Bob Smith, Lea DeLauria, Dick Sargeant, and Stephen Spinella in their twenty-five-page spread on the “Gay ’90s.” Gay men are disproportionately represented in the arts, especially professional dance, including ballet, modern, and musical theater. The most famous male dancer of this century, Rudolph Nureyev, was openly gay, along with several other prominent dancers. A survey of 136 professional dancers conducted by Baily and Oberschneider found that over half of the male dancers were gay.[296]

Government on every level has been deeply influenced by homosexuals. Anti-sodomy laws have been repealed in many states. President Clinton appointed gay Bob Hattoy as his personal advisor, and Roberta Achtenberg was the first obvious lesbian confirmed by the U.S. Senate for a high government office as Assistant Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Congress censured U.S. Representative Barney Frank for having a homosexual prostitute solicit sex from his apartment and using his official reserved parking spaces.

Our schools are guided by homosexuals who want to teach children that homosexuality is a permissible lifestyle. The nation’s first “gay” high school in Los Angeles scheduled its first gay prom in 1994.

Homosexuals have unduly influenced our medical institutions. The APA was forced to remove homosexuality from the DSM-III. The AMA has given up the effort of isolating AIDS cases for treatment. Even our religions have been ameliorated as we have gay churches in most of our large cities. Some denominations have ordained gay priests and preachers. Church attendance fell sharply in the 1990s while dozens of priests and ministers died of AIDS. We must not allow the military to fall prey to the attacks of the homosexual organizations.

Another view of the damage possible to military effectiveness from allowing homosexuals in the military can be found by examining the effects of increasing the number of women in military units. Women have been actively seeking greater military status over the last fifty years. They were originally needed during World War II as nurses and clerical workers and were usually segregated in their own units and jobs. Then they became truck drivers and later pilots and police. Most of the old restrictions against women taking positions in combat were removed in 1993. Greater mingling of the sexes on the job has led to more and more charges of sexual harassment. In the 1991 Tailhook incident, many officers and other high officials were demoted, fined, or discharged from service. Between 1993 and 2002, there were 142 sexual assault cases at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The overall impact has been a decrease in morale, military vigor, esprit-de-corps, and respect for the military. Similar incidents are certain to arise if homosexuals are allowed visible entry into military units. Peer pressure and constant exposure will certainly put many otherwise innocent men at risk for HIV infection, AIDS, and other STDs.

Major General Harold N. Campbell called President Clinton a “gay-loving, pot-smoking, womanizing, draft-dodging commander in chief” at a dinner attended by 250 in Soesterberg Air Base in the Netherlands on May 24, 1993. The Uniform Code of Military Justice, Article 88, prohibits this sort of talk, and its presence is certainly an indication of low morale. Secretary of Defense Les Aspin, in an Air Force Academy speech on June 2, 1993, acknowledged that the quality of America’s armed forces has fallen “off the peak” and that contention over gays might cause it to slip more. During his 60 Minutes television program, June 6, 1993, Mike Wallace said that the bid to allow gays in the military was one of President Clinton’s worst mistakes. Clinton’s popularity at the end of the first 100 days in office was lower than that of any president for at least twenty years at 36 percent approval. Other nations’ leaders are asking: What is happening over there?

As we have already seen, there is a strong tendency for homosexual men to leave areas where they are prosecuted and gravitate to areas where they are allowed greater freedom, such as San Francisco. If the restrictions in the military against them are lowered, they will undoubtedly congregate in certain bases, units, ships, or stations. These places tend to increase “outing” and more and more overt sexual behavior.

The sight of healthy young men in showers, bathrooms, and dormitories sexually stimulates homosexual men in the military. The more sex they get, the more they will want. Skyrocketing testosterone levels drive homosexuals to be prodigiously promiscuous with hundreds of partners a year. Promiscuity accelerates the spread of diseases, and there is a tendency to degenerate to increasingly bizarre and dangerous sexual perversions. These distractions from military duties lead to greater degeneracy, laxness, and haphazardness. Discipline suffers and military effectiveness declines. For thousands of years, warriors have abstained from sex before battles in order to ensure victory. Athletes too have known for thousands of years that sexual activity enervates the body, lowering strength and endurance.

After a flurry of last-minute meetings between July 14 and 16, 1993, and rumors of what was being discussed, Les Aspin, the secretary of defense, missed the July 15th target date and produced an agreed-upon compromise measure, which President Clinton announced on July 19, 1993. The press promptly characterized the new policy as “don’t ask, don’t tell, don’t pursue,” and the gist of the five-page measure was publicly discussed and agreed upon by the joint chiefs of staff in televised hearings before the Senate Armed Forces Committee on July 20 and 21, 1993. General Colin Powell, joint chiefs chairman, said, “I do agree with the president’s policy both as a private matter and as a professional matter … the choice is in the best interest of the armed forces and the American people.”

The new measure, which became effective October 1, 1993, provided that: 1) The emphasis would be on homosexual conduct rather than simply sexual orientation. Recruits would not be asked whether they are homosexual. Past policy stated that “homosexuality is incompatible with military service.” The new policy stated that it would be up to commanders to judge the suitability of persons to serve on the basis of their conduct. The guideline stated that the military will discharge members who engage in “a homosexual act, a statement that the member is homosexual or bisexual, or a marriage or attempted marriage” to someone of the same sex. 2) “Bodily contact, actively undertaken or passively permitted” between members of the same sex, such as same-sex handholding, kissing, or dancing is banned. No distinctions are made between whether these occur on or off base. 3) Service members cannot be removed for associating with known homosexuals, visiting a gay bar or social club, attending services in a place of worship frequented by homosexuals, or marching in a gay-rights parade in civilian attire. 4) No investigations will be conducted solely to determine a service member’s sexual orientation. But commanders will initiate inquiries if “credible information” exists “based on articulatable facts, not just a belief or suspicion.” A single allegation that someone is homosexual is not grounds for official action. 5) Questions pertaining to an individual’s sexual orientation will not be asked on security questionnaires, but the guidelines state that an individual’s conduct “is a legitimate security concern only if it could make an individual susceptible to exploitation or coercion.”

The change in policy also covers members of the reserves and the national guard.

On July 22, 1994, Armed Services Committee Chairman Senator Sam Nunn called President Clinton’s new guidelines a “sound policy.” “I think it is very similar to the policy we have right now,” he said. In the same newspaper, which carried this information on page 1, another article appeared on page 4a about AIDS. This article was headlined “More Women Getting AIDS” and gave the general impression that women were contracting the AIDS virus from heterosexual activity. Buried in the article was the information that homosexual and bisexual males accounted for 40,453 of the 47,095 new cases reported in 1992 while 6,642 were women. But women had accounted for a 9.8 percent increase while males accounted for a 2.5 percent increase since 1991. It could have been emphasized that homosexual males still account for about 85 percent of the AIDS cases.

Over the six months of debates and publicity, the once-powerful voices of the medical profession, the AMA and APA, were not heard. It is a well-known fact that the AIDS virus is more easily transmitted from the male to the female than the other way around. Why have doctors remained silent and passively allowed the homosexuals easier admission into the military, which we should be able to depend upon for national security? Apparently Dannemeyer was right when he wrote: “I have discovered that radical suppression of scientific opinion can and does exist in this country and that confrontation and belligerence can even change a medical diagnosis.”[297]

On July 27, 1993, the ACLU and Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund made good on several earlier threats of legal action by the gay community. They filed suit in the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., on behalf of seven gay service men and women against President Clinton’s new policy on homosexuality in the military. The suit said the policy was “restrictive, confused, and self-contradictory,” and they demanded that the policy be declared unconstitutional. Their ultimate aim was to remove all restrictions on homosexuals serving in the military. Ironically, on the same day, a few blocks from the courthouse in Washington, the House Armed Services Committee voted forty-three to twelve against a proposal to end the ban on homosexuals in the military.

Opposing factions continued the tug-of-war as October 1, 1994 approached the effective date of the new legislation. On September 9, the Senate voted sixty-three to thirty-three to reject a measure that would have allowed President Clinton to dictate the outcome himself. On September 28, the House of Representatives voted 301 to 134 against a similar measure, squelching the legislation of open homosexuality in the military by October 1. The congressional measure branded homosexuality an “unacceptable risk” to military morale, and the Pentagon decided to wait for Congress to pass legislation before informing field commanders how the policy should be enforced.

In 1996, 850 homosexual service people were discharged for their sexual orientation as compared to 1,145 people in 1998. On August 13, 1999, in response to the rage expressed by gay-rights groups over the bludgeoning death of gay army private Barry Winchell, Defense Secretary William Cohen updated the Pentagon’s “don’t ask, don’t tell” guidelines for gays in the military. The new policy required that mandatory training be given to all troops beginning in boot camp on acceptance of homosexuals.[298][299]

The ready availability of explosive devices combined with the higher-than-average suicide and murder rates among homosexuals creates new dangers. A couple of past incidences that demonstrate this are: a) the Air Force A-10 attack plane that crashed into a mountain near Vail, Colorado, in April 1997 (the May 2, 1997 Tucson Citizen newspaper reported that the pilot of the bomb-loaded $8.8 million plane committed suicide for fear that his homosexual affair with another pilot was about to be exposed); and b) the explosion on the navy’s USS Iowa in 1989 in which a suicidal homosexual sailor killed himself and forty-six of his shipmates.[300]

A Pentagon inspector general’s survey released March 24, 2000 indicated that anti-gay speech and harassment is commonplace in the U.S. military, especially among young enlisted troops. Eighty-five percent of those surveyed said they believe anti-gay comments are tolerated in their unit, and 37 percent said they had personally witnessed or been the target of harassment—such as hostile gestures, graffiti, or physical assault—based on perceived homosexuality.[301]

On March 15, 2001, the Service Members Legal Defense Network issued its seventh annual report on harassment of homosexuals in the military. The report said that many commanders continue to violate the policy by overzealously investigating the sexual orientation of service members. Reports of harassment received by the legal aid group had jumped from 400 in 1998 to 986 in 1999, but in 2000, reports of anti-gay harassment declined 10 percent to 871. Newly elected President Bush has said he supports the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.[302] With the bombing of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 and the war on terrorism, the debate over gays in the military re-ignited. Following the September 11th attacks, the Pentagon suspended certain types of military discharges, but not the ban on serving as an openly gay member of the armed forces.[303]

2. Pique

There is very little doubt in my mind that some of the ugliest behavior of male homosexuals is caused by pique. Pique is a French word meaning “spite” or “quarrel.” It comes from the verb meaning “to prick; to sting; to goad; to puncture; to gall, to nettle, to rouse, or, medically, to inject.” It can inspire great depths of animosity, anger, and vexation.

On October 1, 1993, the television program 20/20 broadcast the story of how AIDS-infected, homosexual, dentist David Acer infected at least six of his patients by adding some of his infected blood in the hyperdermic syringe that he used to inject the Novocaine anesthetic into their gums. These victims were all innocent of any sexual involvement with the homosexual dentist. Acer deliberately murdered them because, as a sexual deviant, he took umbrage at their normality and wanted to show the world that AIDS was not exclusively a homosexual disease. One of Doctor Acer’s homosexual lovers, Edward Parsons, said on the program that the late Jensen Beach, Florida, dentist wanted to change the perception that HIV was infecting only gays. Parsons said in his interview with Barbara Walters that Acer had told him in one of their last conversations in 1990, before Acer died, “I guess I’ve got their attention, don’t I? Everyone’s talking about it now, aren’t they?”

Other cases have demonstrated how destructive homosexual pique can be. Jeffrey Dryfka, twenty-six, was stalked and murdered at Pompano Beach, Florida, on February 17, 1990, by homosexual James Barfield, forty-seven. Barfield had bragged that the hunt would end in death: “If he couldn’t have Dryfka, no one could.” Then there was the case of gay Adam Brown, thirty, indicted by the grand jury in Roseburg, Oregon, November 13, 1992, on five counts of attempted murder after having unprotected sex with youths after he knew he was HIV positive. Brown had contracted the AIDS virus while cruising gay bars in Southern California. His wife told the jury that he had become depressed and angry and sought revenge. He said, “They gave it to me. I’m going to give it back to them.” In one of the incidents, he smeared his semen into a scratch on his victim’s arm. This is pique.

The pique phenomenon has been described in other words by several other authors. Dr. Robert Stoller wrote in his 1975 book Perversion—The Erotic Form of Hatred that perversion “is the result of an essential interplay between hostility and sexual desire … People with perversions feel (are made to feel) an unending sense of being dirty, sinful, secretive, abnormal, and a threat to these finer, unperverse citizens who are supposed to make up the majority of society.” In each form of perversion Dr. Stoller found “… in gross form or hidden but essential in the fantasy—hostility, revenge, triumph, and a dehumanized object. Before scratching the surface, we can see that someone harming someone else is a main feature of most of these conditions.” Mona Charen wrote in her newspaper column on April 30, 1993, about a gay rights demonstration in Washington, DC: “This rally made clear that the gay agenda goes far beyond a plea for tolerance—which most Americans are more than happy to extend. The gay movement wants simultaneously to be accepted and to offend—mutually exclusive goals.” Ray Kerrison wrote in his New York Post column for June 30, 1993: “The homosexual parade is not a harmless street theater. It is the face of a well-organized, well-financed movement dedicated to the destruction of the family as we know it.”

The consequences of pique in those who are infected with the deadly AIDS virus today in America are becoming truly catastrophic. It’s nothing less than slow-motion mass murder on an unprecedented scale! Alarmingly, it will continue to widen because: 1) Homosexuality has recently been shown to be biological in nature. If it is innate, so the reasoning goes, much of the sense of responsibility is lifted from the gay man’s shoulders. 2) The measures that have been put into effect against the AIDS plague have proven ineffective, and the numbers of those infected continue to increase. In Cuba, a system of quarantine has been effective in holding the numbers of new cases down, but we do not have this measure in this country. 3) Many deeply entrenched gay organizations have become more powerful in protecting and increasing gay “civil rights,” which allow them to continue to newly infect others with the virus. 4) Medical researchers have not found a cure for the AIDS disease, but have been successful in improving the sense of wellbeing and extending the lives of infected homosexuals so that they feel well enough to continue indulging in sex acts, which spread the disease. This approach could never expect to stop the spread of any pestilence. 5) The AIDS virus frequently (in at least two-thirds of the cases) attacks the brains of carriers so that they are not always capable of logical thinking or of refraining from infectious sex acts. 6) The way male hormones escalate, perpetuating an increasing addiction to sexual activity, together with increasingly easy access to new partners, produces rampant promiscuity (1,000 different partners or more) in many homosexuals. 7) Large numbers of gay bars, gay baths, gay clubs, gay “communities,” gay magazines, gay pamphlets, and gay dating agencies greatly facilitate gay promiscuity. (8) Lacking families to support, time and financial resources for alcohol and drugs are greater in the gay community than in the straight community. Such habits lower inhibitions, leading to more episodes of infectious sex. 9) The five- to ten-year latency period of the HIV virus allows those who are diagnosed to reach out and enjoy themselves all the more. 10) The AIDS-infected homosexual man often feels like an outsider even in his own community. The disease is a terrible secret that the homosexual man doesn’t always share with other gay men. This can make him feel even more isolated from the general population. 11) The political climate, with a homosexual-friendly government, mitigates against putting any potentially effective measures such as quarantine or castration into effect against infected homosexuals continuing to spread the disease carelessly, accidentally, and ON PURPOSE. All of these factors add up to produce the real threat of an unprecedented catastrophe as the number of infected heterosexuals rises.

A study of 308 homosexual men in the Netherlands by the State Department of Public Health and Environment showed that homosexual men comprise a very high-risk group for transmission of HIV infection. Moreover, undergoing an HIV test did not help reduce the risk of infection transmission. The number of men who continued to have sexual relations with more partners was about the same as those who had relations with fewer partners, so there was no real decrease in risky behavior after the test.[304]

In a wide, 1994 sexuality study of 3,400 men and women, aged eighteen to fifty-nine, in the United States, it was reported that “AIDS is, and is likely to remain, confined to exactly the risk groups where it began: gay men and intravenous drug users and their sexual partners.”[305]

During the Fifth European Conference on HIV Infection in Copenhagen, Denmark, on September 29, 1995, it was announced that the 3,000-patient “Delta” trial had confirmed the benefit of combination therapy using AZT and other drugs to delay the mortality of AIDS patients by 38 percent.[306] Several new drugs were introduced in 1995 that increased the health and life expectancy of AIDS victims; 3TC, also known as Epivir or Lamivudine, was one of these, and ddC was another. A study of 45,028 patients in Brussels, Belgium, showed that 20 percent of all seropositive heterosexual STD patients and 40.7 percent of all seropositive homosexual patients were already aware of their infective status at the time of the current STD episode.[307] This shows that a substantial number of HIV infections are transmitted from aware HIV seropositives to uninformed sexual partners.

Study after study has shown that high-risk behavior continues among gay men and minorities. The Miami Public Health Clinic officials found that those who tested negative for HIV increased their high-risk behavior. Those who returned after counseling had STDs, which jumped more than 100%.[308]

Over time, evidence accumulated that the promiscuous homosexuals who knew they were HIV infected continued to have unprotected sex and knowingly infected other men. The Centers for Disease Control announced in October 1981 that AIDS had become epidemic in the United States, and they highlighted homosexual acts as the most high-risk behavior. During this time, therapist Michael Quadland worked with gay men in New York and noticed a disturbing trend among a number of his clients: They continued to “engage in high-risk sexual practices despite awareness of the possibility of mortal danger to themselves and others.”[309]

At the 12th World AIDS Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, in June 1998, it was reported that about 15 percent of the people who were found to be HIV infected at the Geneva University Hospital over the past two years had been infected with strains of the virus that had already become resistant to AZT, the key part of the AIDS treatment. The doctors examined the patients further and found that they had acquired their infection from someone with an advanced disease who had tried several treatment strategies.[310]

In spite of the large number of widely publicized cases, it was not until March 14, 1994, that an HIV-infected homosexual man was finally convicted and sentenced for attempted murder by sexual assault. In the nation’s first such conviction, Ignacio A. Perea, Jr., thirty-two, of Miami, Florida, was sentenced to five consecutive life terms for kidnapping, and in so doing trying to kill three young boys in 1991. Brion Blackwelder, project director of the AIDS law project at Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, said the case was an example of how the law must evolve to deal with crimes involving the deadly virus. “It becomes a bit of a different crime given the consequences,” Blackwelder said. “HIV has modified how people regard sexual activities in this society, so it doesn’t surprise me that it is making its way into criminal law as a prospect.”[311]

The death penalty in Indiana for individuals who “knowingly transfer the HIV virus to another person” or “attempt to do so” is an example of legal measures being taken in 1995 against AIDS.

Pique is not unique to the homosexual community alone. It is also found among heterosexuals who build up excessive testosterone levels through sexual promiscuity. Doctor Richard Schmidt, a forty-eight-year-old gastroenterologist in Lafayette, Louisiana, injected his long-term lover, Janice Trahan, thirty-three, with HIV when she decided to drop her affair with him. She told police that Schmidt had vowed never to let her leave him and threatened that no man would want her if she did.[312]

J. Incest

Punishable adult incest legally refers to sexual intercourse between two persons who are too closely related by blood to be married. Among Roman Catholics, this is interpreted to extend down to first cousins; but in some states, blood relationship is not necessary and sex between a stepmother and stepson (until the death of the natural parent) is considered incest.[313] Almost all human societies have had strong cultural taboos against incest between individuals of close-blood-relationship, and it was a “cursed,” capital offense under biblical law (Leviticus 18:6–16, 20:11–21; Deuteronomy 27:20–23). Thirty states banned incest in 1993, nine of which punished it severely with up to seven years in prison for brother-sister copulation. All states forbid marriage between certain kin. Adultery incest has been subjected to the death penalty in Pakistan under its Islamic law.[314]

Incest between fathers and daughters is the type most frequently reported to authorities because it usually also involves child abuse charges. This problem has received heavy publicity, and multimillion-dollar LEAA programs have been launched against it since 1979. Statistically, however, incest between brother and sister is the most frequent type in the American population. It simply is not well reported. In the 1980s and 1990s in the United States, an increasing number of children who murdered their parents (2 percent of all homicides) pleaded self-defense from parental incest and received less severe penalties as a result.

Popular actress Roseanne Barr stood up before the 1,100-member conference on incest at the Presbyterian church in Denver on September 21, 1991, and said, “My name is Roseanne, and I’m an incest survivor.” In her hour-long speech she told how her father had told her to play with his penis and sit on his lap in the bathtub, and how her mother had placed things in her vagina and abused her. Later, with her new husband, Tom Arnold, she appeared on a nationwide Sally Jessy Raphael television broadcast and tearfully accused her father of sexual abuse. The National Enquirer of January 21, 1992, headlined her family’s counterattack. “Everything Roseanne has been saying is lies, all lies!” her sister, Geraldine, said, and she filed a $70 million lawsuit against Roseanne in Los Angeles on December 18th. By 1991, several other celebrities have overcome the traditional shame, which formerly kept women silent concerning their childhood molestations, and they found the courage to publicly tell of their incest victimization. Among these were Marilyn Van Derbur, former Miss America; Oprah Winfrey, talk show hostess; La Toya Jackson, singer; and Paula Hawkins, former Florida senator.

Apart from the cultural taboos, incest was formerly believed to increase the likelihood of physical and mental defects in the offspring of such unions. Defective traits, which normally remained hidden when unrelated couples mated, were thought to appear more frequently in offspring of incestuous couples. Frequent cases of hemophilia in old European and Egyptian royal families, which intermarried, were cited as examples. Dr. John Money, however, has shown that the theory of biological degeneration has not held up as a foundation for the incest proscription and taboo.[315] Cleopatra was the product of twelve generations of inbreeding, and she has been hailed as one of the most beautiful and clever women of her age. Franco Ferracuti studied the literature of the Egyptian, Inca, and Hawaiian royal families and could find no direct relationship between degeneracy and intrafamilial breeding.[316] Cattlemen and horticulturists routinely interbreed their stock to bring out their most desirable hereditary traits—usually with very satisfactory results. “Incest is universal among wild animals, yet their races do not die out …”[317] Human society was said to begin in an incestuous relationship, wherein the sons of Adam married their sisters (Genesis 4 and 5).

Many studies cite that one in four girls suffer from incestuous abuse, but Marsha Utain, sex offender therapist and author of the book Scream Louder, said on the Geraldo television broadcast of October 27, 1989, that she believes this figure is actually closer to 50 percent of all American women. The 1953 Kinsey Report reported that of 4,000 women interviewed, about 4 percent of their respondents knew that they were victims of incest.

In the late 1980s, a new kind of incest dawned on the awareness of a shocked American public: “professional incest,” which was due to the sexual exploitation in professional relationships. Gabbard has shown the prevalence of sexual exploitation of patients by psychiatrists, psychologists, hospital staff, sex therapists, doctors, and social workers.[318] Also included are: sexual involvement between teachers and students, sexual boundary violations by clergy, and sexual contact in fiduciary relationships, which have many of the coercive characteristics of the more familiar incest varieties. The Phil Donahue television show, which was broadcast nationwide October 20, 1992, featured women who had been violated by their psychiatrists. Incest offenders have been found to be among the most responsive to treatment whereas pedophiles and rapists are among the most resistant to present sex offender treatment.

Josephus tells us of the Roman emperor Gaius Caesar, known as Caligula (AD 37–41) having raped his own sister, Julia Drusilla. “This conduct was the source from which citizens’ hatred of him grew fiercer and fiercer. Such a deed, which for ages past had not been recorded, drew them to incredulity and hatred of the doer.”[319]

Abuse by a relative is different from abuse by a stranger. The incest victim cannot run away and go home for help and comfort. Dysfunctions commonly noted in victims include eating disorders, depression, PTSD, alcohol abuse, self-mutilation, drug dependence, promiscuity, suicidal thoughts and attempts, and dabbling in Satanism.

K. Abortion

Abortion is the suction of the embryo or fetus from the womb of a woman. An abortion is considered safest within the first trimester, especially between the eighth and tenth week. Abortions committed after the thirteenth week of pregnancy are three or four times more risky for the mother than those performed earlier. Due to liberalized abortion laws, a woman can obtain an abortion quickly when it is much less painful and dangerous to her personally (Tietz and Lewit, 1972).

Abortions can be performed in several ways. Suction abortion, or vacuum curettage, is often used up to the twelfth week of pregnancy. The cervix is dilated and anesthetized. A hollow plastic rod called a vacuum curette is inserted into the uterus and the contents are sucked out. The procedure can be performed in a doctor’s office or clinic on an outpatient basis in about ten minutes. A dilation and curettage (D and C) is frequently performed on the later pregnancies in a hospital with the patient under anesthesia. Inserting instruments dilates the cervix and a spoon-like instrument is used to scrape the conceptus from the uterine wall. Physicians occasionally use a procedure called a hysterectomy for fetuses older than sixteen to twenty-four weeks. This operation excises the uterus vaginally or through an incision in the abdominal wall and requires a hospital stay of a few days.

Late-term abortions, after twenty-four weeks of pregnancy, are barred in thirty states under partial birth abortion legislation. Some of these states prosecute them as infanticides. These laws have been challenged in twenty-one states, and courts have either stopped or dramatically watered the laws down.

Years after most European countries legalized abortion, the Swiss parliament voted on March 23, 2001, to permit women to end pregnancy until the twelfth week. The Swiss National Council—parliament’s largest chamber—voted by 107 to sixty-nine to legalize abortion without obliging women to first seek neutral advice at a state-approved center. The other house, the Council of States, approved the proposal, twenty-two to twenty, but some of the members called for a national referendum about when the law will take effect, thus possibly delaying the effective date for years.

The “morning after pill” is a series of high-dose estrogen pills taken for three to seven days after unprotected sex. They alter the hormonal environment so that it becomes inhospitable to the fertilized egg and it is rejected. Prostaglandin suppositories can be used early in pregnancy to induce menstruation or miscarriage. Side effects, such as uterine cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea, have restricted these later methods’ use, however.[320] In the fall of 1988, an abortion pill known as RU-486 (mifepristone) was approved for use in France and China. This drug induces a spontaneous miscarriage in the first fifty days of pregnancy but must be used under medical supervision. It is considered more convenient, less costly, and safer than abortions and was also approved in Britain and ten other countries. The anti-abortion lobby was too strong, however, for it to be approved in the United States at that time.[321]

On June 14, 1998, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 223 to 202 to bar the FDA from testing, developing, or approving “any drug for the chemical inducement of abortion.” If this measure were to become law, it would effectively block approval of RU-486. During the same session of Congress, action moved forward on legislation to make it a crime to take an underage girl across state lines for an abortion if her home state had a law requiring parental notification. The House Judiciary Committee approved the bill after fifteen hours of debate.[322] The FDA almost approved RU-486 in February 2000, but it once again demanded more information from groups seeking to market it in the United States.[323]

Finally after a decade of controversy, the RU-486 was given final approval by the FDA on September 28, 2000, although the Vatican had dubbed it “The Pill of Cain—the monster that cynically kills its brothers,” and pro-life activists continued to protest against it. Presidential candidates split again on the issue. Democrat Al Gore praised RU-486. “Today’s decision is not about politics, but the health and safety of American women and a woman’s fundamental right to choose,” he said. George W. Bush, Republican candidate, called the FDA’s decision “wrong,” saying, “I fear that making this pill widespread will make abortions more and more common.” Reform Party candidate Patrick Buchanan called RU-486 “a human pesticide.” Green Party candidate Ralph Nader said that use of the drug is “up to the woman, not the government … and it is preferable to surgical procedure.” FDA Commissioner Jane Henney approved mifepristone on the basis of scientific studies that found it 92 to 95 percent effective in causing abortion in the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Bush won the election and appointed Tom Thompson Secretary of Health and Human Services. Thompson had a strong pro-life record and planned to review the safety of RU-486 after assuming his new office in January 2001.

Before 1973, abortion was prosecuted as a criminal offense unless it could be proven that carrying the child full term would endanger the life of the mother. In 1970, it was estimated that at least a million illegal abortions were performed in America each year. Illegal abortion was considered the most remunerative criminal enterprise after gambling and narcotics. Abortionists were arrested for fewer than 1 per 1,000 abortions—no other felony was as free from punishment. More women died of illegal abortions than of legal abortions.[324] Women who could afford an abortion went to other countries (some just across the border of Mexico) or paid more money to physicians to perform an illegal abortion. Some women with little money were known to have dangerous back-alley abortions under nonsterile conditions by unqualified individuals. Some women tried to abort the fetuses on their own, often seriously harming or even killing themselves in the process.[325] Senator Barbara Boxer said, “Approximately 78,000 women throughout the world die each year as a result of unsafe abortions.”[326]

In January 1973, the Supreme Court ruled seven to two in the famous Roe v. Wade case that the decision of a woman to have an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy could not be interfered with by state laws. They further stated that under special conditions, abortion could be performed during the second trimester or even in the third trimester under competent medical care. This decision touched off a moral and political storm that still raged across the country in 2001, with no signs of abating, despite the Hippocratic oath, which read in part: “Nor will I give a woman a pessary to procure abortion” (Hippocratic oath, c. 375 BC). The most liberal law was signed by the Governor of Maryland, February 18, 1991, protecting a woman’s right to abortion in the event Roe v. Wade was overturned. One thing became very clear as time went on: Roe v. Wade did more to reduce pregnancy-related adult mortality than any other procedure since blood transfusion.[327]

Strangely enough, Norma McCorvey, the woman who used the pseudonym “Jane Roe” and won her right to an abortion in the Roe v. Wade case, later had a change of heart and joined the pro-life forces. She became a filing clerk for Operation Rescue, but still supported women’s rights to first-trimester abortions. Operation Rescue is a nonprofit religious organization dedicated to saving the lives of unborn children. Operation Rescue was slow to exploit Ms. McCorvey, however, because of her lesbianism, past drug abuse, and alcoholism.[328]

The moral forces are marshaled mainly under church banners. They have steadily rejected abortion for any reason; Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Lutherans, Mormons, Church of the Breatheren, Muslim, and various evangelical denominations all saw abortions as a moral evil. Others have opposed abortion except when necessary to save the mother’s life and in cases of similar urgent necessity. These include the Presbyterians, Southern Baptists, and American Baptists. Scriptural guidance reads as follows: “Thou shalt not destroy the conceptions before they are brought forth; nor shalt thou kill them after they are born” (The Epistle of Barnabas 14:11). Father John Connery has elucidated the Catholic position in his 1988 book Abortion: The Development of the Catholic Perspective. Dr. D. James Kennedy led media drives to overturn the Roe v. Wade decision and called abortion the “number one moral problem in the United States today” and “an American Holocaust” on nationwide television. Joan Andrews of the Pro-Life Action League was arrested in Pensacola, Florida, in March 1986 and sentenced to five years in prison for criminal mischief, burglary, and resisting arrest in connection with the burning of abortion clinics. She served two and a half years and was released, but again engaged in demonstrations and was arrested four or five times in Pennsylvania, Toronto, Detroit, and Ohio. Operation Rescue planned and sponsored the picketing and vandalizing of abortion clinics in fifty cities, especially in Atlanta where some 1,235 demonstrators were arrested in a three-month period in 1988. The American Medical Association opposed abortion for more than 100 years, while many of their members continued to perform “therapeutic abortions.”[329]

The abortion issue has divided the country more than any other issue since slavery. Large numbers of highly moral people continue to break the law, go to jail, and suffer fines over the abortion issue. Tens of thousands of people picket and obstruct access to abortion clinics across the United States. They march and conduct demonstrations at political gatherings, sometimes obstructing traffic and creating civil unrest. They have vandalized dozens of clinics, burned and bombed many clinics, and have even killed or injured innocent people in the process. These pro-life activists also struggled for political impact; they have been active in political ways, lobbying for restrictive measures on abortions, and they have been partially successful. In June 1977, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that no state is obligated to pay for an abortion, even though matching federal funds are available. Many state laws were ruled unconstitutional on June 15, 1983 and June 6, 1986, because they restricted women’s access to abortions. A Florida law that required parental consent for a minor to have an abortion was ruled unconstitutional in November 1988. On August 25, 1991, the Reverend Pat Robertson of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) was the featured speaker at the pro-life rally in Wichita, Kansas. Over 2,600 pro-life protesters were arrested over the next few days for obstructing access to clinics and causing civil unrest.

Some feel that the legalization of abortion is a government-sponsored justification of sin. God’s commandment to “be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it” (Genesis 1:28) is broken. We regress into barbarity when we kill our own children. Many cultures sacrificed their little ones—their innocent little lambs, pure and untarnished by life and sin. Is this progress? These cultures and their people died out and left a lifeless desert where their cities, homes, and gardens once stood. A cemetery now—an arid, bleak, and barren desert with little bones under the ground. This is the vision that comes from those who multiply the sin of their lust by destroying their innocent babies.

The political forces split along party lines concerning abortion in 1988. The pro-lifers generally supported the Republican tickets, while the pro-abortionists supported the Democrats. President Reagan and president-elect Bush were outspoken in their opposition of abortion. In spite of the results of a poll conducted by the National Abortion Rights League in 1987, which showed that 56 percent of polled voters supported abortion while only 10 percent believed abortion “should not be allowed under any circumstances,” the pro-life conservatives won the presidency. Other polls consistently showed that a majority (60 to 70 percent) of Americans favored abortion. They lost, however, several seats in congress. NOW (National Organization for Women) and the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) have been very vocal in support of abortion rights in politics by staging counter-demonstrations and lobbying.

Some abortion rights supporters quote the shocking statistics that on any given day in the United States 49,322 children are in correctional facilities, 3,288 children run away from home, and 2,989 kids see their parents divorced. In a typical day in the United States, 2,269 illegitimate children are born, 2,753 teenagers get pregnant, 1,287 teenagers give birth, 1,099 teenagers have abortions, 666 babies are born to women with inadequate prenatal care, 367 teens miscarry, 110 babies die before their first birthday, seventy-two babies die at under one month of age, nine children die of gunshot wounds, and five teenagers commit suicide. From 1982 to 1996, maternal deaths occurred at the rate of seven or eight per 100,000 live births in America each year. Some developing countries have maternal mortality rates as high as 1,200 per 100,000 births.[330] Supporters feel that these bleak statistics would be worse if it were not for the relief of legal abortions. Unwanted pregnancies have always been a major problem for some women. The CDC reported that there were 1,333,521 abortions in 1984; 1,328,570 in 1985; 1.4 million in 1990; 1.33 million in 1993; 1.2 million in 1995; 1,221,585 in 1996; and 1.31 million in 2000. Twenty of every 1,000 women, between the ages of fifteen and forty-four had abortions in 1995, the lowest rate since 1975. This may have been due to lack of access to abortion clinics.[331]

Benefits available through the abortion industry are: 1) Fetal tissue has potentially very valuable applications in the treatment of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, hemophilia, and spinal cord injuries. 2) Designer babies—free of genetic defects and available in either gender. There are hundreds of inheritable diseases and abnormalities that can be detected while the fetus is still unborn. The gender of the fetus can also be determined well before the time of birth. If abortion is legal, the fetus can be aborted when it is the desire of the parents to avoid having imperfect children. 3) Celebrities can avoid harming their careers with the publicity unwanted children might bring them. For example, according to the unauthorized biography of Frank Sinatra by Kitty Kelly (His Way, 1988), Elizabeth Taylor is supposed to have had the pregnancy she shared with Sinatra aborted. 4) Research shows that women tend to show few negative emotional reactions to abortion and that most women feel relieved. In fact, women whose request for abortion was granted have better emotional outlooks than those whose request was refused.[332]

Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop and his staff reviewed over 250 scientific articles on the medical and psychological sequella of abortion in women. Koop was a political appointee charged by President Reagan to provide evidence supporting the reversal of Roe v. Wade, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that legalized abortion in the United States during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Although personally opposed to abortion, Koop could not find evidence of significant adverse consequences in women who had undergone abortions. His report, which was never officially released, also expressed doubts about the existence of the “post-abortion stress syndrome.”[333]

In the largest protest demonstration in the nation’s capital in twenty years, 500,000 abortion rights advocates marched Sunday, April 5, 1992. Abortion rights leaders organized the demonstration to bring attention to the threat to abortion rights posed just weeks before by an April 22 Supreme Court ruling on a Pennsylvania case that could lead to new restrictions on a woman’s access to legal abortion. “George Bush is the most anti-choice, anti-woman president in the history of America, and he has to go,” Kate Michelman, president of the National Abortion Rights Action League, told the crowd gathered on the Mall. Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton was in the rally, supporting abortion rights, and so was a group of female candidates for the U.S. Senate. When Clinton and some of the senate candidates prevailed in the November election, many believed that it was because of their stand on the abortion issue.

President Clinton was sworn into office January 20, 1993, and on the twentieth anniversary of the Roe v. Wade decision, January 22, he scuttled abortion restrictions imposed by Presidents Reagan and Bush by signing memorandums to: 1) allow abortion counseling at federally supported clinics; 2) permit research using fetal tissue from abortions; and 3) allow abortions at military hospitals and devote funding toward overseas population control programs. Clinton also pledged to review a ban against importation of RU-486, the French abortion pill. Ironically, a crowd of anti-abortion sympathizers, estimated at 75,000, made their annual march from the White House to the Supreme Court on the same day.

President George W. Bush, Jr. was sworn into office January 19, 2001, and on January 22, he signed a memorandum imposing abortion restrictions on U.S. foreign aid. Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer, of California, said she would try to fight Bush’s anti-abortion policies.

The twenty-fourth anniversary of Roe v. Wade was again marked by major demonstrations by tens of thousands marching to Capitol Hill and bomb blasts at abortion clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, and Tulsa, Oklahoma.

In spite of stricter laws, protesters increased their attacks on abortion clinics, capturing national headlines on several occasions from 1985 to 1992. At ten o’clock in the morning of March 10, 1993, Doctor David Gunn, forty-seven, became the first abortionist killed by pro-life protesters. Michael Griffin, thirty-one, a deeply religious man, had calmly walked up to Dr. Gunn as he approached the Pensacola, Florida, abortion clinic and fired four shots from his .38 caliber revolver, killing Gunn. On August 19, 1993, Rachelle Shannon, thirty-seven, emulating Michael Griffin, fired at and slightly wounded Dr. George Tiller, fifty-two, outside his abortion clinic in Wichita, Kansas. This murder attempt was soon followed on August 21, 1993, by the murder of Dr. George Patterson, forty-four, owner of the Pensacola clinic, by an unknown assailant. Again on August 29, 1994, a Pensacola abortion protest killing inspired several days of headlines and feature articles across the nation. At 7:30 in the morning in the clinic parking lot, Paul Hill, forty, a defrocked Presbyterian minister who had repeatedly threatened the clinic staff, blasted Dr. John Britton, sixty-nine, and his escort, James Barrett, seventy-four, in the head both with his shotgun, killing them instantly. Barrett’s wife, June, sixty-eight, who was sitting in the rear seat of the pickup truck, was wounded in the arm.

Between 1988 and 1998, there were a total of seven murders, fifteen attempted murders, fifteen bombings, 101 cases of arson of abortion facilities, and forty-five attempted bombings or arson of clinics by protesters. Dr. Barnett Slepian, abortion provider, was shot and killed October 23, 1998, in Amherst, New York, as he stood near a window in his kitchen at ten o’clock in the evening. A bomb exploded outside abortion doctor Neal Sager’s office in Jacksonville, Florida, Tuesday afternoon, September 5, 2000. Slepian’s killer, James Kopp, was arrested in France April 5, 2001, but could not be extradited to America because of French law against the death penalty. The battles raged on, and the pro-life advocates justified the murders, bombings, and burnings because they considered abortion a “crime against humanity.”[334]

The announcement of the FDA’s approval of the abortion drug RU-486 on September 28, 2000, did not stop the pro-life protesters. Just two days after the announcement of the FDA’s approval, a Catholic priest smashed his car into an abortion clinic in Rockford, Illinois. The reverend John Earl, thirty-two, who drove the car, then got out and began chopping at the building with an ax until the owner of the clinic fired two shotgun blasts in attempted murder. No one was injured, but Earl was arrested and charged with felony criminal damage to property. The clinic doctor, Richard Ragsdale, said, “I’m not surprised that something happened on the heels of the RU-486 announcement, but this is a little more than we were expecting.”

Shortly after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, and during the height of the anthrax bio-terrorist scare, more than 200 abortion clinics received packages containing a powdery substance alleged to be anthrax. Some of the packages contained threatening letters signed by the Army of God. Fortunately, none of the powder tested positive for anthrax, so the FBI recognized these incidents as hoaxes.[335]

Abortion was the main topic of the third International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt in September 1994 with some 20,000 participants from 182 different countries. The Vatican, together with some pro-life Christian groups, and some Muslim countries voiced their opposition, just as they did in previous conferences in 1974 and 1984, as covered by world headlines. A preacher in the Cairo mosque called the meeting “a Zionist and imperialist plot to destroy Islam.” On the other side of the argument, gynecologists from Cameroon and Tanzania each shared this claim: “I have women dying in my arms almost every day. They’re not dying from abortions; they are dying from childbirth. At times we can’t deliver babies because there’s no water in the clinics.” Complications from pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death for women of reproductive age in many countries. About 500,000 women, 99 percent from developing countries, die of pregnancy-related causes every year. In the United States, the risk of dying from pregnancy or childbirth is fifteen times that of dying from a legal abortion.[336]

Because of the population excesses in China, that country adopted a one-child family policy in 1979 and made contraceptives, the abortion drug RU-486, and surgical abortions available to those that needed them to keep the population within limits. Seventy percent of the abortions were performed because of contraceptive failures, and 30 percent were done on unmarried young females.[337]

One critical piece about a negative consequence of abortion, which was largely ignored by the media and hence the general public, was the subject of columnist Mona Charen’s article “Most Under Reported Story in the U.S.” in the October 21, 1994 Pensacola News Journal (p. 12a). Charen wrote:

No fewer than 24 published studies have shown a link between early abortion or miscarriage and breast cancer … According to the available research, women who have had miscarriages or abortions before a full-term pregnancy have a 50% greater chance of getting cancer than those who do not. The greater the number of miscarriages or abortions, the greater the risk … The speculation is that the onslaught of hormones then causes cells to reproduce in the breast, if halted abruptly, before the cells have reached their full destiny in delivery and lactation, leaves them permanently liable to divide uncontrollably (which is cancer).

The Lancet published an article that claimed this adverse relationship between breast cancer and the termination of the first pregnancy has not been firmly proven.[338]

By mid-1999, some of the potential eugenic benefits of abortion had been documented in various reports. One study by Steven Levitt, a University of Chicago economist, and John Donahue, a Stanford University Law School professor, linked the abortions of the 1970s to the reduction of crimes in the 1990s. In their forty-five-page analysis the authors detailed the following findings: “The five states that legalized abortion in the three years before the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision experienced drops in property crimes, violent crimes and murder before the other states did. The timing of the crime drop in the 1990s coincides with the period roughly twenty years after Roe v. Wade. The children who would have been born would have reached the peak ages for criminal activity, roughly ages eighteen to twenty-four. Places with high abortion rates in the 1970s experienced high crime rate drops in the 1990s. The subsequent fall in crime was about 15% greater for regions with higher abortion rates than for regions with low abortion rates. Every 10% increase in abortion in the years they studied later led to about a 1% drop in crime.”[339]

L. Fetishism

Fetishism, formerly spelled fetichism, was originally defined as “the worship of material things as the abode of spirits.” It was similar to idolatry, the worship of idols or sacred relics as gods. Today, however, it has come to be more commonly associated with a paraphilia in which a fetish is defined as “an object or body part with special powers not inherent to the object that arouses libido.” The word fetish comes from the Portuguese word feitico, meaning “artifact or charm.” The Portuguese were the first Europeans to trade with the natives on the west coast of Africa where several of the native tribes worshiped fetishes. The prevalence of pathological erotic fetishism in the United States is essentially unknown, but is believed to be quite low, probably less than 1 percent of the total male population and less in the female population. Martin Kafka published a study of a hundred outpatient males who had come to him for evaluation or treatment for paraphilias or paraphilia-related disorders. Seven percent of these men were fetishists and 2 percent were frotteurs, who derive erotic satisfaction from rubbing against strangers in crowds.[340]

Kraft-Ebing, in his famous book Psychopathia Sexualis, listed four main types of pathological erotic fetishes: 1) Parts or aspects of a woman’s body: hair, hand, foot, bosom, waist, hips, and medical condition, such as lameness or obesity; 2) female attire: underwear, shoes, stockings, garters, handkerchiefs, etc.; 3) fur, velvet, silk, roses, etc.; and 4) beasts, like cats and dogs. Sometimes beast fetishists go to the extent of sodomizing them. He enumerated many shocking details in thirty-three case studies in his famous book, which has been reprinted at least twenty-five times in several languages down through the years. These horrendous details are what has made his book so vivid, clear, and meaningful. Thirteen of these cases, about 40 percent, resulted in arrests: three for hair despoiling and ten for robbery or theft of female linen, shoes, or silks.

Magnus Hirschfeld has three chapters in his 1938 book on fetishism, which he divided into two main kinds: minor and major fetishism. He wrote that fetishism has its roots in normal sexual life and only becomes a perversion when exaggerated to an obsessive practice. “In the case of minor fetishism the effective detail is the center of attraction, but does not completely overshadow its possessor, to whom the fetishist’s love is gradually transferred. In the case of major fetishism, on the other hand, no such transference takes place, but a complete substitution—pars pro toto—in which the fascinating detail or object entirely supplants the loved person. The genuine fetishist does not desire a sexual partner but is content with a symbol.”[341]

Benjamin Karpman defines fetishism as a paraphilia in which “the sexual partner is dispensed with and the subject gratifies himself onanistically with the aid of a symbol.”[342] He also associates kleptomaniac tendencies with fetishism. Also, he states: “Fetishism is sexual interest centered on a part of the body of a desirable individual or on an inanimate object. Fetishism is an erotic response to something serving as a substitute for the original object. Fetishists may commit burglary, theft, assault, to secure the object. Some fetishists find the garment must be stolen for full satisfaction.” Karpman found in 1964 that there was no fetishism in women. L. Gamman and M. Makinen, in their 1994 book Female Fetishism, believe that female fetishism is due to the “feminine experience of world and love being bound in a concrete, personal level.” Karpman wrote that one of the three types of transvestites was the “fetishist, whose pleasure is increased and phantasy stimulated by looking at themselves in mirrors.” He quoted several authors and cases, and in his chapter on motivations, he stated that “sadomasochism is the root of fetishism.” He also speculated that it is a manifestation of the castration complex, particularly the fear of castration. “In partialism, or anatomical fetishism, the most frequently encountered examples are the female buttocks or breast.” In the field of osphresiolagnia, the fetishistic-libidinal attachment is related to odors, especially those emanating from some part of the loved one’s body.”

Dr. Mathis is clearer in his definition: “Fetishism is a sexual deviation in which an inanimate object or body part is endowed with all the sexual significance usually attributed to the female genitalia. That object or body part is known as a fetish. Fetishism may be one of the most common of the sexual deviations.”[343] He gives an excellent example of the Chinese attaching tremendous importance to the female foot until recent times, and he quotes Matignon in a description of Chinese pornographic engravings: “In all these lascivious scenes we see the male voluptuously fondling the woman’s foot.”[344]

The practice of binding the feet of the Chinese women to make them sexually attractive to men began in the T’ang Dynasty (AD 618–907) and endured for over a thousand years. The practice of making these “golden lily” mutilations was officially discontinued in 1911, but women with these distorted feet could still be seen on the streets of Peking in the 1990s. Alaska’s Kutchin Indians also did a similar deformation of the feet.

The use of a particular part of the female anatomy as a fetish is called partialism. “Frottage refers to partialism involving the buttocks. In which the male feels compelled to rub against the buttocks of females … He usually prefers to maneuver so that his erect penis rubs against the female’s buttock, although some can obtain orgasm even if only their hip or thigh is in direct contact … the man interested in frottage habituates crowded elevators, streetcars, subways, and other places where a crowd is certain to contain females and to be thick enough to excuse his apparently ‘accidental’ contacts.”

Mathis also links fetishism with transvestism in the case of a man found to be wearing black lace-trimmed panties. “This could have represented transvestism rather than a fetishism … if he used the panties as a sexual end, that is, only as an aid to masturbation, then they probably were a fetish. On the other hand, if he wore them in order to admire himself or to be admired, they may have been a part of transvestism.” “Fetishism usually becomes manifest in early adolescence. Punishment is irrational and ineffective … Psychiatric consultation is mandatory.”

McCary quotes Gebhard in defining a practical continuum of fetishistic behavior. “‘At one end are persons who express a slight preference for a fetish object; next are those holding a “strong preference;” next, those who must have the fetish to function sexually; and, at last, those who substitute the fetish for a human sexual partner.’[345] Gebhard believes that statistical normality ends and fetish deviance begins approximately at the point where strong preference is expressed.”[346] “Fetishism is actually an intensification of the normal tendencies existing in almost all people. The fetishist obtains sexual gratification from a particular object or body part because of its unique relationship to some childhood conditioning.”

Money and Musaph have some interesting observations on fetishism. There is even a linkage of brain diseases with fetishism … “observed in small number of patients with psychomotor epilepsy.”[347] A possible relationship between paraphilia and temporal lobe abnormality is suggested by two cases in which the paraphilia was totally eradicated following the ‘cure’ of psychomotor epilepsy by unilateral temporal lobotomy.” Money and Musaph mention deviation theory as a cause of fetishism. They claim that the degeneration of hereditary/normal factors is necessary before perversity can develop. “The abnormality consists only if a partial aspect of the person of the opposite sex will attract the entire sexual interest, so that all other aspects pale beside it more or less into indifference.” A sharp distinction between the fetish and the person as a whole is not possible. “ … In the life of every fetishist there can be assumed to have been an event which determined that particular stimulus is colored by sexual pleasure. This event will have taken place in early youth.” Good results in the treatment of fetishism have been reported.

Ford asserts that the fetish need not be physical and cites the case of a man who experienced a sudden orgasm on hearing a patient coughing in a paroxysmal fashion. “The association was with his mother, who was a consumptive, and with whom he had a strongly Oedipal relationship.”[348]

Mair claims that feet are the second most common sexual symbol among human cultures. He mentions that of the fifty clearly defined fetishes, foot and shoe fetishes are the most intense, most common, and most ancient. He claims that many “famous men were foot or shoe lovers, including Thomas Hardy, Goethe, filmmaker D. W. Griffith, and author George du Maurier.”[349] In the United States there is a national foot fetish organization, the Lotus Love Foot Erotica Club, which publishes a newsletter called Foot-Notes and provides a personal introduction service. The Palace of Pedic Pleasure in London is a brothel specializing in the use of feet and toes to stimulate clients. “There is the Mackintosh Society, whose members have a fetish for clothing made of rubber, because of both the smell and the texture. It has one thousand members in twenty-three countries.”

Money describes the transvestite male who must wear some article of female clothing himself before he can perform sexually as a fetishist. He notes that the enema fetish (klismaphilia), soiled underclothes, and products of elimination (urophilia and coprophilia) are also fetish paraphilias.[350] “The fetishist’s erotosexual arousal is contingent on something less than a complete sexual partner … Even if the partner is present and having intercourse with him, the fetishist will be dependent on the fetish object, or at least the memory image of it, in order to perform successfully. He may also use the fetish when alone, masturbating, as a substitute for coitus.”[351]

Money points out that “Religion, mythology, and folklore in our society have, since ancient times, been replete with relics, talismans, amulets, fetishes, charms that work miracles, protect from harm, and have mystical powers of prophecy and magic.”[352] He lists several paraphilias that are related to fetishism: hyphephilia, the touchy-feely paraphilia; mysophilia, erotic attraction to filth; klismaphilia, the enema paraphilia; olfactophilia, the smell fetish; autonepiophilia, infantilism or paraphiliac wearing of diapers; and transvestophlia, paraphiliac transvestism or cross-dressing. “Transvestophilia is only secondarily a fetishistic syndrome. Primarily it is one of the gender-transposition syndromes.”

DSM-IV splits the sexual disorder into two categories: fetishism (code 302.81) and transvestic fetishism (code 302.3).[353] Diagnostic criteria for fetishism are: 1) Over a period of at least six months, recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects (e.g., female undergarments). 2) The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. 3) The fetish objects are not limited to articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (as in transvestic fetishism) or devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation (e.g., a vibrator).

Diagnostic criteria for transvestic fetishism are: 1) Over a period of a least six months, in a heterosexual male, recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing. 2) The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. DSM-IV also points out that fetishism tends to be chronic and typically begins in childhood.

Crenshaw reports that in a case report by Fedoroff,[354] the serotonin agonist buspirone reduced paraphiliac fantasies and transvestic fetishism.[355] It is difficult to find literature about other successful medical treatments for fetishes. Psychotherapies, mainly aversive therapy and systematic desensitization, have been used with inconclusive results.

Fetishistic behavior is often labeled by the police as “disorderly conduct” and is seldom recorded as a “sex offense.” Organizations catering to these individuals have emerged openly in the past few years, including the Macintosh Society and the Atomage Correspondence Club. The Atomage Club had about 200 members and specialized in leather clothing for sadomasochism. Fetishists may be homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual, and the majority of them are seldom prosecuted.[356]

The Weinberg, Williams, and Callahan study of 262 homosexual foot fetishists found considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices. “Of all forms of erotic symbolism, the most frequent is that which idealizes the foot and the shoe.”[357] Extreme sexual attraction to high-heeled shoes is called “altocalciphilia,” and general shoe fetishism is called “retifism.” Leg fetishism is “crurofact,” and the study of members in still another 1,100-plus membership organization, the Foot Fraternity, in the United States. The 262 homosexual foot fetishists in this study primarily learned fetishism in childhood (mean age twelve years), reportedly from pleasurable experiences rather than negative ones as some researchers have hypothesized. Masturbatory fantasies were important reinforcers to 80 percent of the respondents in the study, and fewer than a quarter of them were characterized by a distinct psychotic personality profile.

At the same time that President Clinton was preparing to make his acceptance speech for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination, it was revealed that his top strategic advisor, Dick Morris, was a foot fetishist who had paid a Washington prostitute $200 an hour for “kinky” sex more than 400 times. He would suck her toes, lick the bottoms of her feet, and have her rub her feet over his face, chest, and genitals. He also showed her a foot fetish magazine with photographs of men sucking women’s toes.

On the night of August 22, 1996, a reporter for the Star tabloid newspaper had photographed Morris and the prostitute together on the terrace of Dick Morris’ $440-a-day hotel room, which had been paid for by President Clinton’s campaign funds. The prostitute had kept a diary of her meetings with Morris for nearly a year and sold the story for nearly $50,000 to the tabloid with the details of his peculiarities. The story was on the cover of Time, Star, and Newsweek, as well as the front page of many of the nation’s newspapers.

On May 31, 2000, Darin Keith Swearington, thirty-three, son of a Bayou La Batre minister, was given a life term sentence for his foot fetish activities. Swearington was classified as a habitual offender who had stalked women in Birmingham and Mobile, Alabama, burglarized the women’s homes, and used their shoes for sexual pleasure. He had stalked two young women in Mobile, while he was out on $160,000 bail from his Birmingham case, and stuffed twenty to thirty pairs of their shoes in a refrigerator and freezer while the women were out of their apartment. A week later, he had taken girls’ shoes and underwear from a school.[358]

M. Pyromania

Pyromania is compulsive fire setting—a type of arson. Arson is the intentional damage or destruction of property by means of fire or explosives. The motivation for the pyromania type of arson is sexual. A pyromaniac receives sexual gratification by setting fires, seeing the flames, smelling the smoke, or hearing or seeing firefighting equipment. Often the pyromaniac is drunk or under the influence of drugs when setting the fire. One of the reasons that the crime is poorly prosecuted is the general poor understanding of the motivations.

Morneau and Rockwell list pyromania as one of the dangerous perversions, along with lust mutilation, rape, necrophilia, flagellation, and pedophilia.[359] They point out that knowing that pyromaniacs were frequently bed wetters and cruel to animals in their youth can help perceptive law enforcement officers develop suspects. Pyromania is also associated with low intelligence, low impulse control, and learning disabilities. Many pyromaniac people are reckless drivers and have frequent outbursts of uncontrolled rage. Karpman writes, “Pyromania belongs to a particular developmental phase in psychosexual development. Awakening and ungratified sexuality often impel neurotic persons to seek a symbolic solution of the conflict between instinct and reality. There is a relation between impotence and frigidity and pyromania. Homosexual, sadistic, or other regressive motives may be at work. Orgasm may be achieved during conflagration.”[360] Half of all persons arrested for arson are juveniles.[361]

The pyromaniac typically experiences mounting tension, restlessness, and an urge for motion as the first symptoms of an oncoming act of pyromania. As the fire is lit, or during the act, sexual excitement and gratification are achieved.[362] Once orgasm occurs, the individual often feels guilty and frequently steps forward to help extinguish the blaze.[363]

Pyromania has been associated with the sex urge for a long time, but only in recent years has this been confirmed and clarified. Stekel published a detailed description of pyromaniacs.[364] Karpman used this case material to delve deeper into the sexual aspects of these arsons.[365] Conn and Guttmacher added case material observations.[366][367] McCary was one of those who classifies pyromania under the heading of fetishism.[368] About half of the pyromaniacs who have been studied were of subnormal intelligence or mentally defective. DSM IV points out that it is important to rule out other causes of fire setting before giving a diagnosis of pyromania.[369] Volavka suggests that fire setters have a disturbance of the brain’s serotonergic system, which is very much involved with the sexuality of men.[370] Fire is a symbol of sexuality. Orgasm may be achieved during conflagration.

Pyromaniacs and other types of arsonists ignited more than 140 churches across the southern part of the United States in the 1995–1996 period. During the first nine months of 1996, there were ninety-two churches worshipped in by blacks set on fire and 148 other churches. Almost all of the publicity blamed the fires on racial strife. None of the numerous newspaper and magazine articles on the fires mentioned the obvious fact that pyromaniacs ignited a percentage of them. Apparently the sexual motivation to ignite fires is still not widely known.

Nationwide, 429 arson fires, bombings, and attempted bombings of houses of worship were investigated in 1996 and 1997. The FBI reported 199 people were arrested in connection with 150 of the church arson fires.[371]

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice mentioned in their national satellite TV broadcast of November 14, 2000, that each year police make more than 250,000 arrests of children age twelve and younger. Of all juvenile (under age eighteen) arrests, those of very young offenders account for one in three of arson, and one in five for sex offense.

More than 33,000 wildfires hit the South in 2001, the worst rash for nearly a decade. Nine suspects were arrested on arson charges in Tennessee. Most of the suspects who started some of the thousands of wildfires tell investigators nearly the same story each time—they were bored. “Most say it’s something to do,” Tennessee Agriculture Crime Unit supervisor Max Thomas said. These people were apparently looking for the excitement the fires caused.

N. Mysophilia

Mysophilia is the general term for a group of paraphilias in which sexual excitement is generated by filth or excretions. Krafft-Ebing attributes it to “latent masochism”—disgusting acts for the purpose of self-humiliation and sexual gratification.[372] “Impressions obtained through the taste and smell, which in the normal man produce only feelings of nausea and disgust, are made the basis of the most vivid emotions of lust producing in the perverse subject mighty impulses to orgasm and even ejaculation.” Coprophilia and urophilia are subtypes describing specific types of excreta. These are listed in the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM III-R as “sexual disorders not otherwise specified” and defined as paraphilias that do not meet the criteria for any of the other specific categories.

Coprophilia (also coprolagnia) is a paraphilia in which sexual excitement is associated with eating, smelling, throwing, or handling feces. The act of defecation is also involved. Havelock Ellis tells of Parisian brothels, which were called “tabouret de verre,” that had glass floors so the customers could watch women defecating at close range.[373] Karpman and Freud saw it as directly traceable to early childhood experiences and interests. James Beal, sixty-two, pleaded guilty December 11, 2001, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to splattering postal employees with feces. He faced three to twelve years in prison. The Bible mentions eating excrement and drinking urine in 2 Kings 18:27 and Isaiah 36:12.

Coprophagia is a closely allied term meaning “ingestion of dung or feces.” In the ancient Hindu ascetical sect in India known as “Tapas,” or the “Tapasians,” the diet was supplemented with cow dung, human excreta, and urine.[374] In the Academy Award-winning film The Last Emperor, the preoccupation with the young emperor’s feces was depicted and coprophagia implied. Today, the sexual act of being smeared with feces is referred as a “mud wrestling.” The rampant promiscuity of the gay liberation movement has enabled this disgusting preoccupation with awful offal to become more common. The resurgence of formerly rare bowel diseases among homosexual men is one of the results.

Urophilia is the paraphilia in which sexual excitement is generated by urine or urination. Watching one another urinate fascinates children, as well as some adults. Increased sexual excitement causes some women to expend urine. Men cannot urinate with an erection. Undinism is the association of sexual ideas with water, including urine. In this perversion, the urophiliac enjoys having a partner urinate into his or her mouth or on his body (“golden showers”). Time magazine of October 24, 1977, and the 60 Minutes television program of June 4, 1978, both mentioned Prime Minister Desai of India’s habit of drinking his own urine in a “urine therapy.” At least two books and a newspaper article have been published which advocate “uropathy”: John W. Armstrong’s The Water of Life: A Treatise on Urine Therapy, The Waters of Life Institute’s The Miracle of Urine Therapy, and Martha M. Christy’s Your Own Perfect Medicine. On page 7 of her book, Christy claims urine is “one of the most powerful medicines known to man.” Drinking urine has been taught as a survival technique to military and travelers in the desert.

O. Prostitution

Prostitution, often referred to as “commercial vice,” is a sex offense that is characterized by the payment of money or favors for sexual services. It is often referred to as “The World’s Oldest Profession,” but as Tannahill points out: “If the word profession is taken to imply specialization on a more-or-less full-time basis, then the Shaman, or Witch Doctor, was probably ahead of the prostitute by thousands, or even tens of thousands of years.”[375] Later in her book she enumerates the history of the second oldest profession from the most ancient Sumerian temple prostitutes down through the harimto of Babylon, the Greek temple hetairai, the Green Bower Girls of China, the Giyân of Baghdad, the auianine of Mexico, and the various types of bordello women of more recent history.

In AD 1 in Rome, there were 36,000 registered prostitutes. In 1760 in Paris, one of every eight women was a prostitute. In the late 1700s in London, child brothels proliferated with fourteen- and fifteen-year-old harlots in an attempt to avoid the serious venereal diseases of the older whores of that period. In 1844 in New York, it was estimated that there was one prostitute for every seven men in the population. The famous Kinsey Reports of 1948 and 1953 reported that 70 percent of the men in the United States had visited a prostitute at least once. In 1977, it was estimated up to 3,000 boys and girls under the age of fourteen were engaged in prostitution in Los Angeles.[376] In 1980, prostitution was outlawed in thirty-eight states and two states punished prostitutes under anti-vagrancy laws. California tried to decriminalize it but was not successful. Prostitution has been legal in Nevada for many years, and several counties there permit open bordellos. In 1996, prostitutes advertised openly on the main streets. Forty-four states have statutes against the act of soliciting (asking a woman for sex for pay). France, Germany, Italy, Spain, England, Switzerland, and the Netherlands have attempted to control the worst features of the bawdy houses from time to time by operating them as government enterprises. In 1992, Amsterdam decided to promote its booming annual $830 million sex industry as part of its tourist trade.[377] There are, however, still existing strong religious sanctions against it.

In Muslim countries, prostitution is strongly prohibited. Three prostitutes were executed by firing squad in Tehran in July 1979, and twenty-seven of their male patrons were flogged with fifteen lashes each. In 2001, a fundamentalist killed twenty prostitutes in Iran for “the sake of God.” The Koran says: “Scourge the whore and the whore monger with a hundred lashes … you must not give way to pity in God’s religion.” Biblical law made whoring a capital crime. When Tamar played the whore, Judah said, “Bring her out, and let her be burned” (Genesis 38:24). “When the daughter of a priest profanes herself through prostitution, she profanes her father; she shall be burned to death” (Leviticus 21:9). “… The men of her town shall stone her to death, because she committed a disgraceful act in Israel by prostituting herself in her father’s house” (Deuteronomy 22:21). “… Wild beasts, these will hate the harlot and make her devastated” (Revelation 17:16). Christ, however, absolved, befriended, and honored Mary Magdalene who had been a prostitute. Later in church history, we find that Saint Thais, Saint Pelagia, and Saint Mary of Egypt were also absolved of their sexual sins.

The communist government of the People’s Republic of China was remarkably successful in reducing prostitution in that country nearly to the disappearing point. It required a major effort with heavily repressive measures over a long period time—some fifteen years between 1950 and 1965—to accomplish it. But, by the year 2001, prostitution had returned to China with a vengeance, according to an incisive article in the September 3rd U.S. News & World Report. Just as AIDS first spread in Africa, along the truck routes from prostitute to trucker to prostitute, a similar pattern now shows in China. From the Burmese border city of Ruili north and east, AIDS has spread mainly along the truck routes where brothels proliferate. Along China’s Route 107 in towns such as Wenlou in Henan province, giant neon signs blaring names like “Sweet Heaven” on hotels are reputed to have as many as 600 women in them. Strangely, also in the year 2001, a high official in the World Health Organization (WHO) was advocating decriminalization of prostitution in Asia because the laws were threatening WHO efforts to control the HIV. Gilles Poumeral, WHO Western Pacific regional advisor on HIV/AIDS, said, “We are certainly advocating decriminalization of prostitution in Asia.”[378]

In the United States, a major poll of the populace, the National Survey of Crime Severity, taken in 1985, scored the various aspects of prostitution as follows:

ASPECT SCORE
A person gets customers for prostitutes 6.4
A person runs a prostitution ring 6.1
A woman engages in prostitution 2.1
A person is a customer in a house of prostitution 1.6

So it would seem that the general opinion is that prostitution in itself is not too serious a crime, but those others who illegally profit from it are more censored.

In addition to the moral proscriptions against prostitution, there are economic and health problems. Along with the prostitutes go the white slavers, organized crime, madams, pimps, procurers, police corruption, bribery, drug addiction, alcoholism, and venereal disease. Today there are four general types of a female prostitute: the call girl (at the top of the hierarchy), the part-time prostitute, the house girl, and the streetwalker (at the bottom of the hierarchy). More than half of the female prostitutes tested in Nairobi and 40 percent of those in Miami tested positive for the AIDS virus. Their high frequency of sexual encounters with anonymous partners—thirty to forty per week is not uncommon—often results in lesions and sores, which provide ports for the entry of the infection[379] In the United States, 62 percent of female-reported AIDS cases were in black women.[380]

The police in Pensacola, Florida, resorted to a form of entrapment in August and December 1990 when they stationed female undercover agents among the prostitutes and seized the men who approached them for sex. The names and addresses of those arrested were published in the newspaper, and these men were given a $250 to $500 fine for the crime of soliciting. Judge William White imposed an additional punishment on a dozen of these men by sentencing them to buy space in the newspaper to run their photographs.[381] This type of publicity has destroyed several families. It is one thing to know your partner had visited a prostitute and quite another to have the whole town aware of it.

The consequences of being revealed as a customer of a prostitute are often catastrophic in the lives of these men. Florida State Representative Marvin Couch, forty-two, resigned his office March 1, 1996, after being caught in the act of being fellated by a prostitute in his pickup truck. Couch attended prayer meetings in the Capitol with other lawmakers who call themselves the “God Squad” and earned a perfect rating from the Christian Coalition of Florida for his service since 1992. At the time, Couch was married and had six children. After his arrest, he admitted that he had paid prostitutes for sex in the past.[382]

One of the most sensational news stories of 1993 was about a ring of prostitutes in Hollywood, California, who worked for Heidi, an upper-class young woman, and served the many varied sexual desires of the rich and famous in the film industry. Two of the prostitutes—a good friend (who has written a book about her activities) of Heidi’s and another Hollywood madam—appeared on the Maury Povich television show on September 8, 1993, and told of the great amounts of money they were sometimes paid (up to $15,000) and expensive gifts they received. The usual fee for an evening was $1,500. The customers would often fall in love with these beautiful, young women and maintain expensive affairs with them. As Heidi’s trials were paraded through the media, many of the rich and famous in Hollywood had their marriages and careers seriously jeopardized. Heidi’s address book contained the names of many actors, directors, and executives in the movie industry. This book fell into the hands of the Hollywood Police Department.

A Playboy report on the subject, although admitting that prostitution is more open today than formerly, points out that there is a continuation of a long-term trend of less frequent male patronage of prostitutes than in former generations. This trend has coincided with the emancipation of women and the decay of the double standard, for, as dating partners have become sexual partners, prostitutes have become somewhat more unnecessary and undesirable. Still, there are many women today that have discovered that they can be very well paid for doing something they would rather do than anything else that they know of. Thanks to modern devices, techniques, and medications, they have relatively less to fear from pregnancy and disease than in former times. Prostitutes organized in the 1980s in efforts to decriminalize prostitution in such groups as COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics), PONY (Prostitutes of New York), and ASP (Associated Seattle Prostitutes). In 2002, there was an organization called Helping Individual Prostitutes Survive (HIPS) that had been cruising the streets in Washington, DC, since 1993 and handing out free condoms to street prostitutes.[383]

A former prostitute who called herself Jane Roe II of West Palm Beach, Florida, entered a federal lawsuit against the prostitution laws in May 1995. In her petition, she described her old job as a “lucrative (and often glamourous) business” to which she would like to return.[384] It’s not a frivolous lawsuit. U.S. District Judge Jose A. Gonzales, Jr., refused to toss the case out even after receiving a request from the State Attorney General Bob Butterworth’s office. The state plans to fight. “This right just plain does not exist,” said Cecil Dykas, an assistant attorney general in Hollywood. “You do not have a privacy right as she’s defined it.”

A conference was held among more than 100 nations in Sweden in 1996 to cooperate more closely to protect children from being lured into prostitution, but on March 23, 1997, several articles were published in the newspapers from Associated Press writers Donna Bryson and L. J. Hazleton that indicated that the problem of child prostitution was getting worse. The United Nations Children’s Fund estimated that every year at least one million children, most of them girls, become prostitutes. UNICEF’s estimate included at least 100,000 children in the United States and an equal number in India. In Kenya, child prostitution has become accepted as normal.[385] Most of the exploiters of child prostitutes are local, near their home, but there is also a worldwide network that encourages a thriving tourist trade.[386]

A more recent estimate in 1997 puts the estimate at 1,000,000 adults and 500,000 juvenile prostitutes in the United States, 50 percent of whom are street prostitutes. Seventy percent of the women in jail were first arrested for prostitution and “over 30% of the females currently in jail are incarcerated solely on prostitution charges.”[387] Why should it be illegal to sell something that is perfectly legal to give away?

Although prostitution is primarily a female crime, there is also a substantial number of male prostitutes. In Atlanta, Georgia, which was considered a gay epicenter in 1994, Boles and Elifson identified a sample of 224 male street prostitutes. Their sample included 17.9 percent homosexual, 46.4 percent heterosexual, and 35.7 percent bisexually identified men. The rate of HIV infection was 50 percent for the homosexual, 18.5 percent for the heterosexual, and 36.5 percent for the bisexual. Thirty percent of the homosexuals, 20.8 percent of the heterosexuals, and 32.1 percent of the bisexuals had syphilis. Addicted to cocaine were 87.8 percent of the homosexuals, 68.2 percent of the heterosexuals, and 81.2 percent of the bisexuals. Of the sample, 17.9 percent were black and 82.1 percent were white.[388]

The literature on prostitution is vast and difficult to summarize because of the widely different viewpoints on the subject. Prostitution is alive and well in the United States. It is obvious that if prostitution continues to exist in our culture, there is a need for this service; otherwise, it would not exist. In the Bible, Ezekiel 23 tells the story of two sisters in prostitution and dire punishments of stoning and cutting off nose and ears.

P. Bestiality and Zooerasty

These are terms denoting sex acts between man and animal. Zoophilia is the experiencing of sexual excitement by stroking or fondling animals. It is usually associated with experimental sexual activities of adolescents in rural communities and is considered a paraphilia only when it involves the deliberate continued use of animals as sexual objects. Bestiality is subject to social ostracism and penalties in almost every state. Rhode Island imposes prison for not less than seven years, but in Minnesota, the penalty is not more than one year. According to Victor Streib, law professor at Cleveland State University, the first execution of a juvenile was for bestiality in Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts, in 1642. Old English law classified carnal knowledge of an animal by a man or woman as one of the “unnatural” sex offenses (Cushing, 1950). The Bible classed it as a perversion (Leviticus 18:23) and dictated death for the man or woman and the beast (Leviticus 20:15–16).

In spite of legends to the contrary, such as those cited by Valeria Finucci in her 2003 book The Manly Masquerade (p. 58–65), the ancient Greek minotaur of Minos, and Leda and the swan, the sexual connection of human beings and lower animals is generally grossly unsuitable in the anatomical sense and universally nonfunctional in the reproductive sense. The 1948 Kinsey investigators estimated that 17 percent of men reared on farms in the United States had at least some sexual contact with animals and that coitus with calves, sheep, or burros was the most frequent type. Calves will suck whatever is placed in their mouth whether it is their mother’s teat, a finger, or a little boy’s penis. Kinsey estimated that 3.6 percent of the women in his sample had some sort of contact with animals and that half that number involved only general bodily contact; about a fifth had the animals lick their genitals, and only one woman in his entire 12,000-plus sample group had actual coitus with an animal. The Playboy survey reported roughly comparable observations. This is in spite of a considerable amount of pornography that depicts a male animal such as a pony, donkey, or large dog copulating with a woman.

Bestiality is a source of several serious diseases in humans. As a result of concentrated study brought about by the AIDS plague, it has recently been observed that whenever a disease crosses the barrier from one species of animal to another, the results are often devastating. A virus or other disease-causing agent may not harm its normal host, but can be deadly in its new host. The myxomatosis virus causes harmless warts in the South American jungle rabbit, but leads to a 99 percent mortality rate in the European rabbit. The virus of African swine fever does not inconvenience the African warthog, but it kills nearly all infected European pigs.[389] AIDS itself is a disease that has somehow crossed the species barrier from the African green monkey to man. Other diseases formerly found only in animals are now beginning to show up in men: Toxoplasmosis is caused by a small intracellular parasite often found in cat feces; cryptosporidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by a protozoan usually found in farm livestock, cats, dogs, and other animals only; giardiasis is a bowel disease caused by the flagellate Giardia Lamblia, which is usually found only in beavers.

Doctor Peter K. Lewin, of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, has speculated that cases of AIDS-like diseases may have originated from the Visna virus, which is endemic in flocks of sheep in Europe. This virus causes a neuro-degenerative disease similar to the late stages of AIDS in some patients. It may have come from a member of a homosexual group known for its lax sexual mores in Northwest Europe.[390] Syphilis also was believed to have originated from sheep.

Dr. Gene G. Abel, head of the Behavioral Medical Institute of Atlanta, told the Annual Conference of the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists on May 12, 2000, that bestiality is a major factor leading to other sexual misconduct. Sex with the lower animals is necessarily impersonal in that there is very little intellectual interaction. This is likely to cause the zoophiliac to be impersonal with a wife, girlfriend, or sexual assault victim in later life. If you can be sexual with an animal and no love or romance is involved, it will likely be the same way later with people, he rationalized.

Mark Matthews’ book The Horseman (1994) is an autobiographical account of his love affair with a pony. Matthews reported that some zoophiles he knows are not unlike transsexuals. Matthews has founded a nonprofessional support group for zoophiles called the Zoophilic Outreach Organization (ZOO) and argues that the majority of the members are fully functioning members of society who are merely sexually diverse and do not require any “treatment.”

Bestiality may range from touching or fondling the genitals of animals to sexual intercourse and violent sexual abuse. Some species of animals may be seriously injured or die as a result of the abuse inflicted (e.g., penetration that damages internal organs). In a study of sexual homicide, 40 percent of the men who said they had been sexually abused in childhood reported having sexual contact with animals.[391]

Q. Scoptophilia

Scoptophilia, or scoptolagnia, literally means “love of looking.” The scoptophiliacs are generally the voyeur or “peeping Tom” (named for one of the characters in the legend of Lady Godiva), types who derive excessive sexual excitement from surreptitiously viewing other people’s genitalia. Mixoscopia is a term for the sexual excitement and gratification resulting from watching others in the sex act. Another related type of scoptophiliac is the exhibitionist (flasher or autagonistophiliac), an indecent exposer who derives sexual excitement from having others see his sexual organs. Scoptophilia is the most frequently reported of the sex offenses, resulting in some 35 percent of all sex crimes known to the police in some jurisdictions.[392] It is considered a nuisance offense, generally implying no serious threat or assault. Freud linked voyeurism and exhibitionism as two aspects of the same problem in which the sexual energy is totally used up in the act of looking.[393] Many scientists had hypothesized that early peeping predicated later, more assaultive sexual and nonsexual crime, but this has not been borne out by modern research. Langevin found the association very weak: 18 percent of voyeurs in one study and only 3 percent in another study had assault convictions.[394] Another theory is that we have inherited it from our ancient animal ancestors’ mating displays.

R. Exhibitionism and Voyeurism

Exhibitionism and voyeurism, in spite of being among the most minor kinds of sex crimes, often get participants into very serious trouble. On August 27, 1997, Robert Doolittle shot Greg Dean Cowart in the neck as he tried to enter his home in Pensacola, Florida, at about 11 pm. Cowart was wanted in other states on flashing charges.[395] On March 19, 1998, a Florida state panel passed legislation creating criminal penalties for voyeuristic acts such as secretly videotaping, recording, or filming people in places where they have an expectation of privacy such as a restroom or dressing room. Those convicted of “lewd, lascivious, or indecent” conduct under the bill could be found guilty of a first-degree misdemeanor and face imprisonment for up to a year. A subsequent conviction for a similar offense would be a felony, punishable by up to five years in prison.[396] In St. Louis, Missouri, James Beine, sixty-one, a defrocked Roman Catholic priest, was sentenced to twelve years in prison on September 15, 2003, for exposing himself. Beine had been dismissed from the priesthood in 1977 over allegations of sexual abuse.

Thanks to technological advances that have allowed tiny, affordable video cameras to fall into the hands of peeping Toms with a penchant for voyeurism, private moments of individuals became available to someone’s VCR or even on the Internet. Smoke detectors, exit signs, cellular phones, stuffed animals—almost anything can hold a hidden camera, spawning a troubling new market in voyeurism. Some Internet entrepreneurs were selling videotapes or charging for sneak peeks on their Web sites in 1999, and the practice was hard to stop. Some voyeurs even put little mirrors on their shoes that contained little hidden cameras that allowed them to shoot pictures up women’s skirts.[397]

Public displays of affection are generally considered acceptable, but there is a line of demarcation where private, intimate actions become public exhibitionistic performances. Tolerance guidelines are something like this: holding hands? No problem. Walking arm in arm? That’s cool. Hugging? Okay, depending on the amount and duration of body contact. Kissing? Fine, if it’s quick and tidy, but no tongues please. Petting and fondling? Nope. Illegal use of the hands is a major no-no. For a lot of people, this is where lovey-dovey innocent stuff turns into serious, sexual behavior. Foreplay and beyond? Absolutely not. Expect to get a ticket for indecent exposure or exhibitionism if you’re caught with your pants down.[398]

A man who exposes his genitals is typically described as filth, while a woman who exposes is typically described as entertainment. A woman who chooses to expose can often earn a lot of money by exposing.[399] Most exhibitionists commit a large number of sexually deviant acts during their lives and show a continued propensity to re-offend. In a study of 561 adult subjects, exhibitionists reported a lifetime average of more than 500 incidents.[400]

Other variants of exhibitionism are called “streaking” and “mooning.” Streaking was popular in the 1970s and involved individuals or groups, often college students, running naked through public areas, sometimes during graduation exercises. A twenty-seven-year-old man streaked past Queen Elizabeth II’s Rolls Royce on May 7, 2002, as the queen and Prince Philip toured through the town of Newcastle. Streakers are usually male. Similarly, males are more likely than females to moon, or expose, their bare buttocks in someone’s direction, typically to express contempt.

Peodeiktophilia, “love of showing the penis,” is a psychoanalytic model thought to be connected with early childhood relationships with mothers.

S. Pornophilia

The pornophiliac derives his primary sexual stimulation from pornography. Pornography (from the Greek porne and graphos) is the depiction of erotic behavior in pictures, writings, books, magazines, movies, plays, videocassettes, letters, or commercial products designed to elicit or enhance sexual arousal. A pornographer is one who deals in obscenity. The definition of obscenity and the prohibition against censorship involved in the First Amendment right to free speech are two of the main points concerning pornography that have been argued endlessly in our courts. The U.S. Supreme Court has handled more obscenity cases than nearly any other issue in its history. In the landmark 1957 Roth v. U.S. (354 U.S. 476) and Alberts v. California decisions of the court, the definition of obscenity was left up to local officials and the contemporary community standards of the region. If the material in question has some redeeming social value, then it is not to be considered obscene.

Other countries have resolved their similar problems by completely rescinding all laws against pornography. Denmark did this in 1968, and Sweden drastically modified its laws in 1971, so erotic material has become widely distributed in these countries. The result was a decline in the sales of pornographic materials and a drop in the number of sex crimes in the first year after the change in the law.[401][402] Erotographomania is a term sometimes used to distinguish conduct in which major sexual satisfaction is derived from viewing explicit paintings, sculpture, or other objects.

The ancient biblical guidance from Genesis 3 is that Eve saw the fruit and it looked good, and when Adam and Eve ate of the Tree of Knowledge, their eyes were opened and they saw that they were naked and were ashamed, and God punished them. Christ, in his great sermon on the mount, said, “You have heard it said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin tear it out and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to be thrown into hell” (Matthew 5:27–29). “The eye is the lamp of the body. So, if your eye is healthy, your whole body will be full of light; but if your eye is unhealthy, your whole body will be full of darkness” (Matthew 6:22–23).

The eye is the window to the soul. Most of what we know comes from what we see. If we see tempting material, we will be tempted to do as the material suggests. Viewing pornography can easily lead us into crime.

The Federal Comstock Obscenity Act of 1872 classified contraceptive literature and devices as obscene material, but this was modified in 1936 so that physicians could prescribe contraceptives “ … for the purpose of saving life or well-being of patients.” This major change in the description of pornography was mainly the work of Margaret Sanger, founder of the birth control movement in the United States. She opened the nation’s first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York, in 1916, and was made to serve thirty days in the workhouse in 1917 for “maintaining a public nuisance.” This illustrates how far we have come in the past eighty years in our approaches to this sex crime.

Several massive studies have been made of the harmful effects of pornography in order to formulate appropriate laws controlling it. Nineteen of the nation’s top experts conducted a two-year study in a Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, which published its 700-page report in 1970. The general resulting conclusion was that little, if any, harm could be directly traced to the effects of pornography. A second Presidential Commission, under the chairmanship of Henry Hudson, a Virginia state prosecutor who had earned a reputation of being a “policeman’s prosecutor” with his crackdowns on massage parlors and adult bookstores, made an about-face in their conclusion. The members of the commission noted that the United States was becoming increasingly “pervaded by sexual explicitness” in all forms of media. In their nearly 2,000-page 1986 report, they asserted that sex crimes can be linked to hardcore pornography and recommended that Congress force pornography traffickers to forfeit their profits and be prosecuted. A second conviction under obscenity laws would become a felony, guaranteeing at least a year behind bars.

There has been considerable hue and cry over the follow-up Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act of 1987 with tens of thousands of letters and telephone calls to congressmen. Most of them were urging swift passage of the bill coming from a campaign orchestrated by the American Family Association of Tupelo, Mississippi.[403] President Reagan signed the bill into law on November 18, 1988. Several women’s organizations, most notably Women Against Pornography (WAP), have also been successful in securing more restrictive anti-pornography legislation in some parts of the country.

Pornographic material that depicts dirty pictures of children was particularly objectionable to a majority of the public in 1989. Michael P. Haggerty, thirty-six, of Pensacola, Florida, was sentenced to 143 years in prison in 1987 for child pornography production and distribution. It is forbidden in all of the states, and thirteen states even bar “kiddie-porn” possession. The stigma of being exposed as a person possessing this material is so severe that it caused at least two men to kill themselves in 1987. A twenty-five-year-old Ohio student shot himself after being indicted for possessing child porn, and a Wisconsin lawyer left a suicide note that he had been “cursed with a demon for a sexual preference.” In 1989, a Florida man could be sentenced to five years behind bars for possessing one item of child pornography. The 1985 National Survey of Crime Severity rated the seriousness of showing pornographic movies to a minor child at the rather high score of 5.7. Congress twice directed the sentencing commission to increase its length of sentence guidelines for child pornography, once in November 1991 and again in April 1995.

The 1996 Child Pornography Prevention Act, which forbade any visual depiction of what “appears to be” children in sexually explicit situations, was still being discussed in the U.S. Supreme Court on October 30, 2001. Free speech advocates and pornographers were once again challenging the pornography laws.

In the second week of September 1998, government agents in thirteen countries raided the homes of dozens of members of the Wonderland Club, the largest child pornography ring yet encountered. Authorities in Europe and Australia locked up forty-nine people and planned dozens more arrests. Members traded “in the most vile pornography imaginable over the Internet. The images depicted everything from sexual abuse to the actual rape of children,” some as young as eighteen months.[404] The only thing they banned were snuff pictures, the actual killing of somebody. One alleged club member in Allen, Texas, committed suicide after being served with a search warrant. The case grew out of a 1996 bust of a San Jose, California, child pornography ring called the Orchid Club. One of the pedophiles cooperated with the agents by identifying an online purveyor of child porn in England where agents were able to uncover the Wonderland Club.

Another case of very heavy sentencing for pornography was reported in the Pensacola News Journal on February 4, 2000. Former navy computer maintenance man Andrew Peter Clark, thirty-four, of Corry Station, Florida, was discharged from the navy and sentenced to fifteen years in prison, ten years probation, and two years of community control for collecting and distributing pornographic photos of children.[405] In August 2001, 100 people were arrested for Internet child porn and one Web site owner was sentenced to life in prison. Rapists, kidnappers, and even some murderers have been sentenced to fifteen years.

Hollywood broached the queasy topic of erotic snuff films in their 8mm film in 1999, and in June that year, two men in Germany received life sentences for killing a woman on film. Dieter Korzen, thirty-seven, and Stefan Mahn, thirty, kidnapped a Turkish prostitute in Cologne and took her to a rural farmhouse. Then after setting the cameras rolling, they sexually tortured her, duct-taped her nose and mouth, then strangled her with a belt. In need of more footage, the men kidnapped a local woman and assaulted her in a similar fashion. But while Korzen took a break, the woman convinced Mahn that she’d fallen in love with him and begged him to take her home so she could change clothes. He agreed. Once there, she slipped out the back door and called the police. The police then descended on the farmhouse and captured Korzen, seized the videotape, and discovered the dead prostitute buried under a pile of manure. The local prosecutor said, “This represents a new depth in perversion.”[406]

Playboy magazine has for many years outsold any other periodical, and it has been called “pornographic” due to its nude photographs and erotic writings. Hustler, another sexually oriented magazine, has been indicted and its publisher convicted and sent to prison for violating obscenity laws. Officials at the 14,000-student St. Cloud State University in Minnesota removed Playboy, Playgirl, and Penthouse magazines from the shelves of the campus bookstore January 20, 1989, in response to a four-day, sit-in demonstration by a coalition of female students and an anti-violence organization.[407]

Lust-murderer Ted Bundy, who may have killed more than 100 young women, tearfully told Dr. James Dobson, psychologist, California religious broadcaster, and member of the second Presidential Commission on Pornography, that his crimes “should serve as a warning to the danger of pornography.” Bundy warned the public in his televised interview with Dobson on the day before his execution that “there are people loose in their towns and their communities like me. What scares me, Mr. Dobson, is when I see what’s on cable TV, some of the movies and some of the violence in the movies that comes into homes today … that stuff, I’m telling you from personal experience, is the most graphic violence on the screen that gets to children who are unaware that they may be a Ted Bundy who has that vulnerability, that predisposition to be influenced by that kind of behavior. I’m not blaming pornography; I take full responsibility for my own behavior, but pornography guided and shaped my acts. You keep craving something harder that gives a greater sense of excitement.” He also said early experiences with pornography had “crystallized” the violent tendencies within him. Robert Keppel, the Seattle, Washington attorney general’s investigator who had tracked Bundy for nearly fifteen years, dismissed Bundy’s putting some of the blame for his crimes on pornography as “phoney.” “Pornography is maybe 1/1,000 of the whole problem he had.”[408]

Another whole aspect of pornography dawned on the American public with that emotional television interview of Bundy just sixteen hours before his electrocution on Tuesday, January 24, 1989. What Bundy specified as “violent pornography” was “detective magazines” that he had been able to pick up as early as age twelve or thirteen. Most of us had thought of pornography as either the “soft core” variety picturing the bare breasts and buttocks of beautiful women in magazines like Playboy and Penthouse, or even frontal views of their pubic region such as those found in Oui and Hustler magazines, or the “hardcore” variety that shows actual copulation, fellatio, and cunnilingus. No one had even accused the detective magazines of being pornographic. Magazines like True Detective, Official Detective, Master Detective, Inside Detective, and Front Page Detective openly sat on our newsstands for sixty years or more, relatively unstigmatized by the label of “pornography.” True, they almost always managed to show a woman in skimpy attire with a gun or a knife in her hand on their front covers. They usually were able to mention the words lust, sex, nude, beauty, or love garishly in their article titles, and they sometimes showed photographs of the murdered bodies of the victims. Otherwise, they did not seem to fit the usual descriptions of pornography that most of the people were accustomed to.

Other, relatively new, definitions of pornography were revealed in the “pornography wars” of the 1980s and 1990s. Governor Martinez of Florida labeled the songs and music of the rock music group 2 Live Crew as “audio pornography” when commenting on the arrest of a record store owner who sold one of the 2 Live Crew records to an undercover agent. The Crew’s leader was arrested after one of his shows on June 10, 1990, in Hollywood, Florida. Authorities in Toronto, Canada, threatened to arrest Madonna, the popular singer/actress, for her “explicit dancing.” Ron Howard, a Palm Beach county commissioner, mounted a statewide campaign against 900 and 976 telephone numbers that are used for “telephone sex.” Pornographers responded with bomb threats at a St. Augustine, Florida, church on May 20, 1990, and a fire at the First Baptist Church in Daytona Beach, Florida.

Technology in the past twenty years has upgraded pornography to a far more powerful and pervasive art form than any that has ever existed before. They are no longer dirty little pulp magazines in dark alleys; they are now glossy, high-visibility best sellers on the corner convenience store shelves. The advent of the VCR in the 1980s has greatly increased the availability and power of pornographic movies. All the talent, technique, and art of Hollywood, learned over many generations of filmmaking, is now producing vivid, exciting, and memorable pornographic videocassettes and DVDs. Beautiful women with handsome men plus impressive background music, sound effects, staging, and costuming results in more videos sold at higher prices, which, in turn, results in higher profit, which results in proliferation. Proliferation results in more and kinkier sex at younger and younger ages.

Madonna in her all-time best-selling picture book, Sex, was not only photographed nude, but she was shown in sadomasochistic play. Her 11x14, aluminum-covered book, with an accompanying compact disk, sold 150,000 copies in one day (out of 500,000 printed) at $50 per copy. The cover story of the November 2, 1992, Time magazine was “The New Voyeurism: Madonna and the Selling of Sex.” In 1993, Villard Books in New York published the scholarly 539-page book Different Loving by Gloria Brame, William Brame, and Jon Jacobs. Different Loving went a long way toward justifying some of our worst sexual perversions: sadomasochism, body modification, fetishism, and mysophilia. The July 3, 1995, Time magazine’s cover story was “On a Screen Near You: Cyberporn.” This article told of one of the latest methods of selling pornographic pictures: displaying them on home computers that are connected to the Internet. An eighteen-month study by Carnegie Mellon University researchers revealed that the most popular types of pornography bought from the Bulletin-Board System in this manner were nude photographs of small children, sadomasochism, urination, defecation, and sex acts with barnyard animals. “As of April 1, 1990 … over 300,000,000 X-rated videos were distributed in our neighborhoods. Since then, sales and rentals of adult videos have risen 75%. Today, pornography is a $13 billion a year industry.”[409] The rental of pornographic movies rose from $75 million in 1985 to $490 million in 1992. Sex sells!

As new technologies have been adapted to pornography, the cost of production has dropped and control of production has diffused. Successful pornographic magazines have massive production and distribution requirements; a magazine start-up today can require as much as $20 million. Adult videos, which became the preferred pornographic medium during the mid-1980s, are far less expensive to produce than magazines. A typical adult-oriented VCR tape can cost as little as $3,000 to produce. This relatively inexpensive production price has allowed an enormous upsurge in both the number of producers and the number of videos made each year. Pornographic magazines are dependent upon advertising, which may require the magazine to mute the violent content for a more mainstream consumerism. Videos and the Usenet are less dependent on advertising.

The March 27, 2000, U.S. News & World Report cover story was “Porn dot Com—A Lust for Profits.” This article reported that Web surfers spent $970 million on access to adult-content sites in 1998, and that figure could rise to $3 billion by 2003. The article said there were at least 40,000 sex-oriented sites on the Web and probably thousands more catering to every conceivable fetish. Customers can order any type and create their own interactive experience. A recent study at Stanford University claimed that at least 200,000 Americans are hopelessly addicted to E-porn, and there is a growing concern over these “cybersex compulsives.” A pastor was told by his superiors to confess to his congregation that he had used Internet pornography and resign, a tragedy for him and his family.

This all adds up to produce dangerous levels of moral degeneracy. Degeneracy equals decadence. History can provide the scenario for the future: Decadence leads inexorably to disintegration, which equals destruction. Do you remember what happened in Greece, Rome, and France? They were not half so well equipped with such efficient devices as we have today for imparting lust and national destruction. What is there that could prevent this inexorable slide? The thin, wavering line of the churches is all that I can see, yet the churches are badly infected with sex themselves. They have got to get stronger, more moral, and more impervious to sexual sinning and armored, impregnable, and unassailably pure before they will merit the moral leadership that the people need. The churches have got to unify themselves and stop quarreling back and forth over tiny variations in dogma. They’ve got to allow castration of the deviant; they’ve got to allow castration of their priesthood as in the ancient times to assure the necessary purity of their leaders.

Charles H. Keating, Jr., was one of the leading anti-pornography figures of the 1970–1990 period. In 1970, Keating was a member of the President’s Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, which stated that pornography should be banned for all persons regardless of age. His classic statement was: “Those who wallow in filth will get dirty.” Keating was also the founder of Citizens for Decency Through the Law, an organization that has long been involved in pushing for legislation against pornography. Keating defrauded the public of $250 million in the savings and loan scandals and corrupted at least five U.S. senators (the “Keating Five” who were tried by the Senate Ethics Committee in widely televised hearings in 1990).

Under the Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act of 1987, the U.S. Postal Service became the chief federal warrior in the effort to stem the flow of child pornography within the United States. The Customs Service and FBI were responsible for enforcement against the importation of this pornography from abroad, mainly from Holland, Belgium, and Thailand. The postal inspector for Alabama and Northwest Florida, Mr. B. B. Hedrick, Jr., had a list of 1,449 persons suspected of being child pornographers in this area. Hedrick said in 1989 that he would probably make ten arrests that year. “Child pornography is an area we’re not even putting a dent in,” he said. Postal statistics showed that nationwide 211 child pornography arrests were made in 1987, 440 in 1988, and 280 in 1989.[410] Sentences for those convicted of child pornography have ranged from a few months in local jails up to four and a half years in federal prison.

The drug scene, too, has changed radically to include more powerful sexual stimulants. The sexual revolution, gay pride, drug war, and pornography have all combined to heighten sexual availability and kicks, all contributing to the moral decadence of our population. Crack cocaine and amyl nitrate poppers have added their volatile fuels to the conflagration. It grows worse each year. America, quo vadis? Whither goest thou?

According to a ten-state survey of 4,621 adults taken by Winick and Evans between 1976 and 1985, “… a national standard of general acceptance of sexually explicit materials appears to exist.”[411] They point out that: The religious and older people are more against pornography, but the better educated (sixteen years or more of schooling) and younger adults tended to favor it; there has been a general trend over the years of more and more adults accepting it; “In 1990, the Motion Picture Association of America made movie sex more acceptable by replacing the old X-rating with the NC-17 category”; and by 1992, there were over 1,500 strip clubs in the United States. The 1972 explicit sex movie Deep Throat made more money (production cost of $25,000 and income of $600 million) than any other movie in history. After 1983, the popularity of the X-rated videocassettes increased, so by 1989, over 5,000 of them were available to buy or rent. By 1994, it appeared that the politicians, activists, and churches had lost the pornography battles of the sexual revolution, which had begun in the 1960s. Even the AIDS plague, which put a damper on promiscuous, non-marital sexual behavior, did not slow the demand for pornography. In fact, the fear of AIDS may have actually encouraged consumption of pornographic materials as a substitute for real sexual behavior.

In 1999, the American Cancer Society published a fifty-six-page pamphlet on sexuality and cancer that recommended looking at erotic pictures or stories to increase sexual excitement for men who had their penis removed in treatment for cancer of the penis. Men who have not been circumcised have a greater tendency to develop cancer of the penis than the circumcised men.

The United States, in spite of its laws against pornography, led the world in its production. Americans spent more than $8 billion on hardcore videos, peep shows, live sex acts, adult cable programming, computer pornography, and sex magazines in 1996. Hollywood churned out about 150 new hardcore videos per week, and their rental hit $665 million.[412] In 1996, there was also a proliferation of sex films on CD Rom with interactive videos for the home computer, which presaged the type of pornography likely to become more popular in the twenty-first century. This type of pornography became more powerful, intimate, lifelike, and dramatic than that which was formerly available. It is also very convenient with few hassles, so it increases sexual pleasures, leads to increased sexual activity, and results in increased levels of testosterone and addictions in our young men. Sex is the number one destination of the Internet in a single month, 15 percent of the 57 million Americans using the World Wide Web accessed the ten most popular adult Web sites. Porn is the Net’s first cash cow.[413] This forebodes more sex crimes, addictions, and violence. Those who study the effects of pornography and violent TV shows point out that these depictions definitely affect what people do later.

By the year 2000, there was a clearly discernable movement that showed kinkier pornography becoming more prevalent. There were sadomasochistic films showing more and more evil characters in bondage and dominance. The film festival for this stuff showed The Dungeon of the Borgias, Dangerous Desires, Misty’s First Whipping, Leather-Bound Dykes from Hell, This Old Dungeon, and the Lair of the Bondage Bandits with many devilish, horrific, and demonic characters. The domino theory of porn—that consumers go from pinups and playing cards to the harder stuff—seems to be working in America today to drag many of us down the tubes of decadence.

At the crack of dawn in Vancouver’s seedier business district, on August 20, 1999, an armed team of law-enforcement agents smashed into the offices of Starnet Communications International, a four-year-old company that ran gambling and pornography sites on the Internet. The raid was the culmination of an eighteen-month probe of Starnet’s operation, which authorities described as “substantially and fundamentally an illegal enterprise.” The company’s stock, publicly traded in the United States, was a hot buy, soaring from 37.5 cents in November 1998 to $29.00 in July 1999. At its peak, Starnet’s paper value neared $900 million. The company’s Web sites included Sizzle.com, Chisel.com, and Redlight.com, featuring live strip shows and graphic depictions of sadomasochism, which violated Canada’s anti-obscenity laws. The company boasted that it had porn customers in more than sixty countries and moved its headquarters to the Caribbean haven of Antigua, outside the reach of Canadian and American regulators.[414]

Sui-Ming Pan tells us how it is in China with half the world’s population:

Pornography has spread wide and far, despite a campaign, annually since 1982, of “sweeping pornography away.” The greatest and strongest initiative was started immediately after June 1989; a new law was passed in the spring of 1990. By mid-1992, at least 21 persons were put to death for selling, copying, or spreading pornography. The main argument is that the leaders consider the spread of pornography to be a cultural aggression from the West.[415]

T. Partialism

Partialism is unnatural sexual interest in a part of the human anatomy such as the female breast or foot. Almost everyone has certain anatomical preferences, and traces of partialism may be found in nearly everyone. A man who has an overdeveloped interest in women’s breasts, but who engages in normal sexual intercourse, does not exemplify partialism. Only if he has no other interest in a woman than her breasts, and they are his sole avenue of sexual expression, may we say he exhibits partialism. This is a paraphilia closely akin to fetishism and has gotten into the category of sex crimes when it is responsible for such behavior as pretending to be a doctor to examine the erotic part of a patient or when it drives an individual to overtly and frequently fondle the erotic parts of complete strangers.

Alvinolagnia is an extreme attraction to the stomach, and just as women’s fashions provide low-cut gowns exposing their breasts, there is also a prevalent fashion that exposes their belly. So it is easy to assume that partialism or fetishism sometimes develops from these exposures. In many Islamic cultures, women are required to conceal their bodies and faces in veils and burkas so the tendency to develop those extreme attractions does not happen. Podophilia is sexual arousal from feet.

U. Tranvestism

Also known as “cross-dressing,” tranvestism is listed under the category of the paraphilias in the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-III of 1980 as “recurrent and persistent cross-dressing for the purpose of sexual excitement … Intense frustration when the cross-dressing is interfered with.” It was against Biblical law as described in Deuteronomy 22:5. The three main types of transvestite men are the following: (1) Approximately 10 percent of the homosexual population dress as women to increase their attraction to men. For many years there was a very popular nightclub in San Francisco called Finocchio’s and another on Bourbon Street in New Orleans where men dressed as women and performed as seductive female entertainers. (2) Fetishists whose sexual pleasure is increased by looking at themselves in the mirror while dressed in female attire. (3) The transvestites proper who obtain their sexual gratification by dressing as—and pretending to be—women.

The more overt transvestites, who dress up and parade the streets, are sometimes apprehended by the police in a few jurisdictions that still maintain laws against it. Some transvestites also run into trouble with the law because of their predilection for stealing women’s garments from clotheslines and stores. In 1989, police arrested three members of a sixty-member gang of transvestites in Florida who smashed windows in designer dress shops and grabbed the dresses, from Miami to Titusville.[416] Transsexuals and transvestites also cause a lot of trouble in prison settings because of occasional assignment to opposite sex confinement areas.

Karpman wrote that transvestism is essentially a combination of homosexuality and fetishism, with castration anxiety as the psychological controlling factor.[417] Havelock Ellis used the term eonism, a term derived from the name of the famous French secret agent Chevalier d’Eon (1728–1810), who lived a large part of his life dressed as a woman. Transvestites in modern America have organized themselves into two principle groups: The Beaumont Society and the Foundation for Full Personality Expression, with over a thousand members. These organizations publish information bulletins with advertisements of specially tailored women’s clothing for men and undergarments that produce the appearance of breasts and flat pubic regions, hiding the bulge of the penis and testicles.

A transvestite who appeared on the Sally Jessy Raphael television show February 20, 1991, said he feels more comfortable when dressed in female clothing, is sexually attracted to women only, and “feels like a lesbian woman.” Dr. Peo, a psychologist on this show, said that the biological cause is a different brain structure, but there also is some social influence—like in homosexuality—that causes the odd behavior.

The great Joan of Arc, who led the French troops to victory again and again in the Hundred Years’ War against the British and Burgundians, was burned at the stake in the churchyard of St. Ouen, May 30, 1431, for “breaking the divine law, Holy Scriptures and the canon laws … against the decency of nature” by wearing men’s clothing.[418]

V. Adultery

Adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone other than his or her spouse. Adultery is specifically prohibited by the seventh of the Ten Commandments, which Moses received from God 3,500 years ago on Mount Sinai: “You shall not commit adultery!” (Exodus 20:14, Deuteronomy 5:18). It is one of the cardinal sins of Christianity, Judaism, and several other religions. Punishment by death for both participants is called for in Leviticus 20:10 and Deuteronomy 22:22–24. The death penalty for adultery was still in effect in the year 2002 in Nigeria, Sudan, and other Muslim countries under the Shariah legal system. Solomon, son of David, King of Israel, wrote the warnings against adultery in Proverbs (5:3–5, 20 and 6:32, 34) about the year 716 BC:

For the lips of a loose woman drip honey, and her speech is smoother than oil; but in the end she is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged sword. Her feet go down to death; her steps follow the path to She’ol. Why should you be intoxicated, my son, by another woman and embrace the bosom of an adulteress? He who commits adultery has no sense; he who does it destroys himself. For jealousy arouses a husband’s fury, and he shows no restraint when he takes revenge.

A man whose wife is unfaithful is called a “cuckold”: the husband of an adulteress.

The Oracle Malachi wrote in about 443 BC: “… Do not let anyone be faithless to the wife of his youth” (Malachi 2:15).

The New Testament guidance in John, chapter 8, tells the story of how the Pharisees brought a woman caught in the act of adultery before Christ and reminded him of the Law of Moses, which commanded them to stone such women. Christ answered them saying, “Let anyone among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.” When they heard this, they went away, one by one, and Jesus was left alone with the woman, and he said to her, “Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?” She said, “No one, sir.” And Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sin again.” The New Testament Bible mentions the word adultery and its synonyms some forty times. It is a sin, but forgivable.

Except for an interlude in Oliver Cromwell’s seventeenth-century England, adultery has generally been regarded in our culture as a matter within the cognizance of the spirituality hierarchy rather than the civil authorities. Japan, Uruguay, and the USSR have no penal provisions on the subject. The penal codes of France, Italy, and Argentina distinguish between adultery by a husband and adultery by a wife and punish the latter more severely. In the United States, as a result of our Puritan heritage and in the absence of a state church, civil laws against adultery were quite common with penalties ranging from wearing the “Scarlet Letter,” receiving two sets of forty lashes, or paying a $1,000 fine to twelve years in prison. Euphemistically called “infidelity” or “illicit cohabitation,” it is rarely prosecuted today, although it is still the most frequent reason for divorce and is made a matter of judicial record in tens of thousands of divorce cases each year.

The 1948 Kinsey Report revealed that about half of the married men in their sample had extramarital coitus. The 1953 Kinsey et al. report estimated that 26 percent of the married women in their study also had extramarital coitus. Masters and Johnson reported in the 1988 Crises: Heterosexual Behavior in the Age of AIDS that 44.3 percent of married men and 32.3 percent of women had at least one extramarital partner in five years. In 1955, the American Law Institute voted not to include adultery in its Model Penal Code. The 1973 Institutes of Biblical Law by Rousas John Rushdoony (p. 393) notes that:

By and large, faithful monogamy does not seem to be a natural pattern, but a socially fabricated one; even so, it is rare to the point of seeming almost abnormal. Of 185 societies analyzed in the Human Relations Area Files at Yale University, only about 5% were monogamies in which all outside sexual activity for men was disallowed or disapproved. Fidelity thus seems to some scholars difficult, unnatural, and greatly overpriced; and the insistence on it is the cause of hypocrisy, guilt, unhappiness, and broken marriage.

The Opinion Research Center in Washington reported a somewhat different situation in their 1993 General Social Survey, however. About 15 percent of married Americans have cheated on a spouse reported Tom W. Smith, director of the survey. Perhaps 3 to 4 percent of husbands and wives have a sexual partner outside their marriage in a given year, Smith said.[419] Laumann, Ganon, Michael, and Michaels reported 26 percent of men and 10 percent of women had violated monogamy.[420]

At the end of 1986, all but fifteen states had repealed their sanctions against adultery. It has been estimated, however, that the AIDS plague and other sexually transmitted diseases could be eradicated simply by the enforcement of the rules of monogamy.

By 1997, Florida was one of the last states to have a law that prohibited adultery and cohabitation. Lewd and lascivious cohabitation had been made illegal in 1868, and open adultery prohibition followed in 1874. The “unnatural and lascivious act” statute was revised in 1993 to classify it as a misdemeanor. Howard Fletcher, sixty-five, confessed November 13, 1997, in a Boca Raton, Florida, court that he had oral sex in a hotel room with a woman who was not his wife. Fletcher was the executive secretary of the National Sexual Rights Council, Inc., which is funded in part by Playboy magazine founder, Hugh Hefner, and he wanted to be prosecuted in order to challenge Florida’s nineteenth-century sex laws. Fletcher was also part of a group seeking to amend the Florida laws that required tourism industries to publish warnings to visitors of Florida’s sex laws. Florida is a tourist state with millions of visitors every year who are unaware of the state’s restrictions.[421]

SPLAT!

The American people were hit squarely in the face Friday afternoon, September 11, 1998, with the smutty 445-page Starr Report on the president’s having been given oral sex by his young intern Monica Lewinsky in and around the Oval Office of the White House. In this report, sent via Internet and repeated on television, on radio, in newspapers, in books, and in magazines, she detailed ten sexual contacts with the president, including the one on February 28, 1997, in which the president ejaculated on her. The resulting stains on her dress were later proven by FBI laboratory tests to be the president’s semen. The anticipation of this story being released had been building for weeks in the news media and that was shocking enough to most of us, but the actual broadcast of the results of the months of investigation was still a very sickening experience for most Americans. Several of the television commentators used the term salacious (arousing sexual desire or imagination—lascivious, lustful), but even this strong word was not sufficient to fully describe the feeling of offensive defiling that millions of us felt at the time.

The Clinton-Lewinsky adultery was not the only case that had been made public for this president. He had been sexually involved with several other women: Paula Jones in 1991, Jennifer Flowers in 1992, and Kathleen Wiley in 1994. He allegedly told Lewinsky that he had “hundreds of affairs” earlier in his marriage, but “since turning forty,” he had “made a concerted effort to remain faithful” to his wife. Since this was in 1997, he obviously had failed to do this. Was he sexually addicted? Quite possibly. This is very dangerous for men in positions of great power because they can reveal important state secrets to their lovers as Dick Morris, the president’s advisor, and others have done. President Clinton, in his testimony before the grand jury August 17, 1998, said that “Miss Lewinsky has a way of getting information out of people.” The videotape of this testimony was broadcast on eight of the nation’s major networks the morning of September 21, 1998. The next day, my local newspaper’s headline was “Nation Watches, Winces.”[422]

In all the hundreds of commentaries on the president’s adultery, the Biblical guidance in John 8 was not mentioned. Perhaps this is a significant indicator of our general moral laxness today. In spite of the fact that adultery and lying to cover it up is statistically normal in America, the U.S. House of Representatives voted December 18, 1998, to impeach President Clinton.

Larry Flynt, publisher of the pornographic Hustler magazine, initiated a campaign to unmask the hypocrisy of the Clinton investigation by placing an advertisement in the Washington Post offering to pay up to $1 million for verifiable information on adultery by members of Congress. A number of women responded to the ad. U.S. Representative Bob Livingston, who was about to take over as Speaker of the House, said he would resign from Congress after admitting he had adulterous affairs. U.S. Senator John McCain, potential Republican presidential candidate, also cheated on his wife, who had been seriously injured while McCain was a prisoner of the Vietnamese.

Although adultery in the late 1990s was considered a relatively minor sex offense, it was still serious enough to cashier the career of the air force’s first female B-52 bomber pilot. Lieutenant Kelly J. Flinn, twenty-six, was discharged from the service for her affair with Marc Zigo, husband of an air force-enlisted woman, in a case that was prime national news in May 1997. Sixty men and ten U.S. Air Force women were also prosecuted on adultery charges in 1996. On April 12, 2002, the White House issued changes to the Manual for Courts-Marshal, which included new rules on adultery that can lead to a dishonorable discharge and up to a year in prison.

On February 12, 1999, the U.S. Senate acquitted President Clinton on both impeachment charges and allowed him to retain his office—after thirteen months of allegations and investigations of his extra-marital affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky, which Clinton at first denied and then later changed his story. After the vote, the president appeared without Mrs. Clinton, and again apologized to the American people.

In the evening of October 23, 1999, the A&E television channel broadcast a full hour devoted to adultery in one of their Love Chronicles series. Overall, the main impression the program left me with is that the program seemed to justify adultery as being “all too common in society today” and sanctioned adultery as a biological urge and “natural.” One of the wives on the program said: “If both are in agreement, what’s the problem?” She and her husband admitted that they had each had several extramarital affairs. Apparently, this was a general state of affairs as the twentieth century concluded.

In spite of the lowering of sanctions against adultery, it has remained one of the leading causes of divorce, sexual jealousy, spousal abuse, assault, and murder, with much pain and suffering. According to several studies, it has been found that men are much more distressed than women by sexual infidelity, and women are more distressed by emotional infidelity.[423]

W. Fornication

Also called coitus, copulation, coupling, sexual congress, intercourse, venery, doing it, fucking, balling, screwing, etc., fornication is sexual intercourse between two unmarried humans. It is an offense in several states with penalties that range up to three years in prison. In 1985, the American Lutheran Church estimated that as many as 40 percent of couples live together before marriage. In 1987, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that approximately 2.7 million unmarried couples were living together.

Some of the biblical injunctions concerning fornication are: “For this is the will of God, your sanctification: that you abstain from fornication; that you know how to control your own body in holiness and honor, not with lustful passion” (1 Thessalonians 4:3–5); “… for God will judge fornicators and adulterers” (Hebrews 13:4); “The body is meant not for fornication but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body … Shun fornication! Every sin that a person commits is outside the body; but the fornicator sins against the body itself” (1 Corinthians 6:13, 18); and “Put to death, therefore, whatever is earthly: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed” (Colossians 3:5).

The vast improvements in methods of contraception, the legalization of abortion, and the discovery of miraculous cures for most of the STDs have reduced the fear of these dangers, and illicit sex has increased to the point where it is rarely pursued by the criminal justice system in America. The results have been huge increases in the numbers of unwanted pregnancies, a trend to younger and younger first sexual experiences, and greatly increased numbers of STD infections—including the deadly AIDS. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynahan announced on the McNeil-Lehrer News Hour on June 24, 1994, that by the year 2000, 40 percent of births in the Unites States would be non-marital. The 1921 fornication law was invoked against Amanda Smisek, seventeen, on May 13, 1996, in Emmett, Idaho. She and her illegitimate child’s father, Chris Lay, sixteen, were sentenced to a three-day suspended jail sentence, three years probation, and a directive to complete parenting classes.

Penalties are much more severe for fornication in Nigeria, however. In November 2001, an Islamic court in Gwadabawa, Sokoto State, in Northern Nigeria, ruled that a pregnant woman be sentenced to death by stoning. The court found Safiya Hussaini Tungar-Tudu guilty of having premarital sex, but they later ruled that the sentence may be delayed until after she delivered the baby. A teenage girl was given 100 lashes in January for a similar offense under their Sharia Islamic laws.[424]

By late 1996, the horrendous consequences of the relatively minor sexual sins of adultery and fornication began to be seen by the American public in spectacular media exposés. The popular 60 Minutes television program on November 10, 1996, mentioned the AIDS of basketball star Magic Johnson and heavyweight contender Connie Morris, along with a more detailed account of the spread of the disease by stockcar racing champion Tim Richmond. All of these men had sexual intercourse with women after they were infected with the AIDS virus, but Richmond was more promiscuous and probably spread it more widely. Richmond had been obviously ill, but refused to acknowledge that he had AIDS in 1986. He finally died of this disease in 1989, and it came out in the news at that time. He had been a very popular, handsome, dashing, and promiscuous public figure, and several beautiful women were attracted to him. Most of them had sex with him, and many came down later with the disease as a result. The consequences of adultery and fornication, even among our beautiful and famous people, in the age of AIDS are far from inconsequential.

The feature article in a 1997 U.S. News & World Report gave a carefully worded warning and some of the statistics on fornication and teen pregnancy. “Teen pregnancy,” Bill Clinton said, “is the nation’s most serious social problem,”and he vowed to do something about it. Approximately 80 percent—or 400,000—of teen births in the United States in 2000 were non-marital. In 1994, just 22 percent of children born out of wedlock had mothers who were eighteen or under; more than half had mothers ages twenty to twenty-nine. In the period from 1960 to 1965, 43 percent of white women were virgins when they married; from 1980 to 1985, it was only 14 percent in the United States. “Almost certainly, television has had a central role in eroding the stigma of premarital sex.” Theoretically, the ready availability of effective contraceptives should have provided the avenue for eliminating the worst complications of sex before marriage. In practice, though, this has not stopped the rise in out-of-wedlock births or put an end to STDs and abortion.

X. Frottage

is a French word meaning “rubbing,” and it is the name of a form of sexual assault in the criminal codes of most of the states in America. It involves deliberate rubbing against another person for the purpose of sexual stimulation. The frotteur is usually a male who obtains sexual satisfaction by rubbing against women’s bodies while fully clothed. It is often undetected by the victim, who, if she is aware of it at all, believes it to be accidental since it usually occurs in crowded busses, subways, elevators, or other places where people are massed closely together. It is closely related to another offense called “toucherism,” an unusually strong desire to touch an unknown female intimately.

Y. Oral-Genital Sex

Fellatio, the practice of obtaining sexual satisfaction by oral stimulation of the penis (“blow job,” “giving head,” and “irrumation”), and cunnilingus (“eating out” and “cunnilinctus”), stimulation of the vulva and clitoris with the lips and tongue, are the two most common manifestations of oral-genital sex. Under Pope Gregory I (590–604), seminem in ore (semen in the mouth) earned three to fifteen years penance on bread and water.

An increase in a variety of sexual practices and partners (such as engaging in oral-genital sex and more positions of intercourse) was noted by Hunt (1974) when compared with the earlier Kinsey Reports (1948, 1953). Money and Musaph showed that oral-genital stimulation in a variety of postures was observed in rhesus and stump-tailed monkeys and gorillas.[425] Oral sex was once considered a paraphilia, perversion, or deviancy, but for couples who have one partner disabled, oral-genital satisfaction may be a solution to their problem, yet in many cases it will be felt to be abnormal. The stimulation of an erect penis by mouth is a common practice and occurs in many marriages as an adjunct to foreplay (the incidence being around 40 to 45 percent).[426]

The findings from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) suggested that 45 percent of men found receiving fellatio very appealing, while only 17 percent of women found performing fellatio very appealing. The proportion of men who found performing cunnilingus very appealing was 34 percent, while the proportion of women who found receiving it very appealing was 29 percent.[427]

“Certain techniques, specifically oral-genital contact and anal coitus, are punishable in various countries. In the U.S., they are legally labeled ‘sodomy’ in the majority of the states.”[428] The use of kissing, licking, or sucking on the genitalia or nipples is widespread and for many people, a highly arousing part of foreplay—yet cunnilingus and fellatio are punishable by law in some Western states. It is possible for one of today’s physicians to have been told, during the course of his or her career, that masturbation causes insanity or that oral stimulation between marital partners represents perversion. “The social tolerance of personal idiosyncrasy used to be nil. Now it is slowly expanding. Fellatio and cunnilingus are no longer considered abnormal, and the same applies to various other personal and playful erotic idiosyncrasies.”[429]

An “increasing number of infections are acquired anally and orally.” “The penile and urethral lesions of homosexuals are usually symptomatic or noticeable while those of the anus, rectum, and mouth are not.” Money stated in Love & Love Sickness that at one clinic in London, 82 percent of infectious syphilis cases treated between 1968 and 1971 were in homosexuals. The oral cavity could be an important source of infection of clinical candidiasis among those who practice oral sex. Dr. Susan Buchbinder of the University of California, San Francisco, conducted an investigation of 3,257 gay men. At the Geneva conference in June 1998, she reported that her findings were that oral sex carried a measurable risk … Unprotected oral sex to ejaculation as the receptive partner accounted for 5 percent of the infections, while unprotected anal intercourse as the receptive partner accounted for 15 percent. In a San Francisco study of thirty-four gay men and five women, 12 percent contracted HIV from oral sex. Another study of 102 gay and bisexual men showed 8 percent of HIV infections from fellatio.[430] A report from Canada found that more than 90 percent of gay men have unprotected oral sex with male partners. “Though the HIV risk associated with oral sex may be small, case reports and epidemiological studies suggest that transmission can occur and may account for an increasing proportion” in infections among gay men.[431] Rates of rectal and oral gonorrhea in males soared after gay liberation in the 1970s. Oral cancer and human papilloma virus infection are other possible risks, and risk factors include smoking and alcohol consumption.[432]

Participation in oral sex as either performer or recipient may be an impossibility for some women. If one partner is intensely dependent on the odors, pheromones, flavors, and sensations of oral sex for erotossexual arousal, and if the other had an intense aversion to it, compromise may prove unattainable and the partnership may prove unviable.[433]

In 1971, Gerard Damiano’s film Deep Throat portrayed a woman, Linda Lovelace, who thought her clitoris had been displaced to an attachment low down in her gullet, and could only be reached by gulping down almost the entire shaft of an erect phallus as she showed in an act of fellatio. The film grossed a reported $600 million, but Linda’s family was only paid $1,250. She later became an anti-porn advocate and died April 22, 2002, in a car crash at age fifty-three.

Legman wrote an entire 319-page book on “oragenitalism.” One hundred fifty-eight pages were devoted to cunnilinctus (111 pages of which described the positions and varieties of action), seventy-four pages on fellation, thirty-six pages on irrumation, and thirty pages on the sixty-nine (mutual simulation oragenitalism alluding to the similar appearance of two human bodies to the numerals 6 and 9 during this act). Legman believed that oragenitalism is generally engaged in at the request of and to give pleasure primarily to the oral partner and not to the genital partner. According to Legman, oragenital acts are the expression of a profound psychological urge to satisfy the oral partner.[434]

Fellation, also known as “French love,” has sometimes claimed the life of men who were in poor physical condition. The former president of the French Republic, the venerated Felix Faure, died of a heart attack in a Paris brothel in 1899 while being fellated. Irrumation is a classical Latin term, meaning “to give suck, as a mother gives the breast.” Irrumation, as the action of the dominant genital partner in oral sex involving the penis, is carefully distinguished from fellation. “Where the genital partner is dominant, the action is irrumation. Where the oral partner is dominant, it is fellation.”[435] Another book, Histoire Raisonee by Terry Leguay, addresses the historical, religious, psychological, and sociological aspects of oral sex and was published in the year 2000 in France.

In the 445-page Starr report on President Clinton’s adulterous affair with Monica Lewinsky, the words oral sex were mentioned ninety-two times and genitalia was mentioned thirty-nine times. On the morning of September 21, 1998, most of the four-hour videotape of President Clinton’s testimony before a grand jury was played on eight of the nation’s primary news channels. The most salacious of the details of the president’s sexual affair with the intern were edited out of the presentation. One commentator pointed out that after “four years and $40 million, it all has come down to the definition of sex.” The president’s main defense was that he did not have sex with the intern because oral sex was not included in the definition of the term sexual relationship. President Clinton apologized to his wife, his daughter, friends, and the public on several occasions for his indiscretions.

The Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) of January 20, 1999, published an article detailing the results of a study of 599 college students from twenty-nine states, which was conducted in 1991. Fifty-nine percent of the respondents indicated that oral-genital contact did not constitute having “had sex.” Since this article was published at the same time President Clinton was being tried for impeachment in the Senate concerning his sexual relations with Lewinsky, it was controversial. Results of publishing this article were that the JAMA editor for seventeen years, Dr. George D. Lundberg, was fired from his job, and the nation’s newspapers Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News World & Report responded with diverse commentaries. In another study of undergraduate college students in England, only one-third of respondents regarded oral-genital contact as having sex.[436]

For a long time, at least ten or fifteen years, after the general public became aware of the AIDS plague, there was an impression among the more promiscuous men, particularly those who had sex with men, that oral sex was safe sex and not likely to transmit the disease. Early studies on the likelihood of HIV transmission through oral sex suggested that transmission by this route was insignificant, which led to a widespread advocacy of oral sex as a safer alternative to anal sex for gay men. Since then, there has been a steady increase in the number of transmissions attributed to oral sex, which has led epidemiologists to revise upward their estimates of the likelihood of transmission from oral intercourse.[437] Other studies suggested that “… oral intercourse in humans may be riskier than the anal variety—contrary to a mountain of other reports that identified unprotected anal intercourse as the likeliest route to an AIDS-abbreviated life.”[438]

Adam, Sears, and Schellenberger also studied a population of homosexual men and found that “… ill-advised prevention strategies that have little relevance to gay men may actually end up promoting unsafe sex.” And, “… most endorse the use of condoms for anal sex but not for oral sex.” Also, “the question of swallowing semen during oral sex remains fraught and of concern to gay men around the world …”[439] Oral sex is also a risk factor for the acquisition of hepatitis A via the ingestion of fecal matter.

Weinberg, Shaver, and Williams studied sex workers in the San Francisco area and found that almost all had provided oral sex (at least 97 percent did) to their paying customers.[440] The women were more likely than men to provide “half-and-half” (a combination of oral sex and vaginal or anal intercourse).

Z. Masturbation

Masturbation is the manual stimulation of the genitalia to produce sexual gratification. Other terms that have similar meanings are: autoeroticism, auto-sexuality, auto-monosexual perversion, narcissism, self-pleasuring, jerking off, circle jerk, and onanism. The terms autoeroticism (or autoerotism) and auto-sexuality refer to sexual feelings arising in and directed to oneself. Automonosexual perversions are sexual actions performed on or with one’s own body such as self-mutilation, self-abuse, and self-fellatio as well as masturbation. Narcissism is the egocentric love of, or sexual desire for, one’s own body. Self-pleasuring is a term only obliquely connected with masturbation. Jerking off is the slang term for masturbation. Circle jerk refers to a form of group masturbation. The term onanism has erroneously been applied to masturbation since 1710 when an English clergyman named Bekkars published an indictment, called Onania, or the Heinous Sin of Self Pollution, against the practice. This book was so popular that by 1759 it had gone into its nineteenth edition. A Swiss doctor named Simon Andre (S.A.D.) Tissot was quick to capitalize on this popularity and published a medically inaccurate book in 1758 called Onana, a Treatise on the Diseases Produced by Onanism. The last known edition of this epoch-making book was published in 1905. In 1855, the New Orleans Medical Journal quoted a well-known doctor who claimed that “neither plague, nor smallpox, nor war has proved more disastrous for humanity than the habit of masturbation” (Nigel Davies, 1984). The word onanism comes from the story of Onan, the son of Judah who “spilled his semen” on the ground when he was commanded to sire children to his dead brother’s wife. “… And what he did was displeasing in the sight of the Lord, and He slew him …” (Genesis 38:8–10). Onan’s sin, therefore, is properly termed coitus interruptus or coitus reservatus rather than masturbation.

The myths concerning masturbation (“onanism”) did not arise and cease with the two books mentioned here; they extended back into ancient history and (sadly) are still being perpetuated right up to the present day. This is happening in spite of massive investigations and voluminous data indicating that masturbation is statistically normal in the population. Professor Uta Ranke-Heinemann, who holds the chair for the History of Religion at the University of Essen, Germany, has spent an entire chapter on the myths of onanism in her book Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, published in November 1990. The following information was obtained from her book: “The grand progenitor of masturbation anxiety, especially the fear of tabes dorsalis (a syphilitic disease of the nervous system), was the Greek physician Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC) … Galen (d. ca. AD 199) took the opposite tack, arguing that sexual intercourse and masturbation were good for maintaining one’s health … Borrowing from Galen the Muslim philosopher Avicenna (d. 1037) later spoke of medical methods for advising onanism where sexual intercourse was not possible … Every ejaculation that cannot lead to procreation is considered unnatural, thus onanism is a vice that according to Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274) is worse than intercourse with one’s own mother (II/II q. 154 a 11 and 12).” Pope Gregory I (590–604) wrote that a priest who masturbated to orgasm should be denied communions. A monk who masturbated in church would be sentenced to thirty days fasting.

In 1479, Johann von Wesel, pastor of the Cathedral of Mainz, was tried, condemned, and imprisoned in a monastery for his writings to the effect that emitting semen might be healthful. “Self-pollution” was the greatest sin against nature and led to bodily weakness, impotence, and shortening of the lifespan through suicide. This was the claim made in London in 1640 by the Reverend Richard Capel in his book Temptations, Their Nature, Their Danger, Their Cure. In 1842, the well-known ethician J. C. Debreyne, who was both a Trappist priest and a doctor, described the consequences of onanism: “Palpitations, weakened vision, headaches, dizziness, tremors, painful cramps, convulsive epileptic movements, often genuine epilepsy, general pains in the limbs or in the back of the head, in the spine, in the chest, in the stomach, great weakness of the kidneys, general paralytical phenomena” (Essai sur la theologie morale consideree dans ses rapports avec la physiologie et la medecine.)

In 1956, the book In All Candor, written by an English minister named Leslie D. Weatherhead, was published in Zurich. The book relates how for thousands of English men and women, onanism is the greatest problem in life and how they have nervous breakdowns over it. In 1975 Pope Paul VI in his “Declaration on Some Questions in Sexual Ethics,” attacked the grave sin of onanism … The pope wrote that the masturbator forfeits the love of God. Beyond that, masturbation is a mortal sin, “even though it is not possible to prove unequivocally that Holy Scripture expressly repudiates this sin as such.” Pope Gregory I (590–604) denied communion to priests who masturbated … Masturbation results in impotence, brain damage, and nearsightedness (Hubert Dobiosch, Theologie der Gegenwart, 1982, 2, 106). The pamphlet General Information on the Hygiene and Biology of Young Persons warns that “masturbation impairs health” (Der Spiegel, no. 13, 1986).

Masturbation in public, or the viewing of this activity, is punishable under the laws of most jurisdictions in America as a contribution to the delinquency of the public or as a public indecency. On November 5, 1990, sheriff’s deputy Bob Stewart observed the mayor of Shalimar, Florida, Bart Hudson, thirty-three, masturbating himself in the public restroom at the Shoal River Wayside Park near Crestview, Florida, and arrested him. Ten days later, State Attorney Curtis Golden charged Hudson under two statutes dealing with lewd and lascivious behavior. In spite of the fact that Hudson had been dealt with in a similar case by the sheriff several years earlier, a judge dismissed the two charges on March 4, 1991. This case was headline news for several months in the two local newspapers, even grabbing the headlines away from the Persian Gulf War from time to time. Such is the sensationalism that so often attaches to public figures over anything sexual, even such a minor offense as masturbation.

Researchers Kinsey, Masters, Johnson, and Hite have all demonstrated that masturbation is highly prevalent in the population. Its prevalence in individuals under age twenty has been reported as follows: Hirschfeld, 96 percent; Dukes, 95 percent; Marcuse, 93 percent; Rohleder, 90 percent; and Meirowsky, 88.7 percent. In Shere Hite’s 1976 The Hite Report—A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality, the conclusion was that a majority of women achieve orgasm more reliably this way than through sexual intercourse with a man. Masters and Johnson in their 1986 Sex and Human Loving went so far as to say that “there is mounting evidence that the lack of masturbatory experience may lead to psychosexual problems …”[441] In spite of the known fact that a very high percentage of humans and all other animal species[442] have indulged in masturbation, our religious leaders, family seniors, and civil authorities continue to sternly admonish their juniors and make them feel very guilty about it. “There is a truth that, man and boy, I’ve spent a lifetime ruing: There isn’t much that I enjoy I don’t feel guilty doing.”[443] Freud, although he knew that it was statistically normal in the population, still regarded masturbation with disgust. Up until 1940, a man could be dishonorably discharged from the U.S. Navy if he was caught masturbating.

By 1996, up to seven orgasms a week average for six months for men older than fifteen was considered in the normal category. The most commonly observed range, however, is one to three times a week. Kinsey et al. reported only 7.6 percent of their male sample had an orgasm seven or more times a week on an average.[444] Kafka reported that 57 percent of his sampling of 100 men with sexual impulsivity disorders averaged in excess of seven sexual outlets per week for a five-year period.[445]

The most harmful and disturbing aspect of masturbation in this country at the present time is a phenomenon labeled “auto-erotic asphyxiation,” “asphyxiophilia,” “hyproxyphilia,”or “scarfing.” An estimated 500 to 1,000 young American men accidentally kill themselves in this manner each year. Dr. John Money, the world’s foremost sexologist, puts the total deaths at “tens of thousands.”[446] Doctor Harvey Resnick, resident psychiatrist at the School of Medicine at George Washington University, and a woman whose thirteen-year-old son had died in this manner revealed the startling facts in a Larry King Live television broadcast on January 4, 1988. The characteristic case is that of an adolescent boy who has somehow learned that he can heighten the effects of masturbation by cutting off his breath with a cord around his neck during masturbation. Often the cord constricts the carotid artery to the point where he loses consciousness from the lack of blood flow to the brain. His body then slumps down, tightening the noose further, and he strangles to death.

The term scarfing refers to the practice of using a scarf instead of a rope for the noose, or placing a scarf under the rope to minimize abrasions on the neck. Formerly, such cases were simply dismissed as another suicide for unknown reasons, but now police and medical examiners have learned to recognize such cases by the presence of erotic literature, nude or partially clad body, and the noose around the neck. Sometimes it results in death in the initial experiment, but often death results from habitual behavior, which happened to go just a bit too far. Aquaeroticism is a closely related method of heightening the orgasm of masturbation by placing the head or the entire body in water to cut off the flow of oxygen; there are also chemical techniques. Psychiatrists believe that these dangerous practices stem from a youthful need for the stimulation and excitement of danger as also seen in playing the games of chicken or Russian roulette, speeding, and experimenting with drugs.

In 1972, the American Medical Association took the position that “masturbation is a normal part of adolescent development and requires no medical management.”[447]

In 1981, the Nass, Libby, and Fisher comprehensive book Sexual Choices: An Introduction to Human Sexuality attributed the taboo against masturbation to our Jewish religious heritage. The Jews valued procreation very highly for expansion of their tribe or clan. Only in the late twentieth century have attitudes toward masturbation softened appreciably. Sex therapists were openly advocating masturbation as a therapy for lonely oldsters in 1990 and 1991. Yet the old beliefs continue to haunt millions of people around the world with an excessive load of guilt.

In 1996, the Barnes & Noble book-selling empire was marketing the second edition of Sex for One: The Joy of Self-Loving, by Betty Dodson, PhD. The book showed masturbation to be a healthy, vital form of sexual expression and was dedicated to taking the shame out of the practice, which once had been a death penalty crime. Besides being a PhD, Dodson readily admits in the foreword of her book that she is a feminist, a pornographer, a lesbian, and a whore. In April 1999, Titanic actress Gloria Stewart revealed her devotion to masturbation. The old axiom is once again demonstrated in the book Sex Sells! In 1997, Denniston and Milos published a book that showed that one of the main reasons for circumcision and even, to some extent, castration was to prevent or cure masturbation.[448] Yet the old beliefs continue to haunt millions of people around the world with an excessive load of guilt.

Regardless of what a person may think of the seriousness of the charge of masturbating, it still holds the potential for ruining a person’s reputation and livelihood. At 9:50 pm, July 26, 1991, Paul Reubens, thirty-eight, was arrested by undercover police at Sarasota’s XIX-rated South Trail adult cinema and charged with exposing himself and masturbating twice during the showing of a porno flick. He might have walked away after posting a $219 bond, but he revealed that he was Pee-Wee Herman, the celebrated star of the five-year-running children’s series Pee-Wee’s Playhouse. Forty-eight hours later, the mortifying incident made national news, and his shows were canceled.

Another prominent figure who was brought low by masturbation was U.S. Surgeon General Jocelyn Elders, who made an infamous comment in a speech to the International AIDS Conference in 1994. Elders said masturbation “is something that is part of human sexuality, part of something that perhaps should be taught.” To appease her furious critics, President Clinton fired her, but she stood by her words and later said, “You should say to kids, ‘It’s okay, but it’s something you should do in the privacy of your room.’” Doctor Spock gave similar advice. In 1996, Elders, while writing The Dreaded “M” Word, a book on masturbation, was quoted as saying it is “not the time to be discrete.”

On September 20, 1996, the shocking realization hit home to many of us that a man could be sent to prison for life for masturbation under certain conditions. On that date, Asa Dwight Bostic, forty-seven, was found guilty in Milton, Florida, of seventy-seven sex and drug crimes in which he masturbated in front of teenage girls and had them masturbate him. From 1992 to 1995, Bostic had several fourteen- to eighteen-year-old girls in his house where he gave them marijuana, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, LSD, and alcohol, and had them pose nude for his photographs. The actual legal charges against Bostic were for delivery of drugs to a minor, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, soliciting sexual performance, soliciting prostitution, possession of photographs of sexual conduct by a child, “sexual performance,” and indecent exposure, but the actual motivating sex act was masturbation. This demonstrates that even a relatively innocuous sex act, even one encouraged by experts, can bring a man the heaviest legal punishment. How much better off would a man like Bostic be without that infernal sex drive? Infinitely better in my judgment.

Masturbation was one of the main engines leading to cybersex compulsivity (see page 226), in which sexual arousal and masturbation result in positive reinforcement due to the physical sexual stimulation and release that occurs with orgasm. Further reinforcement also occurs if the sexual arousal and masturbation relieves a negative emotional state, such as anxiety. The powerful effect of operant conditioning occurs in individuals who have problems with online sexuality because online activities usually result in masturbation and orgasm to relieve a dysphoric state.[449] One meta-analysis found that the incidence of masturbation was significantly higher with men than women.[450]

AA. Sodomy

Sodomy (often called “buggery” and scientifically known as “proctophallism”) is anal sex. According to the 1972 best-selling book The Joy of Sex, sodomy “is something which nearly every couple tries once. A few stay with it, usually because the woman finds that it gives her intenser feelings than the normal route and it is pleasantly tight for the man. In England, and in some states of the U.S., it is actually illegal.”[451] Usually the first try is painful, especially if the recipient has hemorrhoids. The area was not designed for coitus, so anal sex can cause injury or disease, especially if it is mixed with straight intercourse, because there are yeast and other organisms that belong to the gut, not the vagina or male urethra. The anus is sensitive in most people, and penile entry must be lubricated with oil, Vaseline, or K-Y Jelly—saliva is not sufficient.

The term sodomy comes from the ancient city of Sodom near the Dead Sea, which was destroyed by sulphur and fire by the Lord for the homosexual practices of its inhabitants. In the Koran version of the story of Sodom, the men are portrayed as more bisexual than the Bible version in Genesis 19. Genesis 19:5 and Judges 19:22 make it clear that the men of Sodom and Gib’e-ah were seeking intercourse with other men.

In 1985, the Supreme Court overturned Georgia’s sodomy law by a five-to-four vote in the Hardwick v. Georgia case. Justice Warren Burger, who was one of the four opposing the overturning of the law, wrote: “In Constitutional terms there is no such thing as a fundamental right to commit homosexual sodomy. Condemnation of those practices is firmly rooted in Judeo-Christian moral and ethical standards. Homosexual sodomy was a capital crime under Roman law.” Burger’s brief quoted those who called homosexuality “the infamous crime against nature” and “an offense of deeper malignity than rape.” By 1989, some twenty-five states had overturned laws forbidding sodomy.[452] The act was still illegal in fifteen states in 2000. The Koran decrees death by stoning for sodomy, and in Iran, capital punishment and flogging are meted out in public. On New Year’s Day, January 1, 2002, three men were beheaded for sodomy in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Under Roman-Dutch law, offending sodomites were publicly hanged and their bodies burned.[453] Seventy-five men were executed in Holland between 1730 and 1732. In the seventh century, Theodore of Canterbury wrote a penitential condemning anal coitus and other sexual acts. In England in 1806, more persons were executed for sodomy than murder.

Sodomy is the homosexual and bisexual male sex act that is the main source of infection with the deadly AIDS virus and the anal squamous cell, or human papillomavirus, that causes anal cancer. Rectal gonorrhea and syphilis are also transmitted this way. Coxon and McManus studied high-risk behavior among gay men and found that although anal intercourse is the most hazardous behavior for the spread of the AIDS virus, 53 percent are unprotected and at least 37 percent ejaculate semen into the partner’s anus. One of the men in their sample had 104 acts of anal intercourse in a month’s time, and at least 11.4 percent of their sampling had more than seven such acts in a month.[454]

In spite of millennia of extreme punishment, denigration, and deadly disease, Lauman et al.[455] found in a national sample of heterosexuals in the eighteen-to-twenty-four age group that 15.8 percent of the males and 16.2 percent of the females reported ever engaging in anal intercourse. Some 24 percent of teens consider anal sex abstinent behavior.[456] On March 23, 2001, a judge threw out Arkansas’ anti-sodomy law saying it unfairly singles out homosexuals for prosecution.[457]

BB. Stalking

Stalking, defined as “persistently following or harassing others,” became a legally punishable crime in the twentieth state in 1992 when the Florida House of Representatives and Senate unanimously (115-0 and 36-0, respectively) voted for its anti-stalker bill, CS-HR 97. The Florida law was based on the California law that went into effect in 1991. Until these laws took effect, a woman who was being pursued and terrorized by a vengeful boyfriend or husband had little recourse unless physically abused or the man trespassed on her property. There had been a Dade county case of a woman who had been killed by a former lover after the police did nothing in response to her complaints that he was stalking her. Stalking is an old behavior, but a new crime.

Under the new law, stalking could be punished by a year in jail and a $1,000 fine for following or harassment that causes “substantial emotional distress and serves no legitimate purpose.” A stalker who also “makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury” could be found guilty of aggravated stalking and face penalties of up to five years in prison and a $5,000 fine.[458] On the June 18, 1992 Today television show, Connie Chung interviewed a woman who had been victimized and an ACLU lawyer who felt that the new laws were filling a “terrible void” in the government’s protection of women. The question was raised whether the new laws will work to stop this behavior or simply complicate the already overworked legal system.

By mid-January 1993, stalking-law arrests in Florida had reached 468, ranging from a sixty-six-year-old Fort Lauderdale man to a twelve-year-old Escambia county boy who wrote threatening notes to a classmate. Problems have cropped up, however. In Osceola County, nineteen-year-old Sharon Henderson was slain nine days after she filed a stalking complaint against twenty-eight-year-old James Bead. The sheriff’s policy at the time was to not arrest suspects until they made violent threats. Since the killing, the policy has been changed so deputies can arrest any suspected stalker. The new law did not protect nurse Sandra Sheldon from being followed home from her abortion clinic job in Fort Walton Beach, Florida. Nor did it protect her home from being picketed by abortion protester Randy Hensley and his cohorts.[459]

Surveys published in 1997 showed that stalking was one of the most prevalent of the sex crimes in the United States. One out of every twelve women is stalked at some point in her life. More than a million American women—and 370,000 men—are victims of stalking each year, according to the national survey on stalking behavior conducted by the Center for Policy Research, a Denver-based organization that received funding from the Justice Department and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the prevalence of stalking. About 45 percent of the victims reported overt threats from stalkers, and 75 percent report being spied on or followed. In 30 percent of the cases, the victims reported vandalism of their property. “Stalking is an act of terror that builds a prison of fear around its victims,” Attorney General Janet Reno said in releasing the survey findings. “This survey indicates that stalking is a bigger problem than we previously thought.”[460]

In the first nationwide study of stalking, it was found that 8 percent of women and 2 percent of men in the United States have been stalked at sometime in their life; an estimated 1,006,970 women and 370,990 men are stalked annually. American Indian/Alaskan Native women are significantly more likely to report being stalked than women of other racial or ethnic backgrounds. About 12 percent of all stalking cases result in criminal prosecution, and about a quarter of female stalking victims obtain restraining orders against their stalkers. Of all victims with restraining orders, 69 percent of the women said the stalkers violated the order. Of the victims no longer being stalked, 19 percent said the stalking ceased because the stalker was convicted of a crime.[461]

Women are the primary victims of stalking, and the effects on them have been found to be very serious in a majority of cases. In one study, it was found that 24 percent of the women seriously considered or attempted suicide. Forty-seven percent had frequent headaches, 74 percent had chronic sleep disturbances, 83 percent had heightened anxiety, 55 percent had excessive tiredness or weakness, 73 percent were extra cautious, 48 percent were more easily frightened, 30 percent had persistent nausea, and 48 percent had appetite disturbances.[462]

CC. Sexual Slavery

. Representative Joseph P. Kennedy II, Democrat from Massachusetts, told the Congressional Human Rights Caucus on July 15, 1993, that an estimated 25,000 girls have been forced into prostitution in Brazil’s Amazon mining camps, and 70,000 Thailand women work as “virtual indentured sex slaves” in Japan. More than 200,000 Bangladesh young women, ages ten to twenty-five, have been auctioned as slaves, housemaids, wives, or prostitutes. The lawmakers were studying the legislation making it a federal offense for Americans to engage in child prostitution outside the United States. U.S. authorities felt there was a need for such a law to curb the rising demand for sex with children, which was apparently caused by “the mistaken belief that AIDS cannot be contracted from children,” said Kenneth L. Klothern, executive director of the Philadelphia-based Defense for Children International. The law would target those who travel individually or in organized sex tours. Pagsanjan, Philippines, and certain Sri Lankan beach resorts are internationally known as sex tourism destinations. “Child prostitutes pay a terrible price … they are virtually slaves to their procurers,” he said. Carol Bellamy of the United Nations Children’s Fund was quoted as saying some 250 million children were trapped in smuggling and prostitution rings.[463]

The trade in slaves surged in Sudan, Africa’s largest country, after February 1994. For much of the time since Sudan obtained its independence in 1956, southern rebels maintained black Christians and followers of tribal religions have fought for autonomy from the national government in Khartoum, which is dominated by northern Arabs. From 1984 to 1998, an estimated 1.5 million Sudanese died in the fighting, famine, and disease, and more than 3 million have fled or been forced from their homes. Unpaid, local militias who take slaves as their compensation do much of the fighting on the government side. Young women and children are the most valuable war booty. Old people are beaten and robbed, while young men are killed because they cannot be trained into useful, harmless slaves.[464]

Uganda, directly south of Sudan, became independent of the British rule in 1962, but was backed by the Sudan government in its twelve-year war. The Ugandan army abducts children, who are “owned” by their army commanders, and the girls are held as virtual sexual slaves through enforced “marriages.”[465] The Taliban and Al-Qaeda soldiers in Afghanistan were also rewarded with stolen women for victory in battle.

Five members of the Mexican Cardena family were arrested in West Palm Beach, Florida, in February 1998, on white slavery charges. At least twenty-three young women, some as young as thirteen, had been smuggled in from Vera Cruz, Mexico, and kept in trailers where they were forced to be prostitutes for Hispanic migrant workers. The keepers of the slaves were called “ticketeros,” and they would receive the money and give makeshift vouchers for access to the women. The women would perform about twenty sex acts a day for about $20 each. The brothels had been in operation since at least 1996.[466]

In March 2000, the house judiciary committee passed a federal house bill designed to protect victims of the growing international sex slavery trade by a unanimous vote. The bill would allow child victims under age sixteen to be brought to this country to stay in America. The issue of sexual slavery and how to curb its rapid growth has been on the minds of Capitol Hill lawmakers for some time.[467]

On December 12, 2000, the Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal closed a symbolic trial of Japan’s World War II leaders by finding the late Emperor Hirohito guilty for his army’s policy of systematically forcing Asian women into sexual slavery. Gabrielle McDonald, one of the four judges, said: “We have concluded that Hirohito knew or should’ve known about the establishment of the system of comfort stations.” Today, most female Asian slaves are forced into prostitution rings, serving metropolitan areas with large Asian communities.

The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service has identified 250 brothels in twenty-six states suspected of using unwitting immigrant women as prostitutes. Texas prosecutors got guilty pleas in August 2000 in a case where 100 Chinese and Thai women were agreeing to pay $40,000 a piece to sneak into America, only to find themselves pressed into the “flesh trade” in Houston and several other cities.

Trafficking in women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a very lucrative market estimated at an annual $7 billion on a worldwide basis. Only drug smuggling generates greater profits for criminals. Women are trafficked to, from, and through every region in the world, and this highly profitable trade poses relative low risks compared to the trades in drugs or weapons. The moneymakers are mostly transnational networks of traffickers and pimps. In Israel, for instance, organized crime groups invested profits from trafficking in women into legitimate businesses. Between 1990 and 1995, some $2.5 to $5 billion had been invested in Israeli banks, and another $600 million had been invested in real estate.[468] The sex slave trade continued on a broad scale up to the year 2003 as shown by an article in the September 2003 National Graphic magazine.

The Angel coalition of forty-three women’s group in Russia launched a campaign May 16, 2001, to stop trafficking in women. They estimated that 50,000 are trafficked abroad from Russia every year and forced into sexual slavery.[469] The October 19, 2003, New York Times (p. 6YT) reported that an estimated 700,000 women are trafficked for the sex trade annually worldwide, and “of that number 200,000 are said to be moved annually through southeastern Europe.”

DD. Domestic Violence

Although seldom classified as a sex offense, domestic violence usually involves the male sex hormone testosterone and could be mollified or prevented by the use of the castration treatment. On February 8, 2001, Victoria Lutz, Director of the Pace University and Women’s Justice Center, told her audience that there are an estimated one million instances of domestic violence each year in America and that about 90 percent of the victims are women. Since the enactment of the 1994 Violence Against Women Act, domestic violence has become a felony with penalties up to twenty years in prison.

Domestic violence frequently involves stalking, rape, and homicide with the estimated incidence of one in four cases of homicide resulting from domestic violence. Professor Lutz showed a thirty-minute video called Defending Our Lives, which documented the stories of several women in prison for killing their husbands or boyfriends as a result of being attacked. The tide is changing today from the uncaring situation ten years ago. There are now at least 1,200 battered women’s shelters in the United States, and there is a toll-free number that women can call that helps guide the victims of domestic violence (1-800-799-SAFE) in how to proceed to gain protection.

Several women’s groups were active in getting the government to supplement the Violence Against Women Act with Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies Program. At least 130 grants to police and criminal justice agencies across the country, varying between $100,000 and $300,000 a year, each resulted in a greatly increased arrest rate for batterers, establishment of special domestic violence training facilities, and better protection for victims.

Numerous theories have been put forth in an attempt to explain why some men abuse women. One widely supported construct associated with relationship violence is experiencing or witnessing violence in one’s family of origin. Men who witness wife assault in their family of origin have battering rates that are three times greater than those who do not have such experiences.[470]

EE. Fondling

Fondling is usually an innocuous cuddling or caressing to show affection, but when it involves handling the private parts of another person, it is called lewd or lascivious fondling and is a third-degree felony in Florida and several other states. Three teenage boys were arrested December 11, 2001, in Navarre, Florida, after a young female student said she was fondled in the backseat of the school bus on their way home from their middle-school classes. Mitchell Mundy, twenty-one, was arrested May 4, 2002, in Crestview, Florida, for fondling himself in public.

William Breer[471] wrote that fonding was “… the most minor sex offense that usually comes to the attention of law enforcement and clinicians. Fondling can take place either through the clothing or after removal of clothing … Fondling that involves removal of clothing is more serious than fondling through the clothing.”

In spite of its relatively minor status in the hierarchy of sex crimes, a fondling case ignited the priestly sexual sinning crisis that swept over America’s largest Christian denomination in the year 2002. Beginning about January 5, the Boston Globe newspaper ran a series of articles about ex-priest John J. Geoghan, who had molested approximately 130 boys. The archdiocese of Boston agreed to pay up to $30 million to eighty-six people who had accused Geoghan. Geoghan was convicted of fondling a ten-year-old boy and sentenced in February to nine to ten years in prison. On May 16, 2002, Father Alfred J. Bietighofer, sixty-four, hung himself in his room at St. Luke Institute, a Catholic psychiatric hospital in Silver Springs, Maryland. He had resigned after being accused of fondling two boys in the 1970s and 1980s.

VII. Other Sex-Related Problems

There is another chamber of horrors, which is full of behaviors that are really sex offenses, but I hesitate to classify them as such because they are rarely recognized as such by the criminal justice system. I might more aptly call them sexual deviations, aberrations, abnormalities, or perversions—meaning that they vary from the normal heterosexual coitus and so have become recognized by some specialists as such. These anomalies are listed here because they cause disquietude or trouble in the populace, and they are amenable to the castration treatment. Here again I have arranged them in an approximate descending order of seriousness, bearing in mind that those that cause death are by far the most serious. Some of the terminology employed for these deviations rarely or never appear in the criminal justice literature because of the added complexities of keeping records. Although these are fairly comprehensive lists, I cannot guarantee that they are complete. These variations are almost endless because of mankind’s great ingenuity in seeking sexual pleasure.

When and if it ever comes down to the long-play argument on the benefits of castration in any given branch of the sex offenses, I believe that it can be shown that in every one of these there will be found a justification. Within each category of sexual misdoings—even the most innocuous of them—there can be found some examples where castration would have been a far preferable alternative or remedy. Masturbation, for example: Though nearly universal among American men and relatively harmless, it can become a major criminal incident. My local newspaper of December 15, 1987, headlined “Elementary School Principal Arrested” for masturbating a fifteen-year-old boy in the shopping center men’s room. His life is ruined. He would be far better off had he been castrated when he discovered that he had a weakness that would jeopardize his reputation and career. Public masturbation is a criminal offense. Another case of an extreme in masturbation is the person who is so preoccupied that he masturbates twenty times a day and has little time or energy left for family and job.

Another aspect of my study of the multiple types of deviant sexuality is that there is a fairly general tendency for some of our worst criminals to progress from innocuous sexual behavior to more serious both in degree and frequency. The thrills that sexual activity brings are addictive, and there is a detectable change in the body chemistry that is similar to addiction to alcohol and drugs. Testosterone increases and the brain’s dopamine adjusts to demanding greater and greater thrills. Ted Bundy, one of our most notorious serial killers who murdered at least thirty women, began about age nine as a peeping Tom (voyeur).

A. Lyncanthropy

The word lycanthrope comes from the Greek lykos (wolf) and anthropo (man)—literally, wolfman. In general usage, it refers to a man who has taken on all the attributes of a wolf: excessive body and face hair, heavy-joined eyebrows, dry tongue and eyes, a savage and predatory nature, a fearsome bloodlust, and roaming about at night on all four limbs. The wolfman also appears to have the mind of a fierce wolf rather than a human mind. The term werewolf is also common in English usage—coming from the Latin vir (a cognate of the Teutonic wer), meaning “man,” hence manwolf. The differences between the two terms are slight. Both have had similar meanings at various times and places, so they are used interchangeably.

The belief in the wolfman or the manwolf is as old as time and worldwide in occurrence. The evidence for the existence of such a creature is simply too pervasive to shrug off as mere superstition. In other cultures than our own, the man became the locally most-feared beast rather than the wolf of western culture: the tiger in Asia, the leopard or hyena in Africa, the panther in South America, and so on.[472] The Holy Scriptures mention such an instance in the fourth chapter of the book of Daniel written about 168 BC. The mind of the great king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar (605 to 562 BC), was taken from him and a beast’s mind was given to him for seven years. He ate grass like an ox, his body was wet with dew, his hair grew long as an eagle’s feathers, and his nails were like a bird’s claws. Another Biblical reference is Matthew 7:15, which warns of false prophets who are inwardly ravenous wolves.

Herodotus (484 to 425 BC) retold the story that was current among the Scythians during his period about the Neurians and Androphagi who lived in the remote areas north and east of Greece. “Once a year every Neurian turns into a wolf for a few days and then turns back into a man again … The Androphagi are the most savage of men, and have no notion of either law or justice. They are herdsmen without fixed dwellings; their dress is Scythian, their language peculiar to themselves, and they are the only people in this part of the world to eat human flesh” (Herodotus, The Histories, Book IV). The trail of the werewolf will-of-the-wisp takes us down through the morass of myths and legends, which have grown up over a long time. Probably the most venerable of these is the story of Lycaon, king of ancient Arcadia. Ovid retold the legend in the year AD 1—as though Jupiter himself was telling it in his marble council chamber surrounded by the other gods—as follows:

Scandalous rumors concerning the state of the times had reached my ears. Hoping to find them false, I descended from the heights of Olympus, and walked the earth, a god in human form … I entered the inhospitable home of the Arcadian tyrant. I revealed myself as a god, and the people began to do me homage. Lycaon, however, first laughed at their pious prayers, and exclaimed: “I shall find out by an infallible test, whether he be god or mortal: there will be no doubt about the truth” … He took a hostage sent him by the Molossian people, slit the man’s throat with his sharp blade, and cooked his limbs, still warm with life, boiling some and roasting others over the fire. Then he set this banquet on the table. No sooner had he done so, than I with my avenging flames brought the house crashing down. Lycaon fled, terrified, until he reached the safety of the silent countryside. There he uttered howling noises, and his attempts to speak were all in vain. His clothes changed into bristling hairs, his arms to legs, and he became a wolf. His own savage nature showed in his rabid jaws, and he now directed against the flocks his innate lust for killing. He had a mania, even yet, for shedding blood. But, though he was a wolf, he retained some traces of his original shape. The greyness of his hair was the same, his face showed the same violence, his eyes gleamed as before, and he presented the same picture of ferocity.

Another well-known ancient legend is the story of Romulus and Remus who were suckled and raised by a she-wolf.

There are hundreds of werewolf stories extending down through time from these early legends to the present day. Some people put more or less credence in some of these old tales, but a majority of the populace today regards them merely as hoary ghost stories—well calculated to instill fear and dread in the reader, and thus to achieve a certain credibility and a life of their own. Some of these stories are: The Satyricon of Petronius by T. Petronius Arbiter (c. AD 65), King Arthur and Gorlagon (c. AD 1135), the Lay of the Werewolf by Marie de France (c. 1167), the Breton Legend of the Other Side by Eric Stenback (1893), The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson (1886), and others. Most of these old stories managed to insert a dash of sex to increase their interest. There is nothing quite like aberrant sex to pique the interest of the reader of a story and make it memorable. The werewolf in these stories is usually a man who attacks women or children—often beguiling them in some manner, ravishing them, raping them, and eating their flesh. The synonym for a lecherous man is that he is a “wolf.” There were at least fifty movies that have a werewolf theme and made the rounds of theaters and television shows in the 1980s.

Most people will probably choose not to believe the old myths and legends of werewolves, but there are other documents that have come down to us that are considerably more credible, such as the official records of werewolf criminal prosecutions, religious treatises, and medical studies, which may not be so easily dismissed. During the Middle Ages, lycanthropy was studied intensively as a theological doctrine. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics reports that thousands of people were put to death because they were believed by church officials to be werewolves.[473] According to one of Voltaire’s writings (the grand judge of the ecclesiastical court of St. Claude, France), Henri Boguet boasted of having put more than 600 lycanthropes to death between 1569 and 1616.

In 1521, three werewolves were identified: Michael Udon of Plane, Philbert Montot, and Gros Pierre, who were executed at Poligny, France. These men confessed that they had changed themselves into wolves and eaten several people. Udon was wounded in an encounter with an armed man who later followed him to a hut, where Udon had reverted to human shape and was having his wounds dressed by his wife. On January 18, 1573, Gilles Garnier, a sadistic hermit, confessed killing and eating several children. He was condemned to be burned to death at Dole, France. More than fifty witnesses deposed that he had attacked and killed children in the fields and vineyards, devouring their raw flesh. He was sometimes seen in human shape and sometimes in the shape of a wolf. Jean Grenier was brought to trial in 1603 and sentenced to life imprisonment in the monastery at Bordeaux, France, for eating a baby and clawing and biting several young girls. He died in the monastery at the age of twenty in a badly demented condition.

Peter Stumpf, also referred to as Stubbe Peeter, was another werewolf who lived a double life in the city of Cologne, Germany, and the towns nearby. He dressed well and civilly saluted those whose friends and children he had butchered. Strangely, his villainous side was not revealed for some twenty-five years. On one occasion, he craftily called the name of one of two men and a woman who were traveling through some woods. When the man went to see who called his name, Peter ambushed and killed him. After a time, the other man went to see what had happened to his friend, and he, too, was silently murdered. The woman, seeing that neither returned, suspected that some evil had befallen them and sought to save herself by flight, but she was quickly overtaken by the fleet-footed wolfman who raped and murdered her. The two men were later found mangled in the woods, but the woman’s body was never recovered—apparently her flesh had been devoured. So great was Peter’s passion for human flesh that he enticed his own son into the woods, slew him, and ate the brains out of his head in one of the most degenerate acts of German history.

Stumpf killed lambs and kids in the fields, feeding on them raw and bloody like any natural wolf. He would also run among a group of maidens in the fields, scattering them, but he was certain to run one down who he would rape and kill. In the space of a few years, he thus murdered thirteen young children and two pregnant young women. The fetuses were torn from their wombs and the hearts eaten hot, pulsing, and raw. He begat a child by his own daughter, Stubbe Beell, and fornicated with his sister. The inhabitants of the area would often find the arms and legs of dead women and children scattered up and down the fields. So great was the fear in the populace that no one dared travel abroad without good defense provisions. Finally, enough large mastiffs, hunting dogs, and men were dedicated to entrapping him, and he was pursued and surrounded so that there was no chance of his escaping. Suddenly, instead of the wolf they had pursued, the hunters found a well-known inhabitant of the area walking with a staff in his hand toward the city. They all walked to Stumpf’s home then, perceiving that he was the one for whom they had searched, and delivered him to the magistrates for further examination. After being threatened by the rack, he voluntarily confessed to his life of villainies.

After some period of imprisonment, the magistrates found out that his daughter and his common-law wife, Katherine Trompin, were both accessories to some of his murders. They were also arraigned and condemned on the same day as Peter, October 28, 1589. On the thirty-first day of the same month, he was laid on a wheel, the flesh pulled from his bones in ten places with red-hot pincers, his arms and legs broken with a wooden axe, his head struck from his body, and his carcass burned to ashes. His daughter and wife were burned the same day in the presence of many peers and princes of Germany. After the execution, Stumpf’s head was mounted on a tall pole with a wooden likeness of a wolf and left for a long time as a monument and notice to ensuing ages.

Sawney Beane, with his wife and fourteen children, lived in a cave by the North Sea in Galloway, Scotland. They formed the infamous “Bean Clan” with thirty-two of their other relatives, which attacked and ate travelers in their vicinity. When they were finally subdued, piles of bones were found in their cave with a large store of parts of human bodies. Some parts had been pickled in brine; others were dried out and hung up like pieces of beef. The entire clan was transported to Edinburgh and executed in the year 1435.[474]

John “Liver-Eater” Johnson (c. 1820–1900) carried on a vendetta against the Crow Indians for the murder of his squaw wife and child in which he killed some three hundred Crow Indians. Whenever he killed one, he would slash him open with his Bowie knife and eat his raw liver.[475]

Physicians considered lycanthropy a disease from very early times. Paulos Aigina of seventh-century Alexandria attributed its causes to brain malfunction, hallucinogenic drugs, or humoral pathology. The name for this pathology comes from the Latin word humor, meaning “moisture, especially the moisture of the bodily fluids.” In this ancient understanding of the physiology of the body, the four humors were: red blood, yellow choler, clear phlegm, and black melancholy; the variant mixtures of these humors in different men determined their temperaments, physical shape, and mental qualities. The ideal man was believed to have had an equal proportion of each of these four. A predominance of one produced a man who either was sanguine (the Latin word sanguis means “blood”), choleric, phlegmatic, or melancholic. According to the humors’ theory, the lycanthrope was insane due to a superabundance of the humor of melancholy.[476] Some of the old werewolf stories told of the color of the blood of werewolves as being black as tar when their flesh was cut open.

There are several diseases that produce the symptoms common to lycanthropy. Rabies—generally called hydrophobia, meaning “morbid fear of water”—is probably the most common. Rabies produces great thirst, restlessness that increases to an uncontrollable excitement, mental deterioration, and spasms of the larynx, which sometimes produces strange vocal sounds. Porphyria (from the Greek meaning “purple” for the dark discolorations of the urine and blood, which results from the disease) is another pathological body condition resulting from a gene causing the production of excessive amounts of porphyrin in the bone marrow. Since 1961, it has been labeled “erythropoietic protoporphyria” and is estimated to have a prevalence of 1 in 75,000 to 200,000 in the population. It also produces symptoms that are common to lycanthropy such as an extreme sensitivity of the skin to sunlight. This, in turn, results in a strong tendency to avoid sunlight, and outside movement is usually only after dark. Deformities or scarring of the arms and legs are frequently seen, as are psychiatric manifestations ranging from irritability and confusion to severe psychoses or delirium. Intermittent episodes of porphyria may be brought on by alcohol, drugs, or fasting. Symptoms are exacerbated by garlic and alleviated by injections of heme molecules from dehydrated blood cells or by drinking blood.[477]

Hypertrichosis, excessive growth of hair, is another lycanthropy-related disease. Also called polytrichia, polythrichosis, and hirsutism, hypertrichosis has been classified into several types: 1) Hypertrichosis lanuginosa is persistent or acquired production of lanugo. It may be a congenital, autosomal disorder in which there is excessive hair distributed over the entire body through life, usually in association with other congenital anomalies such as carcinomas. 2) Hypertrichosis pinnae auris involve the pinna of the ear and may be linked with the Y-dominant autosomal trait—called also “hairy ears.” 3) Hypertrichosis universalis is the congenital form of hypertrichosis lanuginosa. A forty-three-year-old carnival star named Jackie Johnson of Los Angeles has this form of the disease and was pictured on the front page of the Weekly World News on February 26, 1991, with the caption, “Marry me and I’ll give you $100,000.” By the end of March, he had received hundreds of letters from women all around the country.

Another medical aspect of the werewolf phenomenon was written up in the June 1995 issue of the journal Nature Genetics. Members of a family in rural Mexico are born with hair all over their faces, even their eyelids—a condition called congenital generalized hypertrichosis, hairy congenital nevus, or the “werewolf syndrome.” Scientists have moved closer to finding the key gene by studying blood samples from this family, which was not named, but was well-known to gene expert Dr. Jose Cantu of the University of Guadalarajara. Cantu said that one of the members of the family shaved his face every day and worked as a night watchman “where he was by himself, he didn’t have to see anyone, and he was very happy with that work.” But eventually, like most of the other afflicted men Cantu knows of, the man joined the circus and for that he let his hair grow out.[478]

Still another condition that has contributed to wolfman stories and behavior is lupus (systematic lupus erythemstosis). This is a disease that usually puts a butterfly-shaped rash across the face, making the victim look like a wolf, hence the name “lupus.” It is most common in blacks, Indians, and some Asian groups. The disease is made worse by exposure to the sun, so those infected with it are more likely to be out at night or in dark places like the wolf. Dementia, psychological problems, and epilepsy are some of its side effects, which may also contribute to fierce wolf-like behavior.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is another manifestation of the night-preferring behavior of the lycanthrope. People with this disorder feel severely depressed in the sunlight—like a dying, withering flower—and much prefer the dark and cold of night, winter, and dimly lit rooms indoors. Dr. Herbert Pardes, chairman of psychiatry at Columbia University, noted that not much is known about this unusual malady. He told Ann Landers,[479] “It could have something to do with a change in hormones.” Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare—striking about four people out of 1 million—autosomal recessive disease with somewhat similar sensitivity to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. It is the result of a deficient enzyme in the excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA. It usually begins in childhood with excessive freckling, keratoses, papillomas and malignancies, lacrimation, and photophobia. Mental retardation, areflexia, and other neurological disorders may be associated with it. Bloom’s syndrome is still another autosomal recessive disorder producing a wolf-like preference for the dark. This syndrome is characterized by photosensitivity, dwarfism, erythema, dilation of the blood vessels, and a tendency to occur in patients of Jewish ancestry.

The older literature on the attribution of the lycanthropy phenomenon to drug-induced mental states hinges on the effects of nightshade, wormwood, aconite root, hemlock, mandrake, jimsonweed, and henbane; the more modern writings tend to blame atropine, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), marijuana, and peyote. Atropine and its related drugs produce the dry tongue and eye characteristic of the lycanthrope. Nightshade contains belladonna, wormwood, and aconite root; hemlock is a cerebral stimulant. Mandrake is a narcotic herb that contains atropine and scopolamine. All these substances can produce altered states of consciousness and perceptual distortion, which could produce the appetite, ferocity, cunning, swiftness, and strength of a wolf on a temporary or permanent basis under the right conditions. A man’s genetic predisposition, the superstitions induced by his culture, an excess of male hormones, and a mixture of other substances in his diet could combine to produce a wolf-like man. There are also other substances, which were fairly common, that could cause these symptoms. One of these is the ergot fungus of rye grain and other food items, which produces hallucinations, loss of mental control, great thirst, twitching of the extremities, dilation of the pupils, and gangrene of the fingers and toes. Ergot has been used since the 1960s to make the lysergic acid component of LSD, 100 micrograms of which can cause psychotic episodes. Extremes of hunger are another cause of werewolf-like behavior. In 1960, several athletes who were isolated in a wrecked airplane in the high Andes ate their fellow passengers. In 1988, fifty-two Vietnamese refugees killed and ate three of their membership while in a disabled boat at sea.[480]

We are not as far away from the jungle as we may like to think we are. The Reverend Robert Schuller told of his experience in a fine hotel in Africa that made him realize that the jungle is never very far away. In spite of our fine clothing, automobiles, and homes, the jungle of human emotions lies just under the surface of our civilized facade. We have evolved from very primitive life forms as paleontology has clearly shown. Things are rarely what they seem. When we are not progressing, we are usually regressing. Regression is easier than we realize; we could slide backward to the jungle under many conceivable conditions. We are never very far from the jungle.

The werewolf phenomenon has been a subject for major theological studies for a very long time. The Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund (1368–1437) ordered that a council of the most learned theologians study the phenomenon. After much study and debate, they agreed unanimously that anyone who dared to deny that a human being could transform himself into a wolf should be found guilty of heresy and burned at the stake. Most of the man-to-wolf transformations were thought to be the work of the devil. If the devil had such power in the world that he could change one of God’s creatures—made in His own image—into the form of a wolf for his satanical purposes, then he must be greatly feared. But then it was rationalized that the devil’s power could not be superior to God’s and must be severely limited. However, the devil could have the power to delude by illusions. He could simulate the transformation by troubling their imagination, strengthening the effects of drugs, and superimposing animal-like shapes and postures on their bodies to deceive spectators. Devils and demons were acknowledged to have power over sorcerers, magicians, witches, and other evildoers—some of whom were well known to be consummate deceivers. They might well be suspected of confusing their nature and purposes by occult practices and magic. As a consequence, church leaders down to the present day have found it expedient to encourage some of their clergy to be proficient in exorcism so that they can help cast these demons out of possessed individuals.

The standard of beliefs for over 300 years was the famous Malleus Maleficarum—the witches’ hammer—written in 1487 by two priests, Henricus Institoris and Jakob Spenger. It asserted that the origin of witchcraft was “carnal lust,” insatiable in certain women, and laid down the rule that those accused of witchcraft should be investigated if necessary with torture; convicted witches if penitent should be condemned to life imprisonment and if unrepentant, handed over to the law to be executed. It was a major work in the history of psychiatry since it specified that sudden loss of reason in a person is a symptom of demonic possession. The usual method of driving away the demon was to burn the person—just as they had done with Joan of Arc in 1431.

Raymond McNally most ably demonstrated in his 1983 book Dracula Was a Woman how Bram Stoker, the author of the 1897 novel Dracula, used the true histories of real people: Prince Vlad Dracula of Wallachia (The Impaler, 1431–1476), together with Countess Elizabeth Bathory of Transylvania (1560–1620), as source material to fabricate the story that has become the principle modern legend of the vampire. This is an excellent illustration of how such legends were formulated of both facts and the embellishment of fiction. The Bible, itself, may provide source material for the imaginations of some of the tellers of these nightmarish yarns: “… You shall not eat the blood of any creature, for the life of every creature is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off” (Leviticus 17:10–14 and Mark 5:2–9).

Numerous explanations of werewolf behavior and the clinical conditions of lycanthropy have been offered from the psychiatric viewpoint. The lycanthropy phenomenon is not considered a diagnostic entity in itself, but rather a symptom of deeper underlying complexes. Schizophrenia, particularly the paranoid variety of this psychosis, is the principle type. The needs of the schizophrenic to be fed along with other overpowering oral needs, rule his life and his behavior. The male ego, repressed by an overpowering female, often turns the man to violence. Karl Abraham has reasoned that the oral phase of infantile development at which a male child develops teeth is also the time he finds himself provided with an effective weapon of aggression, which he can use to satisfy his needs and overcome his frustrations. Rosenstock and Vincent reviewed the literature on lycanthropy and concluded that in addition to schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome with psychosis, psychotic depression reaction, hysterical neurosis of the dissociative type, and manic-depressive psychosis could be diagnosed as contributing. Other psychiatrists have attributed homosexuality along with strong oral drives and blood fetishism with abnormal excitement to the sight of blood to the imagination as contributing to lycanthropy. Brill (1941) pointed out that necrophilia is not as rare as people believe, and it has been known for centuries. He also points out that “destruction of the dam of shame, disgust, and morality requires more psychic labor than in the construction of any other perversion.” There is also a mental condition sometimes called zoophagous in which individuals have a strong desire to eat living animals, which contributes to some of the werewolf behavior. Some experts also attribute an oral-sanguinary sadism etiology.

A fifty-year-old widow, who kept a general store in a certain small Midwestern town, suddenly disappeared in November 1958. There were bloodstains on the floor near the cash register, but no money had been taken. The whole town became alarmed immediately because three years before, another woman, who ran a bar in the town, had disappeared in a similar manner. The sheriff was able to trace down a suspect through store records of a purchase of a gallon of antifreeze to a well-known and respected bachelor of the community. One of the deputies who lived nearby was sent out to interview the man at his home just outside of the town. When he approached the house, he saw a light on in the kitchen, so, with the assurance of an old friend, he opened the door. A ghastly sight met his eyes. The missing woman’s headless, eviscerated body was hanging by the heels from hooks in the ceiling, and some of her internal organs were stewing in a pot on the stove. The man was busily engaged in cutting up her body into packages of convenient size for his freezer. A search of the house revealed ten other human heads—one of them the missing bar owner from three years earlier. A chair in the living room was upholstered in human skin. Belts and purses made of the same material were also found. Extra pieces of skin were rolled in cellophane and stored in various parts of the house. The building was filthy with dust-covered bones and piles of decayed garbage in the corners of the rooms. The one exception to the general condition of the house was his long-dead mother’s room. Everything in that room was intact just as it had been the day she died. The bed was carefully made up, the bedstead and chest of drawers meticulously dusted, and all was in order.

The man confessed to robbing the graves of recently buried females over a period of several years. He also admitted that he had killed and eaten the woman who owned the bar. He was preparing to eat the storeowner’s body when he was caught. Immediately, the news of this horrid case spread throughout the nation. The writers of Alfred Hitchcock’s famous movie Psycho used some of this grisly episode in 1960 for their gruesome horror film. The psychiatrists who interviewed this monster described him as a schizophrenic personality—torn between love and hate for women—with an Oedipus complex and necrophilia tendencies combined with anthropophagy (cannibalism). He told one of the psychiatrists that he wished that he were a woman, and he spoke of cannibalism as though it were an accepted custom. It was found that this individual had been providing adequate behavioral clues to his perversions for many years, but no one blamed the local police for not picking up on them because such nightmarish behavior is incomprehensible to the average law officer.[481]

In the modern vernacular of the criminal justice system, the werewolf and vampire of the ancient legends and superstitions are the lust murderer, sadist, or necrophiliac of today. They are all crimes that have a major element of sexual causation. The lurid horror of the werewolf draws the mind away from its sexual nature. Most of us are accustomed to thinking of sexuality in a kinder and more loving light. We equate sex and love very often. Love is a noble emotion, far removed from such evils as the ravening werewolf. We have trouble shifting the gears of our normal thought processes from the beauty of sexual fulfillment to the gruesome eating of human bodies, yet it is the same set of male hormones that is the biological root cause of these widely different behaviors. It is strange, but true, that without these hormones circulating in the blood and in the brain, the romantic troubadour does not sing his love song beneath his sweetheart’s window, and the brutal murders do not occur.

How incredible it is that the human race has suffered so acutely for thousands of years the fear, horror, dread, terror, and death by the werewolf when all the time there has been a simple and near-perfect treatment for the problem. One little snip would do it. Castration (orchidectomy) eliminates the behavior and cures the problem. It is guaranteed to eliminate the aggressive drive and the sexual potency that drives the werewolf to his heinous acts. It also provides many fringe benefits to society and the individual. Castration satisfies the public cry for vengeance with poetic justice. It punishes the criminal in a manner that imparts a powerful deterrent to other men who might be tempted to commit similar crimes. It permits the criminal to make later restitution to the aggrieved victims and their families. It is relatively inexpensive due to the testes being located external to the body cavity, especially if the cost of years of imprisonment is the alternative. It has the potential for preserving whatever talents for the public good that the criminal might possess.

I have heard it said that castration is too draconian, severe, or invasive a procedure. For the love of Heaven, where are our values? What perverted sense of justice makes us so sympathetic to the most evil of all possible human behavior? Castration imparts very little suffering compared to the crimes of the lycanthrope. There is a vast misunderstanding of the results of castration in the general public because one hears of men who prefer death. Hanging, dismemberment, and burning were common punishments for hundreds of years. These gruesome penalties were ineffective in many of the objectives of punishment and have been withdrawn. Castration has the effect of removing the principle source of testosterone (T), the main hormone of sex and aggression. Once the testes are removed, T is gradually depleted from the brain and blood. The result is that the individual no longer wants to maim, murder, and devour people. The desire, ability, and the aggressive instinct are all three components that make the fiendish behavior possible; these are eliminated or sharply reduced. The criminal eventually reaches a plateau where he loses interest in these beastly activities. Lust no longer drives him. He is relieved of the demon within him … freed of the anxiety, suffering, torment, agitation, and restlessness caused by his former passions. We may very well ask: Of what are we depriving a man if he no longer wants or is capable of this aggressive behavior?

The fact that castration effectively quenches the aggressive element of behavior has been known since man first domesticated animals some 8,000 years ago. With most mammals, the number of male and female births is approximately equal, but only one male is all that is needed for serving dozens of females in the procreation of their species. The result has been severe competition, fighting, wasting, and wounding among the males who are seeking to mate with many females and protecting their own harems. It was found that castration eliminates this fighting dangerousness and makes the animals more tractable for riding or pulling the plow. Castration also makes better meat more efficiently. With castration, bulls become oxen and steers, stallions become geldings, rams become wethers, boars become barrows, and so on with other species—being gentled and improved. Human slaves and servants who have been castrated have always been more valuable and reliable than intact ones.

The hierarchy of violence among all vertebrates clearly shows an almost perfect correlation with the species’ levels of testosterone in the blood plasma. The ferret and elephant are high in both, man is normally about midway, and the cocker spaniel and pigeon are near the bottom. The ferret has a measured peak level of 83 nanograms (ng) of testosterone per milliliter of plasma and is well known as a very fierce animal that kills rats and prairie dogs and often bites people. It is a feared and relentless hunter. The bull Indian elephant has a peak level of 65.4 ng/ml and a mean level of 44.7 during his sexually active period called musth (Hindi meaning “intoxicated”). The bull’s behavior when he is in musth is characterized by murderous belligerence and frenzied fury. The bulls often fight to the death. Musth is also marked by the exudation of a smelly brown ichor from small holes above the eyes. At other times, the elephant’s normal level of testosterone is only 0.7 ng/ml, and his behavior at this level is very timid for a creature of his size—six tons or more. The old bulls later usually become mentally deranged and unruly solitary outcasts from the herd.

In the white race, men usually record a peak testosterone level of 17.7 ng/ml and a mean of 8 with a daily range varying from 1 to 11. Fifty-two out of fifty-seven behavior studies showed that boys, with their normally higher testosterone levels, were more aggressive than girls. At least 90 percent of the sexual crimes, assaults, wars, and combative sports belong to the male of the species. On the lower end of the hierarchy of violence and testosterone is the cocker spaniel with a peak of 4.3 and a mean of 1.9 ng/ml concentration. These spaniels are well known for their gentle and loving behavior.

B. Vampirism

Vampirism is closely related to lycanthropy. It is the act or practice of bloodsucking—the actions of a vampire: a bloodsucking reanimated cadaver. The word is of Slavic origin akin to the Serb word vampire. Just as we have seen with lycanthropy, vampirism has a very long history that goes back to at least as far as the Assyrians who had an up-and-down history from about 2000 to 612 BC and occupied the region that is now northern Iraq. In one cuneiform translation of their Prayer Against the Evil Spirits quoted by Montague Summers, the vampires are described as follows:

Knowing no care,
They grind the land like corn;
Knowing no mercy.
They rage against mankind;
They spill their blood like rain,
Devouring their flesh (and) sucking their veins.
Where the images of the Gods are, there they quake;
In the temple of Nabu, who fertilizes the shoots of wheat,
They are demons full of violence ceaselessly devouring blood.[482]

The Assyrian/Babylonian name for one of their demon vampires was Lilitu (also Lulti, meaning “lascivious” or “lechery”). This is believed to have been adopted and modified to Lilith (and Lamia, in the classical Latin) in the Rabbinical literature of the Hebrews (see Isaiah 34:14). Old Hebrew legends called Lilitu the mother of demons and spirits and queen of the succubi. Her cult survived until the seventh century AD among the Jews in spite of the clear prohibition against eating blood in Leviticus 17:10–16.

The Romans believed in rapacious bird-like vampires as Ovid (43 BC to AD 18) described them. They:

… fly by night and attack nurseless children
And defile their bodies, snatched from the cradle.
They are said to rend the flesh of sucklings
With their beaks, and their throats are full of blood which they have drunk.
… they sucked his infant breast with greedy tongues, and the poor child squalled and craved for help.[483]

The ancient Mayas of Central America consumed human blood in some of their religious rituals at one period in their history. Christian churches still do this symbolically with the bread and wine of the Eucharist representing the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Communion.

In 1897, Bram Stoker (1847–1912) published a novel about the vampire Dracula believed to have been inspired by the horrors of the fifteenth century conqueror of Transylvania, Vlad Dracule, “The Impaler.” Since then, at least 100 vampire films have been made. Bloodlust and the fierce thirst for blood have been portrayed as a life force akin to sexuality in some of these films. Some of the early-twentieth-century cases of syphilis were believed to have been transmitted by drinking human blood. By the end of the century, there were several vampire nightclubs in some of our larger cities where the clientele had vampire-like fangs and clothing and sipped bloody cocktails. The sexual attraction of vampirism is more apparent in these settings. Blood (especially menstrual blood) is even mentioned as an aphrodisiac.[484]

An urgent appeal for blood donation from German Health Minister Andrea Fischer attracted help from an unusual quarter—Count Dracula. The last surviving member of the Dracula family, Ottomar Rudolphe Vlad Dracula Prince Kretzulesco, who had taken up residence in a crumbling castle on the outskirts of Berlin, volunteered to lead a Red Cross campaign for donors on August 15–16, 1999. The count attended a special showing of vampire movies to attract potential donors. Several went away with an autograph and personal thank you from the Prince of Darkness.[485]

Evidence still exists very much right up to the present day that the old legends were, in fact, based on the conduct of certain individuals who had an insatiable thirst for blood. John Crutchley, forty-eight, of Melbourne, Florida, drained and drank blood from a nineteen-year old woman he abducted in 1985. Crutchley, a former engineer for Harris Corporation, was sentenced in 1986 to twenty-five years in prison. He admitted imprisoning the woman in his home in Malabar for two days, raping her, and drawing blood from her with a syringe and then drinking it. He agreed to plead guilty to the murder and rape of six other women to avoid the death penalty.[486] Crutchley became known as the “Vampire Rapist” in several articles in the news and was released after slightly over ten years of confinement because of state rules designed to ease prison-overcrowding conditions. He was back in prison on August 9, 1996, just one day after being released, because he violated the conditions of his parole by imbibing and testing positive for marijuana use. The American Journal of Psychiatry (134, no. 10, October 1977) and The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases (178, no. 2, February 1990) both carried articles on cases of lycanthropy as a psychosis … often diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenia.

The disease porphyria, as mentioned above, is one of the likely contributors to the legends of lycanthropy and vampirism. The two general classes of porphyria are erythropoietic porphyria with three subtypes in which large quantities of porphyrin are found in the blood’s erythroid cells, and four types of hepatic porphyria in which excessive amounts of porphyrin are produced by the liver. The type called porphyria cutanea tardia is more common in men than women. It is frequently associated with alcoholism, skin disfiguration, pimples, and hirsutism, and is probably the disease that led to the lycanthropy beliefs. The type most likely to be associated with vampirism is called acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), Swedish genetic porphyria, or Phyrroloporphoryia and is more common in women. AIP is often related to the menstrual cycle and alcohol, and dieting or injection of barbiturates may precipitate attacks. Most AIP patients also develop psychiatric manifestations ranging from irritability to serious psychoses. Exposure to the sunlight causes the urine of AIP victims to turn red or black.

Dr. Juan Gomez-Alonso of Vigo, Spain, published an article in the September 1998 issue of the Neurology journal, which said the legend of the vampire may have arisen from the rabies epidemics of the 1700s. Rabies can incite aggressiveness, extreme sensitivity to smells and sights, and insomnia—all of which, in vampire fashion, might make a person inclined to bite others, avoid sunlight and garlic, and wander around at night. The rabies infection can even delay the congealing of blood after death. A corpse buried in a cool climate might dribble liquid blood for months. Gomez-Alonso points out that the medical literature reports 25 percent of rabid men studied had a tendency to bite others, and they often could not bear mirrors or pungent scents. Also, large rabies epidemics occurred in Hungary beginning in the 1720s, about the time vampire lore swept through Europe.[487]

In 1994, there was a strong surge of interest in vampirism. The obsession reached fever pitch in pop culture with the showing of the film version of Anne Rice’s best-selling (4.5 million copies in print) novel Interview with the Vampire. Several articles were published in the news media. J. Gordon Melton, author of the monumental The Vampire Book: The Encyclopedia of the Undead, was quoted in the Pensacola News Journal of October 30, 1994, p. 4E, as saying: “There are two things that hook you about vampires. First, vampires are a way of living on. Second, there’s the sexuality. Vampires have become increasingly erotic figures.” Newsweek magazine for November 21, 1994, p. 85, revealed there were fifty or so “vampire interest” groups in the United States. New York’s Vampire Research Center claimed that there are some 750 citizens who really are vampires, not literally undead corpses, but people who get antsy if they do not drink blood. Vlad Llecina, twenty-six, a Chicago-area rock singer, publicly announced that he has been sucking his wife’s blood for years. The headline of the February 19, 1995, Pensacola News Journal (p. 4B) read: “Killer admits drinking victims’ blood.” Dannie Barnard, twenty-five, stabbed two neighborhood women and drank their blood. “I knew it was wrong,” he said.

One article told of a gang rape of women and drinking of blood by young rebel soldiers in Sierra Leona, Africa. “Some of them drink blood. Especially on the war fronts where there’s no food, no water; when we killed civilians we would cut a hole on the top of the arm, above the wrist, and press on the arm, and drink.”[488]

The Biblical guidance is clearly against the drinking of blood: “Only flesh with its soul—its blood—you must not eat” (Genesis 9:4). “And you must not eat any blood in any places where you dwell, whether that of fowl or that of beast. Any soul who eats any blood, that soul must be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 7:26, 27). “For the soul of the flesh is in the blood … No soul of you must eat blood” (Leviticus 17:11, 12, and 14). “… to keep abstaining from things polluted by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood” (Acts 15:20 and 29).

C. Satanism

Satanism is defined as an innate wickedness or obsession with or affinity for evil. Various cult practices have surfaced from time to time down through history, which have usually involved the worship of the devil with ceremonies. The repudiation of Christian dogma, sacrifices, sex, and drugs (see 1 Timothy 5:15). Some of these practices and beliefs can be traced from the remotest antiquity to the present day in many different cultures. Our own Judeo-Christian representation of the devil with horns and tail and grotesque shape comes down from the Assyro-Babylonian era (Britannica).

According to national surveys conducted by Barna Research, 25 percent of Americans “believe strongly” that Satan is a real being, and 60 percent of adults believe that Satan “is not a living being but a symbol of evil.” Forty-five percent of Christians who describe themselves as “born again” deny Satan’s existence. This widespread disbelief in the reality of Satan is a relatively recent development in Christianity. During the Middle Ages, belief in Satan was taken very seriously. To medieval Christians, the devil was a real living being. He was the Great Adversary, the Prince of Darkness, and the chief spirit of evil in the universe. Worshippers of Satan were seen as a serious threat to the welfare of the church and state. But in time, as the influence of Christianity began to wane in Western culture, so too did the belief in Satan.[489]

One of the very influential writings was the 1486 Malleus Maleficarum (Witches’ Hammer) of James Sprenger, which had run through twenty-eight editions by 1600: “…God allows more power of witchcraft over the genital functions, on account of the first corruption of sin which came from the act of generation, so he also allows greater power over the actual genital organ, even to its total removal … There is no doubt that certain witches can do marvelous things with regard to male organs …”[490] Another quote from this book is “… All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which in women is insatiable.”[491]

Biblical references to Satan are contained in Genesis 3:15; 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6–12, 2:1–7; Zechariah 3:1–2; Matthew 4:10, 12:26, 16:23; Mark 1:13, 3:23–76, and 4:15; Luke 10:18, 22:3; Acts 26:18; Romans 16:20; 1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 2:11, 11:14, 12:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:18; and Revelation 2:9, 12:9, 20:2–7. Satan is also frequently called the devil particularly in the New Testament (Matthew 4:1, 5, 8, 11, 25:41; John 8:44, 13:2; Ephesians 4:27, 6:11; Hebrews 2:14; James 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 John 3:8; and Revelation 12:12, 20:1–3, 20:2). Satan is sometimes referred to in the Bible as the Evil One (Matthew 13, 19, 38; and 1 John 2:13, 5:19); Leviathan or the serpent (Genesis 3:1, 3:4, 13; Numbers 21:9; 2 Kings 18:4; Job 3:8, 41:1; Psalms 74:14; Isaiah 27:1; 2 Corinthians 11:3; and Revelation 12:9, 20:2); Lucifer (Isaiah 14:12 in the King James Version of the Bible, later versions use “day star”); Belial or Beliar (2 Corinthians 6:15); prince of demons and Beelzebub (Matthew 2:24, 12:14, and 12:24); and other names such as father of lies (John 8:44) and the tempter (Matthew 4:5 and Thessalonians 3:5).

One of the nine tenets of Satanism quoted in Anton S. LaVey’s book The Satanic Bible is that Satan represents indulgence in sexual perversions rather than abstinence. The old Biblical commandments against adultery, homosexuality, and the sex crimes are overlooked, so many people with deviant sexual orientations are strongly attracted to the satanic cults. Strangely enough, we find in history a fanatical Christian religious sect called the Adamites, which had a similar belief. The Adamites of Bohemia (in modern Czechoslovakia, south of Prague) denied the concept of original sin and asserted that all human impulses, including sexual desire, were manifestations of divine will and should, therefore, be given free reign. They were attacked and destroyed October 21, 1421, by the puritanical general Jan Zizka. The forty survivors of the attack were taken prisoner and burned to death.[492]

Early Christian theology mentions the fallen angels and the nephalism that gave rise to demons (Genesis 6:2). Various writers in Paris, France, practiced satanic worship in the 1890s. Judging by the news media, we are seeing a resurgence of Satanism at the present time. David Berkowitz, the sensational serial killer in the infamous “Son of Sam” cases in New York, was allegedly sacrificing his victims to appease Satan in a cult ritual. In the apocalyptic writings, Satan is identified with death and the evil impulse in man. The religious view is that God permits the devil to tempt man—not directly, but through his body’s urges. Thousands of people have been accused by the ecclesiastical judges of demoniacal possession and burned at the stake in ages past. The modern psychological approach regards sin as principally a mental disorder and holds that temptation comes from natural instincts that require some sort of satisfaction.

Geraldo Riviera hosted a two-hour television program on October 25, 1988, called Devil Worship: Exposing Satan’s Underground, which showed the evidence of the Church of Satan, which holds beliefs directly opposite to those of the Christian churches. They believe that evil is good and good is evil. “It is a religion to some of the members, but merely a chance to do evil by others.” Several women testified they were former “breeders” who donated their infants to be ritual sacrifices. Child sacrifice to Mo’lech (satanic in nature) is mentioned in the Bible (Leviticus 18:21). Both humans and animals are mutilated at the ceremonies, and the initiates drink their blood. Satanists robbed graves in southeast Louisiana and defaced a dozen legitimate churches in Maine. Sean Sellers, a twelve-year-old boy, murdered three people as a sacrifice so that he could get “powers” from Satan. He was in prison in 1989 and condemned to death by lethal injection. He had a “hatred for society” and wanted to break all of the Ten Commandments. Satanism obsessed Thomas Sullivan, a fourteen-year-old boy in Jefferson Township, New Jersey. He butchered his mother with his Boy Scout knife then slashed his wrists. A child molestation scandal by the members of the Satanism ritual at the Presidio in San Francisco involved the sodomy of a five-year-old boy by one of the Satanic “priests.”

On February 24, 1999, the A&E television channel’s American Justice program introduced Richard Ramierez to the viewers as “The Night Stalker” who had killed eighteen people in California and sometimes left a satanic pentagram drawing on the wall using the victim’s blood. Another Satanist was Jay Scott Ballinger, twenty-six, of Muncie, Indiana, who on February 9, 1999, admitted to setting fire to thirty to fifty churches. Ballinger had persuaded fifty teenagers to sign contracts in blood pledging their soul to the devil. Satanic books were found in his home.

The thrills that a satanist gets from killing and torture are clear indications of the involvement of their sex hormones and neurotransmitters. There is no acting out on the more horrible crimes and mutilations that these disciples of Satan do until they are at an age where their androgenic hormones surge. This is usually about age twelve to fourteen, but many of these criminals have experienced “precocious puberty” at a much earlier age, some as young as six or eight. Some of these young Satanists have revealed their horrible thoughts and activities to their computers and left a record, so we know much more clearly that sexual impulses and kicks are part of their motivation. Michael B., sixteen, of Florida wrote the following in January 1999:

All fell to their knees, glorifying the dark being,
as I looked at I quaked,
realization of what I was seeing
This was Satan, from the depths of Hell
they had called him
Slowly he moved, now standing before the virgin.
Stretching out a hand of fire
He lifted up the witch, reaching down inside her
Pulling out her heart, her eyes went dark
Blood spewed from her mouth,
he dropped her to the ground
Then coming to the virgin, he folded back the skin
Of her breast, he placed the heart inside her chest
He then brought her back from death,
and lovingly healed her flesh
Still most of her body was bare of skin
and her breath came at first thin

Santeria witchcraft is practiced in Haiti, Cuba, Miami, and New York and follows many of the same practices as the other satanic cults such as animal sacrifices and using human skulls as tokens. These and other practices are forbidden in Deuteronomy 15:9–14.

D. Whitago

Whitago is a type of psychosis that is peculiar to certain North American Indian tribes who believe than an individual can be transformed into a giant monster called a whitago who eats human flesh. It is similar to lycanthropy and some possession states.[493]

E. Amok or Amuck

Amok, or amuck, is the name of another unusual psychiatric syndrome that occasionally is observed. Amok is a Malayan word meaning “to engage furiously in battle,” and it consists of a sudden, wild rage that causes the affected person to run madly about, attacking, maiming, or killing indiscriminately any animal or human he encounters until he is killed or overpowered.[494]

F. Symphorophila (Greek symphoro, “disaster,” plus philia)

“A paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon stage-managing the possibility of a disaster, such as a conflagration or traffic accident, and watching for it to happen. This is the predatory paraphilia in which the symporophile stage-manages a disaster or catastrophe which may claim victims. The symphorophile usually is a sexuoerotic spectator of the disaster at a distance. Mostly, the victims are chance bystanders or those who are trapped in an arranged crash, explosion, or fire. The catastrophe may be arranged to annihilate acquaintances or relatives and, in some instances, the self in a final act of sexuoerotic self-immolation. The seizure and assault paraphilias are biastophilia (raptophila) and symphorophilia, the paraphilia of catastrophes.”[495]

Money outlines the causes of the paraphilias as: “All the paraphilias have their origin in early childhood development, before puberty. A paraphilia is a developmental dissidence, and the prime suspect in the etiology of all paraphilias is excessive restriction of normal infantile and childhood sexual rehearsal play, plus excessive punishment for being caught at it.”[496]

Several sensational stories over the years have told how a few individuals have caused explosions, fires, and other catastrophes, but they were seldom found to meet all of the above criteria for this paraphilia. The Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, fifty-five, is one who does. At the age of nine months, while in a hospital, he was forcibly pinned to a bed for a week for a drug treatment reaction.

His mother noticed that his personality changed after that experience, but it wasn’t until many years later that something made him want to destroy people, places, and things. In the meantime, he had been a very brilliant student, skipping forward a year twice in the public schools. He graduated from one of the nation’s top universities, Harvard University, with honors and became a mathematics professor in California in one of the nation’s top universities. He dropped out of that job unexpectedly and became a reclusive hermit in a Montana mountain cabin. He would string wires across the trails in the woods to injure the dirt bikers that used the trails. He fabricated bombs and mailed them out to unsuspecting people in universities and businesses from May 25, 1978, to April 24, 1995. Sixteen of the bombs killed three people and twenty-three others were injured. On one occasion, he trashed a neighbor’s cabin, and it is likely he probably attacked others over the years. On September 9, 1995, the Washington Post and New York Times published a 35,000-word “manifesto” that Ted Kaczynski wrote. His brother, David, read the manifesto and compared it to letters that Ted had written to him. David notified the FBI in February 1996, and they arrested Kaczynski at his Montana cabin on April 3, 1996. After creating courtroom chaos and apparently enjoying it, on January 22, 1998, in a Sacramento, California, courtroom, he confessed to the sixteen bombings in order to avoid the death penalty. He was sentenced May 5, 1998, to life and sent to the Federal Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado, a maximum-security prison. The plea bargain agreement also specified that any money that Ted Kaczynski might subsequently earn by writings in prison would be used to reimburse the relatives of some of his victims. There would be no possibility of parole.

Further information was revealed in the 20/20 television program of May 4, 1998, elucidating some of the sexual aspects of symphorophilia in the Ted Kaczynski case. His brother, David, told more details of Kaczynski’s life, which showed his frustration of normal sexuality. Kaczynski strongly desired to find a woman but was repulsed by his closest female companion and was unable to find another outlet for his sex drive short of murder. On Friday, September 11, 1998, a prison psychiatrist’s report was released detailing the Unabomber’s fantasies about mutilating a girlfriend, killing psychiatrists, and having a sex-change operation. The report said Kaczynski’s frustrated desire for a sex-change operation set him on the path to being a killer. He had written that his 1966 visit to a psychiatrist to discuss his desire to become a woman was a major turning point in his life. He left the doctor’s office consumed with a visionary new hatred.[497]

There have been many other bombings—more than 2,000 in 1994 alone—that were mostly unexplained or the bomber not caught. Fifty years ago the “Mad Bomber,” as he was called, placed bombs in public places and wrote several messages to public figures. A psychologist made a profile from these letters of what the individual must be like. This profile was published in newspapers in 1956 and led to the bomber’s arrest at his home in Waterbury, Connecticut. Timothy McVeigh confessed immediately when arrested. The profiler had deduced that the man was a paranoid with a “chronic illness.” McVeigh was found guilty of the April 19, 1995, bombing of the federal building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, which killed more than 160 people; he is probably a symphorophiliac.

Another case of symphorophilia gradually unveiled itself in Vermilion County, Illinois. The first bomb in the case exploded on December 30, 1997, at the United Methodist Church in the town of Oakwood, killing one of the members. The second bomb blew out the wall of the First Assembly of God church in Danville, ten miles east of Oakwood, on May 24, 1998, injuring thirty-three worshipers.

G. Erotomania

Also called Clérambault’s delusion, Clérambault-Kandinsky Syndrome, psychose passionnel, and eroticomania, erotomania is another psychiatric syndrome involving delusional love affairs, which become greatly exaggerated and the patient’s central purpose for existence.[498] An example is John W. Hinkley, Jr., who shot President Reagan and an associate on March 6, 1981. Hinkley was obsessed with Jodie Foster, an actress who played the role of a prostitute in the movie Taxi Driver. The film plot concerned a plan to kill a senator who was seeking the presidency. Hinkley was acquitted of the responsibility for the shooting by reason of insanity and committed to St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, DC. Erotomania may pass unrecognized in suicides and murders. The assassination of John Lennon by Mark David Chapman on December 8, 1980, should be attributed to it. Lovesickness of the more everyday variety usually recedes into remission by two years.

The tabloids have told us for many years about the sensational deaths of Filmdom’s beautiful and talented people. Many of these have probably involved erotomania, lust murder, autassassinophilia, jealousy, or Othello delusion types of crimes. It is certain, however, that all of them have involved the sex hormones in one way or another. The Hollywood and the Los Angeles areas have attracted and displayed our sexiest people since the early 1920s. In 1921, the lurid sexual murder of Virginia Rappe by screen star “Fatty” Arbuckle was one of these. Some of the others are: the 1932 suicide or murder of Jean Harlow’s husband of two months, Paul Bern; the 1935 murder of screen goddess Thelma Todd; the 1947 mutilation-murder of the beautiful “Black Dahlia”; the 1948 tragic suicide of Carole Landis; the 1958 murder of Lana Turner’s lover, Johnny Valentine; the 1959 murder or possible suicide of “Superman,” George Reeves; the 1962 suicide or possible murder of Marilyn Monroe; the 1976 Sal Mineo homosexual murder; the 1978 murder of Nancy Spungen, girlfriend of punk rocker Sid Vicious; the 1980 murder of Dorothy Stratten (Playmate of the Year) by Paul Snider who committed suicide; and the 1981 suspicious drowning of Natalie Wood. There are many others of lesser stature in the public eye.

H. Erotophobia

Erotophobia is the fear of sexual feelings and activities, also the fear of love. This is often expressed as a feeling of being “out of control” with your own sexuality; you can’t seem to control your sexual urges, and this makes you uncomfortable. Many males have voiced this feeling in one way or another. They sometimes seek castration as an answer to this feeling of loss of control over their lives. This is one of the legitimate reasons for seeking castration that psychologists will recognize, and they will provide urologists with the assurance that you will be better off, healthier, as a castrated male. Doctors generally do not like to remove healthy organs, and they have to be convinced that there is a real need for the surgery and that the patient will be better off.

I. Othello Delusion

Iago speaks:

O, beware, my lord, of Jealousy; It is the green-eyed monster, which doth mock the meat it feeds on: that cuckold lives in bliss Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger; But, O, what damned minutes tells he o’er, Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet fondly loves! (Shakespeare, 1621, Othello, Act III, Scene 3)

The Othello delusion, also called sexual jealousy, morbid jealousy, psychotic jealousy, and conjugal paranoia, is a common psychotic disorder in middle-aged males which frequently results in wife beating or murder, alcoholism, or suicide.[499] The delusion of spouse infidelity may crystallize suddenly into irritability, depression, and homicidal tendencies. The most dangerous calls for the police are family altercations, which often erupt from this source. It is especially hazardous when combined with alcohol, mind-altering drugs, or neuroses. It is a state in which a person’s jealousy, which is already an irrational mixture of hatred and anger toward both the rival and the beloved, has gone much further than normal. It has taken on the persecutory delusions of paranoia, and there is hypersensitivity to even the minutest evidence, which tends to confirm the jealousy. Also there is unreasonable resistance to all contradictory evidence (Britannica). Ramon Salcido, twenty-eight-year-old winery worker from Mexico, slashed to death his attractive wife, mother-in-law, two daughters, and a male co-worker at the winery in Cotati, California, on April 16, 1989, as a result of this towering jealousy.

J. Infanticide

Throughout much of history, the most frequent type of murder in Europe was infanticide. It represented over 25 percent of all murders from the Middles Ages up to about 1800, and approximately 90 percent of those infanticides were committed by mothers … usually a young, unwed woman who became pregnant and delivered a “bastard.”[500] Infanticide is defined as the murder of a child by anyone. The killing of one’s own child is called “filicide,” and filicide within twenty-four hours of birth is termed “neonaticide.” This is a horrendous crime that has plagued mankind from ancient history right up to the present. Children were offered as sacrifices to gods as “sacrificial lambs” as far back in history as 500 BC in Jericho. It is also reported that the Carthaginians, Moabites, and Ammonites made such sacrifices to their gods. The Old Testament mentions killing children for food in Leviticus 26:29, Deuteronomy 28:53, 2 Kings 6:28, Jeremiah 19:9, and Lamentations 2:20. They were also slain in battle as recorded in Isaiah 13:16 and Ezekiel 9:6. The myth of Medea in Greek mythology is an example. Medea killed her two children to revenge the betrayal of her husband with another woman. Medea told him: “Thy sons are dead and gone. That will stab thy heart.” In the files of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia, there were at least 103 solved cases of filicide in 1997. Weak and deformed infants were often killed up to February 7, 374, when it was legally branded as murder.

Peter C. Contos, thirty-four, was convicted on February 4, 1999, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for killing his illegitimate children, ages four years and two months, and their mother when she threatened to expose their relationship to his wife. This is an example of another type of infanticide, which happens several times each year.

K. Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

This syndrome is characterized by its onset in the childhood years with tics, compulsive motor outbursts, forced utterances of obscenities (coprolalia), and/or barking and grunting sounds. It was formerly regarded as a state of diabolical possession such as lycanthropy was, but now it is recognized as a neurological disorder that is due to hereditary genetic transmission (Nasrallah, 277). Dr. Oliver Sacks, neurologist at Albert Einstein College, wrote a popular book, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, that mentions this ailment. Dr. Benjamin Simkin,[501] endocrinologist, wrote that Mozart’s letters showed he had the disease. It may be mild or severe depending on the number of the predisposing genes transmitted at birth. If all twenty-four genes are inherited, it will be severe, but if only nine are inherited, it will be mild. Thirty to 50 percent of Tourette’s is associated with conduct disorders.

L. Prison Sex

This is a serious problem, which has become worse in recent years because of a number of factors. Among these are: 1) the public demand for longer and longer periods of confinements for criminals, 2) the failure to find a reliable treatment for sexually deviant inmates, 3) prison overcrowding, 4) the advent of the AIDS plague, and 5) sexual abuse heightens propensity to commit further crime. Sex has been the principle deprivation that prison confinement imposed on men. The custodial problems became so desperate in some prisons that connubial visitations were authorized and special rooms provided for the prisoners so they could relieve their sexual tension in private.

Prison sex is not only a problem in men’s prisons, but also in female institutions. The primary difference suggested by Schram in the relationships among female inmates and male inmates is that the relationships are usually consensual among women and rapacious among men. The threat of homosexual rape in a male prison creates a climate of fear, resulting in a hostile and threatening environment. The fear of sexual victimization is not a pervasive aspect of female institutions. Involvement in homosexual relationships among the women is usually based on romantic love and mutual consent, although occasionally one woman may attempt to “buy” affection from another woman with candy and cigarettes.[502] Sexual relationships between female inmates and male staff members are quite another matter, however. Having sex with an inmate is a felony, punishable by up to ten years confinement. Captain Alfred Rowe, Jr., of the Women’s Correctional Institution in Columbia, South Carolina, was arrested September 18, 2000, for having sex with Susan Smith, South Carolina’s most famous inmate. Rowe was the fourth officer in a twenty-month period charged with having sexual relations with inmates at this facility. More than 130 women in the Georgia prisons had complained of sexual misconduct, according to the Geraldo Rivera CNBC broadcast of March 29, 2001.

Prison male-on-male rape has been poorly reported because of a number of reasons, mostly because of the prejudice against the assaulted inmates. Fifty percent of Massachusetts’ voters agreed that prison rape is part of the price criminals pay for wrongdoing. One report showed that 27 percent of inmates had experienced sexual aggression, and another report showed that 20 percent had experienced sexual aggression from both inmates and prison staff.[503] In the prisons studied, the majority of targets pressured for sex were white (59 percent and 72 percent), and perpetrators were black in 73 percent and 71 percent of the cases.

All manner of sexual deviance tends to flower in the prison environment. The most serious is the rape of white juvenile boys by black adult male inmates. In late 1988, the federal government finally recognized the dire complications of this problem and mandated that adolescent prisoners be housed in separate facilities to protect them. Many communities have had great difficulty in raising the large amounts of money required to build the additional facilities and provide supervision.[504]

In penal institutions that have animals associated with them, bestiality is not uncommon. More than a few prisons, especially honor farms, house animals. Cows, dogs, hogs, sheep, goats, horses, and mules have served as sexual partners for men under the deprived condition of imprisonment. However, masturbation is the most frequent method of relieving sexual tensions, and upward of half of the inmates in the average prison is involved to some degree in homosexual experiences.[505] Robert Martenson’s analysis began the notion that rehabilitation programs do no good. Martinson said punishment did no good either, but practioners and legislators paid no attention to his report.[506][507]

Prison sex, mainly the homosexual variety, is a source of the deadly AIDS disease infection. The prevalence of HIV infections that cause AIDS in prisons was more than five times the rate in the general population outside of prisons in 1988 and 1997.[508] Between April 1986 and April 1988, the National Institute of Justice published three editions of the 186-page AIDS in Correctional Facilities: Issues and Options and distributed thousands of copies to criminal justice facilities, libraries, and students in a strong effort to curb the ravages of the AIDS plague in that environment. The information in the next three paragraphs was taken from this publication.

The prison population is taken from the criminal element that is most likely to engage in behavior that spreads sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Homosexuals and prostitutes who are highly promiscuous with hundreds of different partners and drug addicts who share their injection needles with other addicts. Also, tatoo machine use is prevalent in most prisons. This exposes inmates to the AIDS virus. By October 1987, the total AIDS cases in correctional institutions had increased 156 percent over the first survey of inmates in 1985. The increase in AIDS cases in the general population during the same period was 187 percent. Sixty-five to 73 percent of adult AIDS cases in 1987 were infected by male-to-male sexual intercourse, 4 percent by male-to-female intercourse, and 17 to 25 percent by sharing needles and “works” of IV drug abusers. Those who are sexually active with numerous partners are at higher risk. No cases were known of infection being transmitted by casual contact, sneezing, coughing, breathing, hugging, or sharing eating and drinking utensils or toilet facilities. HIV has been isolated in saliva, tears, and urine, although at a much lower concentration than in semen and blood. The virus is not found in perspiration, feces, or vomit. Insect bites do not transmit HIV. Ninety-two percent of all American AIDS cases in 1987 were in males, and 88 percent of the cases were in persons aged twenty to forty-nine years, and less than 1 percent was in persons thirteen to nineteen years of age. The overall racial/ethnic distribution of adult cases in the United States was: white—60 percent; black—25 percent; Hispanic—14 percent.

Available data in1988 suggested low rates of HIV transmission within the correctional facilities. The army conducted follow-up testing on inmates who were seronegative on intake one and two years later, and none had become infected while incarcerated. Maryland did a similar series of tests and found that less than one-half of 1 percent per year had become infected in prison. Some prison administrators argue that AIDS is not being transmitted in prisons because the behaviors associated with transmission (sexual activity and intravenous drug abuse) are effectively being controlled in institutions. On the other hand, known outbreaks of syphilis and other STDs in prison populations suggest that HIV can also be transmitted in correctional settings.

The majority of correctional administrators agree that it is important to provide education of AIDS for staff and inmates although high-quality programs for this are expensive. Staff training usually emphasizes ways to reduce risk during contact with inmates, while inmate training typically stresses avoiding behavior such as sexual activity and needle sharing. Seventy-one percent of state and federal systems make at least some inmate training on AIDS mandatory. Staff training on AIDS is always mandatory in 55 percent of these systems. HIV antibody screening and testing would appear to be necessary to identify infectious people in the prisons, but there was considerable debate on the subject in 1988. The Federal Bureau of Prisons and twelve states have mass screening programs, but county and city jails do not because of the rapid population turnover there. Mandatory screening for HIV antibodies was not used in more than 75 percent of state correctional systems, largely because of costs, inability to maintain confidentiality of results, ostracism of and violence against infected inmates, and concerns about the accuracy of the tests. HIV tests were subject to error. Weeks must elapse between an individual’s infection and the appearance in the blood of detectable antibodies to the virus, even though infected individuals are capable of transmitting the virus from the instant they are infected. Reliable testing became available later, and costs were reduced.

The debates on mass screening and segregation of HIV-infected prisoners resulted in several court cases, which were mostly resolved in favor of testing and segregation. In spite of the five and a half times more HIV-infected population in prisons than in the population at large, the rate of infection while in prison has been kept at a relatively low rate by the segregation policies. This indicates that a general policy of quarantine of HIV-infected people could materially reduce the spread of the disease. If the infected men were castrated before being allowed back out into the general population, there would be an additional reduction in the spreading of the AIDS plague.

M. Munchausen’s Syndrome

In 1951, Richard Asher coined the term Munchausen Syndrome. This syndrome is an unusual psychiatric disorder listed in the DSM III as a “factitious disorder with physical symptoms.” Patients with this problem spend a major part of their lives fabricating false medical symptoms and signs in an effort to get medical attention and be admitted to hospitals. They frequently resort to pathological lying to substantiate their stories, and nearly all of them eventually have a criminal record. This syndrome is more severe than simple malingering and is believed to involve masochistic tendencies with a background of cold or sadistic parents.[509] The name comes from the famous liar Baron von Munchausen (1720–1797), author of fantastically distorted stories.

N. Jealousy

“Jealousy[510] is an emotional attitude directed toward another person who is seen as usurping possessions or privileges felt to be properly one’s own. It derives from a sense of insecurity and is characterized by a feeling of anger, depression, and self-pity. In its most familiar form, it is based on anxiety at the prospect of losing to another the love of some person important in one’s life. Envy need not involve hostility. Jealousy, on the other hand, always involves hostility toward a real or suspected rival. Like all emotions, jealousy can be just as intense when irrational as when it is justified in fact.”[511]

“Jealousy is one of those affective states, like grief, that may be ascribed as normal” (Sigmund Freud).

Jealousy and envy are closely allied, with much in common. They are both selfish and malevolent; they are both concerned with persons; and both imply hatred of their object and a desire to harm. But there is a deeper malevolence in jealousy than envy, and it is the more imperious passion. When someone is jealous of the usurping person, he hates that person; but the jealous person is also annoyed with the other who has allowed him to intrude. In titi (callicebus) monkeys of South America, the males show more jealousy than the females.[512]

Scientific studies of sexual jealousy have shown that men found male-female sexual infidelity most upsetting, whereas women found male-male sexual infidelity most upsetting.[513] Men are more suspicious than women regarding their mate’s sexual fidelity when, in fact, men are more likely than women to have such extradyadic sexual involvement both before and after marriage. The scenario depicting female-female sexual infidelity was found to be the least likely to arouse jealousy. Among swingers (married couples who exchange partners for sexual purposes), jealousy was the main reason for dropping the practice. Twenty-four percent of those dropping out said jealousy was their reason. Thirteen percent of the swingers questioned said being jealous of one’s partner, if attracted to others or having sex with others, was a problem.[514]

Several studies have investigated the sex differences in emotional distress due to infidelity. Cann, Mangum, and Wells[515] discovered that men were much more distressed by sexual infidelity and women were more distressed by emotional infidelity.

Jealousy is a very primitive and elemental emotion. All the creatures are subject to displays of jealousy from time to time. A favorite dog will show emotion when his master fondles another pet; he will slink, sway, and hide or keep pushing forward to be caressed. Very young children behave in a similar way when their mother nurses another child. In both cases, the jealous creature will show anger toward the intruder.[516]

Sexual jealousy is one of the worst forms of this emotion. Infidelity cannot be tolerated. Fish and other creatures fight to the death to defend their mates. Possible rivals are instantly attacked on sight. The male feels that “she’s mine,” usually his prize possession. Sex is our greatest pleasure and violent, jealous rage is the immediate response whenever the source of the pleasure is threatened. This is such a common reaction that even the law has been shaped accordingly. The general public can recognize and sympathize with the blind, mindless rage that jealousy imparts in a situation such as when a man returns home unexpectedly and finds his wife “in flagrante delicto” (in the very act) of having intercourse with another person. He kills the interloper in a sudden fit of anger and sometimes the wife as well. The laws have been shaped to modify murder of another human being in this one instance to a charge of manslaughter—justifiable homicide in the minds of many. The sentence for murder is death or life in prison while the sentence for manslaughter is a maximum of ten years in prison and usually much less than that. Circuit Judge Robert E. Cahill of Towson, Maryland, sentenced Kenneth Peacock to only eighteen months in prison for murdering his wife, Sandra Peacock, after finding her in bed with another man … “only because I think I must do it to make the system honest,” he said.[517]

Some ethnic groups of people are noted for having “hot-blooded natures” with higher sexuality and higher jealousy components in their psychic makeup. Latinos and Italians are commonly understood to show this characteristic. Instances of knifings of philandering mates or lovers by their jealous partners are more prevalent in this segment of the population. The types of cuts frequently made in these knifings are often directly against the genitalia, buttocks, or breasts, further demonstrating the sexual nature of the jealousy. Elwood Morgan, psychiatric director of the California Medical Facility at Vacaville, California, estimates that as many as 70 percent of the first-time murders or attempted murders were caused by jealousy.[518] Jealousy is defined in DSM III-R under the Delusional (Paranoid) Disorders as one “in which the predominant theme of the delusion(s) is that one’s sexual partner is unfaithful.” The Lancet, April 23, 1994 (p. 992), called it “ubiquitous” (omnipresent—capable of appearing everywhere) and “one of the clearest psychological symptoms known to man …”

I will not claim that castration has sufficient power to completely overcome jealousy, but I will assert that the worst results of jealousy will be sharply reduced as a result of the operation. The aggressive instinct, which enables violent acts of reprisal, will be attenuated, and the sex urge will be so reduced that the sex act will have lost its explosive value. The castrate no longer needs or wants sex, so the foundations of jealousy have evaporated. I will, however, additionally proclaim that there are several types of sinning that will also be obviated by the operation: “Thou shalt not lie” is the commandment, yet 35 percent of men said that they have lied in order to have sex, and 42 percent said they would never admit a one-time sexual affair with someone else to their long-term partner. The Bible names jealousy as a work of the flesh and one of the eleven acts unworthy of a Christian (Galatians 5:19, 20 and 2 Corinthians 12:20, 21).

Another story of jealousy and castration comes down to us from ancient Assyria (c. 900 BC) in the legend of Combabus and Stratonica. Combabus was a handsome, young nobleman and architect at the court of the king. Stratonica was the wife of the king who wanted Combabus to accompany her on a long journey for the purpose of building a temple to the goddess Innana in a distant city. Combabus, knowing that upon his return he would be killed by the jealous king, castrated himself and sealed his “members” in a box which he gave to the king to keep until his return. After three years, upon his return, the king accused him of dalliance with his wife and condemned him to die. Combabus was able to prove his innocence by asking the king to open the box and inspect its contents.

Jealousy is very difficult to control because it goes beyond reason to something elemental in our natural makeup. All of the animals show some of this same emotion and humans do even as very young infants, so we can conclude that it is in our evolutionary development. Something that was important in the four or five million years over which we became as we are today. Something in our genes, then, that molded our brain to make us respond to sexual infidelity with such violent, uncontrollable passion. Cuckoldry is the greatest genetic threat to a man’s family. It is the inflaming maximum hazard that his wife might produce a child infected with some other man’s genes rather than his own. The ape, our closest animal relative, often slaughters the infants of newly acquired females because they are not his.

The famous O. J. Simpson murder case, which occupied the nation’s headlines and featured magazine articles and dozens of television special programs for over a year, is illustrative of the nature of jealousy. Simpson slashed his wife and her male friend to death with a knife as she returned home with the friend.

No matter how much is written about it, it is—like other sex-driven emotions—almost impossible to describe the feelings and reactions of jealousy. There is absolutely no limit to the horror of jealousy. There is absolutely no limit to the horror, degradation, and violence that can result.

O. Interracial Sex

Interracial sex comes in several varieties and deviations: 1) the white, sissy fag transvestite who seeks fellatio, sodomy, and/or humiliation with male, black aggressors; 2) the white woman who prefers black men for fellatio, intercourse, sodomy, and/or humiliation; 3) the white man who prefers black women to white for sex; and 4) the black man who is especially anxious to be seen in public with white women who are subservient to him and who will submit to his harassment as well as perform sexual services for him. Usually the large, strong black is preferred by the white, and the small transvestite-type man or small, pretty woman is preferred by the black. There is a trade specializing in newspapers, magazines, videos, and sex toys for the section of the public that is into this kind of kinkiness. The newspapers appeal to the blacks with “sex-a-whitey today” advertising, and they appeal to the whites with “big, black stud” availability advertising.

I am black and beautiful

O daughters of Jerusalem

Like the tents of Ke’dar,

like the curtains of Solomon.

Do not gaze at me because I am dark,

because the sun has gazed on me.

Song of Solomon 1:5

These practices are strongly condemned by the general public and have been the basis for much of the random, informal, interracial hatred and jealousy, which have flared up spontaneously and have for so long generated mob violence in many parts of the world. Also, there are many formalized organizations dedicated to racial hatred and violence such as the White Aryan Resistance Youth, Klu Klux Klan, Skinheads of the National Resistance, United White Resistance, Aryan Brotherhood, and the American Front, which are highly motivated by interracial sex. These and other similar organizations stage marches, rallies, demonstrations, and cross-burnings. On November 6, 1988, a “White Pride Day” rally was scheduled at the historic Independence Hall in Philadelphia, and an anti-Klan group sometimes called the Partisan Defense Committee organized 500 to 1,000 protesters. In spite of enormous civil rights gains in the past thirty years, the rawest forms of racism continue to exist, and there has been a 400 percent increase in the number of these incidents from 1980 to 1988. A Gallup Poll showed 58 percent of blacks and 54 percent of whites agree that “relations between blacks and whites will always be a problem.”[519] Motorcycle gangs like the Outlaws, Hells Angels, Pagans, and Bandidos also ally themselves to the white supremacist groups.

David Brakke wrote that “when the visual appearance of a demon was registered as not merely black, but Ethiopian, the Ethiopian body’s characteristic hypersexuality could augment the clarifying function of blackness so as to signal the presence not just of evil, but of specifically sexual evil.” He quoted several other authors who referred to black demons, and some of them even used the term macrophallic when referring to the Ethiopians.[520]

Doctor John Money[521] provides an explanation of the phenomenon of interracial sex under his classification of “morphophilia,” which he defines as: “one of a group of paraphilias of the stigmatic/eligibilic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on a partner whose body characteristics are selectively particularized, prominent, or different from one’s own (from Greek Morphe, “form,” plus philia). The partner is lust eligible because of being different in body build, appearance, or racial stock.” Money and Annecillo (1992) write about a paraphiliac masochist who, though white herself, felt particularly attracted to young black men. “I guess, for one thing, it’s because they’re more aggressive. I just feel they know how to express themselves better, doing sex. I just feel an attraction towards them. It’s almost an obsession … I haven’t come across any who didn’t have a big dick. You can feel it more. It just feels better to me.”[522] This confirms the saying that “once you go black, you never go back.”

Interracial sex has spawned a whole vocabulary of very inflammatory language with epithets like nigger lover, white trash, sleazebag, honky, mother fucker, niggarized, and Uncle Tom. These words and the practices which they allude to fertilize much racial hatred, jealousy, fear, and violence; but they are seldom heard of in ordinary, polite society. They are at the core of the unmentionable (ignored by the press and politicians) emotional fires that cause much stress and bloodshed. These interracial sexual practices need to be brought out of the closet, where they have long been hidden, and recognized for their hormonal etiology. The dry tinder of suspicion and sexual jealousy is broadly distributed in both races, and it can be ignited at most any moment into an unquenchable conflagration that can completely destroy the nation. The plight of many of the African nations, the racial riots in our own cities, and the several other minor skirmishes are but preliminaries compared to the civil war that could result.[523]

The rape of a white woman by a black man has led to countless lynchings in the South. The Furman v. Georgia case, which caused a ten-year hiatus in the nation’s death penalty law, was a black-on-white rape case. In many of those cases, the white woman encouraged the sexual liaison, but she cried “rape” when discovered. The Tawana Brawley and Howard Beach racial assault case received a major flurry of national news coverage in 1988. The Brawley case of a black teenager’s alleged rape by six white men became a national symbol for racial tension and occupied New York state criminal justice officials and politicians for most of a year—even though the rape charge was later proven false. Sexuality is the premium attention-getter and emotion-arouser for those who are interested in fanning the flames of divisiveness beyond the actual importance of the act itself. The 1988 presidential campaign “tapped the rich lode of white fear and resentment of the blacks” (Time, November 14, 1988) and was one of the reasons the Democrats lost. Their candidate had permitted the prison furlough of a black rapist and murderer, Willie Horton, who promptly raped again when freed on parole.

James Dean was elected Monroe County, Florida, judge in November 1888. He made history as the first black county judge to take the bench in the South after Reconstruction. Nine months later, the governor removed him from his post for allowing a biracial marriage.

The first American black heavyweight-boxing champion was Jack Johnson, whose marriages to white Irene Pineau in1925 and two other white women were denounced in Congress and led to miscegenation laws in several states. Johnson was forced to eight months in prison and seven years in exile for his “immoral behavior.”

Interracial marriage was illegal in thirty states in 1966, then the 1967 Loving v. Virginia Supreme Court case caused all of these statutes to be repealed or nullified. By 1990, the old laws that had been passed to preserve the racial purity of the white race in the beliefs stemming from the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin, the hereditary theories of Mendel, and the eugenic theories of Malthus and Galton were erased. Today, a strong bias still exists, and many mainline preachers will not perform the marriage ceremony. Several couples who had this trouble appeared on the Donahue television show September 16, 1991. Many in the younger generation have yielded to the strong interracial attractions, and the numbers of mixed marriages have greatly increased. In 1970, there were about 60,000, and in 1990, there were over 200,000 interracial marriages. In 1992, there were 246,000 black and white couplings—163,000 (63 percent) of these were black husband and white wife. In 1994, about 328,000 black-white marriages were reported. In 2002, these accounted for 0.7 percent of marriages. Black husbands were at a greater risk of being killed by their spouses than black wives or white spouses of either sex.[524]

My own survey of 944 “personal connections” advertisements, which appeared in the Pensacola[Florida] News Journal and the Austin[Texas] American-Statesman in early May 1995, showed 6.7 percent of the white women were seeking black companions, and 4 percent of white men were seeking black companions. Still, even today, if a white woman has a black child, she is usually stigmatized by a large percent of the population.

In the first week of December 1997, President Clinton was being questioned on interracial marriages, and his comment was in praise of the practice. They can “break down stereotypes and build bridges,” he said in an interview. “I don’t think people should get married to make a statement—they ought to get married for the right reasons. But I think it’s a good thing.”[525] In 1958, surveys showed only 4 percent of whites said interracial marriages were okay, but by 1994, the figure had climbed to 45 percent. In 1963, less than 1 percent of marriages by African Americans were racially mixed. By 1993, 12 percent were. The Census Bureau’s annual report, “Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March 1998,” found that there were 1,348,000 interracial married couples in 1998. Another survey by the Washington Post found 456,000 black-white marriages in the United States in 2001, compared with 700,000 white-Asian and 2 million white-Hispanic.[526]

In the 1970s and 1980s, the increasing use of cocaine and other illegal drugs accelerated the numbers of young, white women who were “living together” and prostituting themselves with black drug dealers and addicts. The “ultimate taboo” of thirty years ago has become relatively common in spite of the population statistics, which show that our black population has remained fairly close to the same ratio (12.5 percent) with whites. The black population, at the time of the first census in 1790, was 757,208—about one-fifth of the total—and they were mostly (90 percent) concentrated in the southern part of the country. By 1860, the black population was 4,441,831—about one-seventh of the total; in 1960, it reached 18,871,831—about one-tenth; and in 1980, it was one-eighth, where it has remained through the 1990s.

The consequences of miscegenation are profound on the offspring because of the social convention of classifying as black any person of mixed blood no matter how small the actual percentage of the black inheritance. Several of the old state statutes classified a person as black even with as little as one-sixteenth actual black blood. Several dozen books, such as Louise Derman-Sparks’ Anti-Bias Curriculum, have been published, and several organizations, such as People of Every Stripe in Portland, Oregon, and the Interracial Club of Buffalo, New York, have sprung up to deal with these problems. Large numbers of “crack babies” and children with fetal alcohol syndrome that result from interracial couplings are a problem to welfare agencies because there are not enough black families willing to adopt or care for them as foster parents. Nearly one-third of the children adopted from the foster care system are placed with families of a different race.[527] Organ transplants and blood transfusions are also complicated in persons with mixed blood.

Interracial sex also leads to a wide variety of other social problems. The black race has been observed to exceed the white and yellow races in crime by a factor of four to eleven times at various times and in several nations. In 1993, seven times as many blacks as whites were incarcerated. In the United States, we have tended to blame this on racial prejudice, poverty, and their lower-socioeconomic status, but this has been called into question in recent years. Wilson and Herrnstein (1985, 473) showed that citizens of the yellow race in San Francisco’s Chinatown suffered worse prejudice, higher unemployment, lower income, low educational level, and high tuberculosis rate with a high proportion of substandard housing in the 1960s, yet in 1965, only five yellow race individuals were committed to prison in the entire state of California.

Meston et al. studied Asians (mostly Chinese) in Canada and the United States and found that their levels of sexual functioning, knowledge, and attitudes were considerably lower than non-Asians. She also quoted several other studies that showed Asians were considerably more sexually conservative.[528]

In March 1992, Judge McSpadden of Houston, Texas, let it be known that he would not press rape charges against a twenty-seven-year-old black man if he had himself castrated. There was a furor in the black community with several black ministers loudly proclaiming racism and discrimination, and a female, black rape counselor stated on television that castration would not stop raping because rape was a crime of dominance and control. The NAACP and other black organizations have long been against the castration treatment. Perhaps it is because it was widely used throughout Africa for thousands of years in the making of more obedient black slaves, who brought more money than the uncastrated ones.[529] It is only in recent years that we have learned that the black man, on average, has a higher level of testosterone than either the white or the yellow man. The ancients knew of the effects of castration in making blacks more tractable and useful and less threatening, but they could not have known that it was because of testosterone reduction. “Two U.S. studies have shown that black males have significantly higher average levels of circulating testosterone than do white males of comparable age.”[530] “The racial difference appears to vary by age, with nearly a 20 percent difference reported for young adults, which gradually diminished to no difference beyond the age of fifty.”[531]

The athletic prowess of the black man has lent his race an aura of sexual superiority. Boxing, football, baseball, basketball, and track sports have been monopolized by blacks for many years in spite of cocaine overdose deaths of stars like Len Bias and David Croudip and the steroid use of runner Ben Johnson.

Burfoot points out the surprising lack of public dialogue and the shroud of silence resulting from our societal taboo against discussing racial differences, which has blinded us to the physical differences in men of the black race and the other races.[532] Blacks have less body fat, narrower hips, thicker thighs, longer legs, and lighter calves, which allow for efficient running. On the all-time list for the 100-meter races, forty-four of the top fifty performers are sprinters of West African origin. The highest-ranking white stands in sixteenth place. In the Seoul Olympics, Kenyan men won the 800 meters, the 1,500 meters, the 3,000-meter steeplechase, and the 5,000 meters. Based on population percentages alone, the likelihood that this should have happened is 1 in 1,600,000,000.

Dr. Anderson has pointed out that the natural form of “blood doping,” which the key male hormone, testosterone, gives men, is the reason they perform better as runners.[533] This hormone increases the concentration of red blood cells and promotes the production of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein found inside red blood cells. It also works along with the physical exercise in training to reduce the percentage of body fat.

The entertainment industry further enhances the sexual image of the black race with Sammy Davis Jr., Michael Jackson, Bill Cosby, Ray Charles, and Red Foxx. There is a belief that black men are sexier and have larger genitalia than white men, and that attracts a large portion of the white female and homosexual population to them.

The hip-hop culture is America’s dominant youth culture today, even more pervasive than the rock and punk styles. Hip-hop originated in the ancient African traditions and evolved through the subterranean Bronx (New York) expression in the 1970s to the contemporary, profitable, billion-dollar music industry. Hip-hop is not only music; it is also manifested in clothing, attitude, style, art, language, and the World Wide Web—the way you look and walk. The term hip-hop was taken out of verses made up by the founder of the Universal Zulu Nation Movement, Afrika Bambaataa.

I saw the Red Foxx show at the Las Vegas Hacienda Resort in September 1988 and noted that there were two black men with pretty white women standing nervously at the head of the waiting line. A black man with a pretty white woman on his arm has become a status symbol in the black community. Foxx told several ethnic jokes about blacks stealing auto parts and Mexicans in shacks and overloaded cars. “Hurricane Gilbert had caused 50 million dollars worth of improvements to their home town, and they might even go back there now.” He reviled his three ex-wives—one of them had cost him $300,000 a fuck, and another had gone from ninety-five to 302 pounds, and he could not tell when he had it in her. He applauded fucking, “… we wouldn’t be here if our parents hadn’t fucked. Sucking wouldn’t have got us here.” “Men shouldn’t wear white shorts,” he advised, “because they show the brown streak that has to be scrubbed out. Brown, polka-dot, or flowered are okay.” He plugged his album on the importance of washing your ass, “Because your nose is close to it when you lick your sweetheart’s pussy—especially in the sixty-nine position.” Foxx asked the men in the audience, “Do you remember the first time you saw one? Just like a tomahawk cut. Wham! Oeeooah, aeeooh, coo …[Indian dialect].”

The frequent featuring of sexy, white female entertainers in black nightclubs and black male entertainers like Michael Jackson in white clubs, on TV, and in auditoriums reveal that interracial sexual attraction is fairly general in the population. Other interracial combinations besides black and white—the yellow/white, yellow/black, Indian/white, etc.—do, of course, exist, but are not such an emotional issue in the general American public, even though rates of violent victimization are higher among American Indians than any other race. The black pimp is another feature of interracial sex and is quite predominant in many of our larger cities. Becoming a pimp with a stable of white girls is the main objective of the “cat”—the young, lower-class black who directs his life around a search for “kicks.”[534] “White girl” is the street name for cocaine, suggesting that there is an extra intense pleasure black men get from sex with white women. Jungle Fever, released in June 1991, was the name of the first film to be released in the United States that suggested that a black man had sex with a white woman; it showed the horrendous consequences that resulted from this union to both black and white individuals involved.

Still another way in which interracial sexual attraction works in a segment of the male, black criminals in our society is as an expression of vengeance for real, or imagined, repression of members of the black race. These men feel that their most effective reprisal against the white race is to rape and sexually degrade white women—taking something important away from the envied other to build himself up. Bunnie Browne was a muscular, six-foot black man in Pensacola, Florida, who brutally raped two women and infected them with gonorrhea because they were white. He had reasoned, while in prison for an earlier manslaughter conviction, that he was going to make “authority” pay for his prison misery. “The authority that I vowed to make pay was primarily and foremost represented by white men. I concluded that the way to destroy the mind of the white man was through the abuse of his female counterpart. I told myself that this man’s woman was his most prized possession.”[535] He had earned a parole hearing after being a model prisoner for ten years, but was rejected when his victims and their neighbors appeared before the parole board and opposed his release. During the proceedings, Browne said that if there were any way that he could make amends, he would. There is a way that men like him can make amends and reassure their victims and society that they will not again rape. They can do this by getting rid of the source of their troublesome aggression and lust … their testes.

South and Felson examined a number of explanations for interracial rape (black offender–white victim) and found that there was little support for the hypothesis that it was the result of black economic deprivation.[536] They did find, however, that a white woman faces a greater risk of being victimized by a black rapist in cities with a large black population and in locations where there are low levels of segregation between the races. A woman living in a mildly segregated city like Oakland is twice as likely to be raped by a black man as a woman living in a highly segregated city like Chicago.

On March 15, 1994, the headlines on the front page of the Pensacola[Florida] News Journal read: “Principal suspended over mixed-race date ban.” Randolph County High School Principal Hulond Humphries in Wedowee, Alabama, had been suspended by the five to two vote of the school board for his remarks of February 24th to the juniors and seniors in the school gym, which were to the effect that they would shut down the scheduled April 23 prom if mixed-race couples showed up. According to the verbal reports of some of the students, ReVonda Bowen spoke up and asked, “Who am I supposed to take to the prom?” Her father is white and her mother is black. The principal is reported to have replied: “That’s just it. Your mom and dad made a mistake having you as a mixed child.”

The school board meeting was addressed by the Reverend Joseph Lowrey, president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta, and a white woman who had gathered 1,800 signatures in support of Principal Humphries. In the span of ten short years, apparently the laws on miscegenation had been completely reversed. What had recently been against the law was now a hotly protected right of the blacks to date whites. Interracial sex had become a right to be protected by ardent demonstrations.

On August 6, 1994, this hullabaloo once again appeared in the nation’s headlines when the Randolph County High School was completely destroyed by fire of “very suspicious origin” (probably set by blacks out of hatred for the high school principal). Mmoja Ajabu, leader of the Black Panthers in Indianapolis, said this act was justified because of racist acts toward blacks there. Christopher Johnson, twenty-five, son of a black protest leader, was arrested June 1, 1995, and charged with setting the August 6th fire in Wedowee.

Apparently the well-intentioned activists who have been trying for thirty years to harmoniously integrate the races are completely innocent of the knowledge of the power and dangers of interracial sexual attraction. They have greatly facilitated interracial sexual contacts, and ever more violent tensions have erupted in many places as a result. The forced busing and integration of educational facilities, dances, and social activities places young blacks and whites in close physical contact in sexually arousing circumstances (music, dancing, alcohol, and other stimulants). When viewed from a background of knowledge of the characteristics of interracial sex, such activities are directly counterproductive. We are fighting a racial hatred conflagration with fire hoses mistakenly filled with the high-octane gasoline of sex. The racial integration of military units and the feminist movement inserting women into formerly all-male jobs has also resulted in greater interracial contacts leading to severe sexual problems in our military.

Although the black race was only about 12.5 percent of the U.S. population in 1990, it accounted for about 41 percent of the jail inmates and 55 percent of the crime (63 percent of robbery, 54 percent of homicides, 30 percent of burglary). In 1994, blacks comprised 54.2 percent of prison admissions.[537] Thirty-one percent of the abortions and 69 percent of the AIDS cases are attributed to heterosexual contact.[538] The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics February 1997 report titled Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault reported that 43.7 percent of rape offenders in state prisons in 1994 were black and 48.2 percent of all violent sexual assault prisoners were black. In 1954, 42 percent of all violent Uniform Crime Report arrestees were black, 56 percent were white, and only twenty-one were other races in America. About half of those arrested for rape were convicted. About 40 percent of rape victims suffered a collateral injury. Released rapists were found to be 10.5 times as likely as non-rapists to be rearrested for rape. A 50.53 percent of known offenders in murders involving sexual assault between 1976 and 1994 were black.

An FBI Bureau of Statistics report of January 21, 1999, said that in 1997 racial prejudice was the most common motivation for hate crimes, accounting for 4,710 of the total of 8,049 such crimes. One thousand three hundred eighty-five incidents were attributed to prejudice about religion, 1,102 were attributed to sexual orientation, and 836 were attributed to ethnic or national origin. The 1990–1996 drug epidemic in this country and other problems are also disproportionately black problems, but are hushed up by the fear of retribution by militant black organizations.

These phenomena (black crime, athletics, and entertainment) all tend to enhance the macho image of the black man and support his image as a super-sexy person. Interracial sex, once so violently abhorred and feared by a majority of the population, both white and black, is increasingly a factor in our society that should be closely examined by scientific inquiry. The possible repercussions are truly catastrophic. Already virulent new AIDS-related viruses are being introduced into the white populations of Europe and America from African nations, which are reeling under the contagion of 15 percent of their populations (McNamee, AIDS: The Nation’s First Politically Protected Disease, 1988, ch. 4). Several books on the AIDS plague (Shilts, 1987; Antonio, 1986; Dannemeyer, 1989; McNamee, 1988) make it clear that AIDS was a black disease that came out of Africa. It has spread throughout the world primarily by interracial sex and drugs.

This is the worst of the problems caused by interracial sex. AIDS is the most deadly and widespread of all of the pandemics in the history of mankind. In mid-1992 at least 60 million were infected worldwide. In 1995, 21 million were infected. In Uganda, the epicenter of the disease, more than half of the population was infected and dying of their HIV contagion. On July 23, 1992, during the great international AIDS conference in Amsterdam, it was announced that there was a new virus, besides the HIV-1 and HIV-2; a black woman in riot-torn, black South-Central Los Angeles had been diagnosed as carrying another unknown virus that produced the same symptoms. African-American and Hispanic females accounted for over 75 percent of AIDS cases diagnosed among women in 1994.[539] AIDS is the leading killer in the twenty-five to forty-four, black age group. African-American and Hispanic youths aged thirteen to nineteen account for 65 percent of teenage AIDS cases and 70 percent of HIV-infected teenagers in the United States. Among males aged fifteen to nineteen, 81 percent of African Americans, 61 percent of Latinos, and 57 percent of Caucasians have had sexual intercourse. Over 3 million adolescents are infected yearly with an STD.[540]

On the December 1, 2001, World AIDS day, it was announced that white and Hispanic AIDS cases had decreased in Florida, but they had increased in the black population. It was still about seven times that of the white’s rate of infection.[541]

We must face the fact that interracial sex has brought this deadly AIDS disease and several more, which were called at one time “rare tropical diseases,” across the old racial barriers and infected the other races of the world. We must abolish the fear of being accused of racism and examine the racial differences that are at the bottom of these pestilences if we are ever to be able to stop them. Another aspect is that it is the black race that is suffering more than any of the others. The remedy that I am proposing will help the black race far more than the others. Black men will live longer, healthier, more productive lives if they are castrated. Junius Wilson, ninety-six, is one of the black men who had been castrated in 1925 at the state mental hospital in Goldsboro, North Carolina, and was in still good health in 1996, thanks to the operation and keeping in shape by riding his bicycle.[542]

Education, medications, and condoms are the main “weapons” being used against the AIDS pandemic, but they are not sufficiently effective. These methods have cost billions of dollars already and still the disease roars on, victimizing more and more people. Education is, perhaps, 50 percent effective by teaching safe sex practices. Condoms are less than 90 percent effective in blocking transfer of the HIV and other infective agents even when they are used, and they are used less than half of the time. STDs from Africa have infected the white population for a long time. Around 1500 BC, Moses married a black woman (Numbers 12:1) and suffered from syphilis.[543]

Jealousy is another of the major factors in interracial sex that remains inadequately discussed. Disease, hatred, and fear are much more familiar features, and even these are not completely explored. Sex is our greatest pleasure. It is also a status symbol—anyone having more and better sex promptly becomes envied. Regardless of whether it is true or not, even the suspicion that another person or race is capable of greater sexual pleasure than oneself is enough to create jealousy. Jealousy is a very negative emotion. It is the “green-eyed monster” that eats away at our psychological viscera and often destroys the individual or the object of our jealousy. As Niccolo Machiavelli wrote in 1517, “Men’s hatreds generally spring from fear or envy” (Introduction to Book I, Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, ch. 26).

“Officially, China was a champion of black-African interests. The government has denounced South Africa’s policy of apartheid and devoted the lion’s share of its scanty foreign aid to assisting 45 friendly African states. Beijing also gave scholarships to 1,600 black students each year to study at Chinese universities. Unofficially, though, many Chinese consider blacks inferior and question their government’s aid to Africa when citizens are tightening their belts at home. Two young Chinese women accompanied two African men to a Nanking University dance December 24, 1988, and touched off a wild fracas which lasted for 4 days and spread to other cities.”[544]

Many of those in academia who pretend that race makes no difference are blind to the obvious large differences in constitution, chemistry, food, lifestyle, etc., between the races—particularly those between the black and white races. Perhaps those who know the scientific facts and do not reveal them are running scared and do not want to take a chance of being accused of racial prejudice. Granted, there are large differences within the races that tend to obscure differences between the races, but we still need to bring out more of the differences so that we can learn more of the phenomena. Four examples of the type of phenomenon that I am referring to are the higher incidence of the sickle-cell trait, AIDS, prostate cancer, and glaucoma in the black race.

Black men in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world, and this has only been detected in the last few decades. Testosterone (and its metabolic DHT) causes prostate cancer; this is known. It is now known that black men have higher than white men’s levels of testosterone, and they are generally regarded as having larger sexual equipment than white men. It is clearly possible that the increase in the deadly cancer of the prostate may be due to the black man’s increased T and sexual activities like interracial sex. According to the National Vital Statistics Report of 2002, black males’ life expectancy is only 67.6 years and white males’ life expectancy is 74.5—nearly seven years longer on the average.

Blacks have always had higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases, and their rates are increasing faster than any of the other races. The most recent escalation in the syphilis rate among blacks began in 1986. Between 1985 and 1989, the incidence rose by 132 percent—from 52.6 to 121.8 cases per 100,000 (Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, November 1990, p. 19). U.S. blacks, over age seventy, are more than five times more likely to be afflicted with glaucoma than whites, independent of socioeconomic status or access to health care, according to a study of 5,300 Baltimore residents published in the Science News, July 20, 1991.

Bit by bit—laboriously—we have slowly established that the black race is inferior in some disciplines, and it is not just that the white race has made a hostile climate for them. One such study was published in Science News of August 25, 1995, which showed that the reason that disproportionately few black students majored in science was because of lower math scores and high school science grades.[545] Rushton has ably documented the biological differences in the black, white, and yellow races.[546]

Lee Ellis (Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, May 1991, p. 238) has published a tentative article that shows that the neurologically active enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) has frequently been associated with criminality, psychopathy, and related behavior patterns. “Not only does finding lower MAO activity levels among blacks than among whites coincide with the higher crime rates, but it also compliments evidence that, relative to whites, blacks have higher rates of psychopathy (Robins, Murphy, Woodruff, and King, 1971; Davis, 1975), alcoholism (Bailey, Haberman, and Alksne, 1965; Robins, Murphy, and Breckenridge, 1968), childhood hyperactivity (Spring, Blunden, Greenberg, and Yellin, 1977, p. 313), and poor academic performance (Schaie and Roberts, 1971; Anonymous, 1974) … Additional studies seem warranted which would explore possible neurochemical underpinnings of race variations in propensities toward criminal behavior and other behavior patterns associated with MAO activity.” As early as 1929, the differences in racial response to medications had been reported, according to Craig K. Svenson, PhD, and Pharm. C. of the College of Pharmacy at Wayne State University in Detroit, but conducting formal studies was avoided because it was felt to be courting racial disaster. Finally, it became necessary for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association to create a task force to study racial responses to drug dosages in May 1992 in Washington, DC (Pensacola[Florida] News Journal, February 4, 1992).

Doctor Vanessa Gamble, University of Wisconsin historian (black), told the American public on the Nova television program Deadly Deception on January 26, 1993, that in the 1930s there was a theory that blacks had smaller brains, which caused them to be more susceptible to lust than white men. This was believed to be one of the explanations for the fact that blacks had a higher incidence of syphilis. In some localities in the South, 35 percent of the black population was infected. According to the Detroit News, May 17, 1991, blacks were fifty times more likely to have syphilis than whites.

Black men, being higher in testosterone, are sexier, more aggressive, and, like weeds in the grass lawn, procreate faster than the white, red, or yellow races. Like the weeds overcoming the grass, if they are not trimmed back, they will eventually overcome the other races. The natural consequences of their higher lust and violence have also been that they have a higher disease, crime, imprisonment, and death rates, which have held them back until recent years, but now billions of dollars have been spent in improving their educational, economical, and health condition so they are able to proliferate more and more. Don’t call this racism; it is a historic fact.

We first thought that the testosterone (formerly called “bad blood”), which gives the black race their sexuality and aggression characteristics, would dilute out in interracial marriages and eventually produce lower crime-prone populations. Unfortunately, the reverse seems to be happening. The white and yellow race intermarriages with the blacks over the past ten or twenty years have shown that the offspring usually have gained more of the black aggressive character rather than losing it. Just as the black physical characteristics (skin tone, large lips, broad nose, kinky hair) show strongly in the children of mixed-race marriages, the high-testosterone-based, physical and behavioral characteristics also do. The long-term eugenic results indicate an impending holocaust of crime and disease as a result. The black mayhem, which occurred in Rwanda with 500,000 to 1,000,000 murders between April 10 and July 31, 1994, bears witness to my dire predictions. Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leon, Uganda, and Congo, high AIDS infection rates AIDS infectious; slavery and mayhem also do.

A ten-hour, no-advertising television program on the Public Broadcasting System September 12–16, 1999, entitled An American Love Story told the true story of a black man married to a white woman and their two daughters. Their lives were difficult, and one of the daughters affirmed that “a lot of white people don’t realize that it’s hard to be black … Every moment you’re outside your door it’s high tension. Very high tension.” The white wife’s Caucasian friends deserted her, and the police harassed the black husband whenever he went to his wife’s town to visit. The other daughter found the most hurtful prejudice that she encountered was from black classmates in college.

Rodney King, the big black man whose beating by the police filmed on TV triggered the three-day Los Angeles riots, which destroyed several city blocks and killed more than fifty people in 1991, was arrested seven more times in the following seven years. In 1995, he was convicted of hitting his estranged wife with a car and then leaving the scene.

Not only does the high T level of the black race tend to cause them to have higher rates of diseases, but it has caused them to bring diseases that were peculiar to the black race into non-black populations. Sickle cell anemia was one of the first of these to be detected, and the deadly AIDS is one of the most recent. Sickle cell anemia causes the destruction of red blood cells, and the distorted cells plug the vessels, causing circulatory problems, pain, and often death. Lehmann and Huntsman originally documented the spread of the sickle cell anemia into non-black populations in the l950s. The drift of the genes that cause the disease probably started about 2,000 years ago from Central Africa to the Mediterranean people. The major acquisition of the African sickle cell gene probably occurred during the Islamic rule of the region from AD 825 to 1060. Between 8 and 13 percent of American blacks carry the sickle cell gene,[547] and the present interracial sexual relations are infecting more of the white race with the gene.[548]

The HIV, which causes AIDS, has been traced back to the epicenter of the disease in Uganda. It is believed to have been introduced into the United States by way of Haiti by homosexuals. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention researchers found that 30 percent of AIDS victims in 1989 were black in this country, although the black race is only about 12.5 percent of the total population. Bacteria causes pneumococcal pneumonia, which is found in about sixty-eight out of 100,000 black Americans, while it is found in only eighteen cases per 100,000 in whites.

The late J. Edgar Hoover, legendary head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, despised Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., leader of the black movement for greater racial equality. He insisted that King, who won the Nobel Peace Prize at age thirty-five, was under Communist influence. In 1963, he pressured U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy to approve wiretaps of King’s home and office. It was found that King was no angel and in fact confessed to a friend: “I’m away from home twenty-five to twenty-seven days a month. It[extramarital sex] is a form of anxiety reduction.” In November 1964, an FBI agent sent a package to King, which contained a reel of “sex” tape and an anonymous letter. King’s wife, Coretta, opened the package, played the tape, and read the letter, which said in part: “King, there is only one thing left for you to do … You better take[your life] before your filthy, abnormal, fraudulent self is bared to the nations.” Further details are contained in the Pulitzer Prize-winning book Bearing the Cross by David J. Garrow. Another King biography is Parting the Waters by Taylor Branch (Parade, January 29, 1989). King was also cited for using material in his PhD thesis without attributing it to its original sources.

Several black and mulatto thinkers have written about interracial problems. Probably the most comprehensive and deepest insight was that of William Hannibal Thomas in 1901. Thomas had more than fifty years of personal experiences and deep study when he wrote in his 440-page book The American Negro:

It is proposed that, when any male person of the age of 15 or upward shall be charged with an attempt to commit an assault on a female person of any age or condition, with intent to violate her chastity and have carnal knowledge of her under duress and against her will, or upon the commission of such act, such person shall undergo an examination before a court of competent jurisdiction, and, upon conviction thereof, by due process of law, shall undergo emasculation, and be further subjected to such restraint as the nature of the case and the welfare of the community justifies. It will be observed that this proposition embraces deterrent features, as well as punitive functions.[549]

Thomas provided elaborate details for the implementation in a bill he wrote. “Executive Surgical Bailiffs” in each judicial district would perform the castration. As might have been expected, there was considerable opposition to Thomas’ proposal, and it was never enacted into law. Lynching continued to be the main punishment for black-on-white rape several years later.

The most recent book on Thomas’ strong measures is the book by Smith who comments:

… No one stepped forward to sponsor Thomas’s castration bill in Congress, probably because it was too extreme for genteel racists … given the brutalities meted out to blacks in these years, “surgical castration” certainly was not too radical for the likes of white supremacists who mobbed, lynched, and then murdered blacks in rituals of hate.[550]

Smith spent fifteen years researching out every aspect of Thomas’s background and work. In investigating Thomas’s biological racial composition, he found that in 1890, the Bureau of the Census had instructed their enumerators to be particularly careful to distinguish between blacks, mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons. The word black should be used to describe those persons who have three-fourths or more of black blood; mulatto, those persons who have from three-eighths to five-eighths black blood; quadroon, those persons who have one-fourth black blood; and octoroon, those persons who have one-eighth or any trace of black blood.

P. Gender Identiy Disorders

These disorders are problems with the individual’s self-concept as a male or female (Abel, p. 246). DSM-III listed transsexualism under this heading and defined the disorder as a “sense of discomfort and inappropriateness of one’s anatomical sex. A wish to be rid of one’s own genitals and live as a member of the opposite sex … the disturbance has been continuous for at least two years, and there is an absence of any physical intersex or genetic abnormality. For boys—a strong and persistently stated desire to be a girl—or insistence that he is a girl. Persistent repudiation of his male anatomical structures …”

“Other terms employed for the same disorder are: gender dysphoria, transsexual, and autogynephilia. The first legally sanctioned male-to-female operation was performed at Johns Hopkins June 1, 1965.[551] An estimated 3,000 adult Americans had hormonal and surgical sex reassignment therapies in 1979. Some 30,000 to 60,000 were estimated to see themselves as candidates for these treatments. Some forty centers across the country offer treatments for individuals with this disorder. Among these are the Virginia Gender Clinic, the UCLA Gender Identity Treatment Program, and the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, Inc. of Stanford, California (Abel, 1986, pp. 261, 265).

Gender identity disorder is often confused with transvestism, which is much more concentrated on the cross dressing aspects than it is on the actual transfer of sexuality. Dr. Robert C. Granato said on the November 28, 1989 Geraldo television show that the usual surgery requires one to two hours, but can take up to four or five hours if a skin graft is required. The usual cost of the operation was around $6,000 in the Netherlands, but could be as high as $100,000 in 1995 in the United States. Two doctors were fined $3,400 each in Aix-en-Provence, France, April 23, 1990, for performing the operation on a patient who later committed suicide. French law permits the operation only in cases where stringent conditions concerning the patient’s psychological need for the surgery are met. In this case, the procedure was not successful, and the patient had been left in constant pain.[552] There is, as yet, no psychodynamic theory of this disorder that is satisfactory by itself, and psychotherapy by itself is an ineffectual procedure.[553]

Meyer-Bahlburg differentiates patients with intersexuality (i.e., “patients who are born with ambiguous genitalia secondary to a prenatal sex hormone disorder”) from gender identity disorder (GID). He gives the prevalence of transsexuals (those who actually make the change in their sex as a result of the gender identity disorder) as about one in 30,000 men and one in 110,000 women in America. The Hijaras of India are probably the largest organization of transgender, gender dysphoric, transvestite people (around 300,000 individuals) who have had their genitals surgically altered.[554] Slijper (1997) quotes Money (1986) and thinks that the majority of the Hijaras are either effeminate men or transsexual men who have had both the penis and testicles removed.[555][556]

The rapid population increase has resulted in a growing number of transsexuals. Even though they remain a tiny percentage of the population (less than 0.02 percent), their numbers have increased to the point that they have been able to organize support groups in our cities and make their voices heard in subjects of concern to them. Leo pointed out that it is the fourth great rights movement after the feminists, blacks, and homosexuals.[557] Erin K. Swensen, PhD, ThM, was able to convince the Presbyterian authorities that he should retain his ministerial position even after he had the male-to-female surgery in Atlanta. Atlanta had thirty-five people in their transsexual support group in the year 2000. San Francisco became the first city in the nation to pass a measure that would make the city pay for employees’ sex-change operations.

The term gynemimesis was coined in 1984 to differentiate the male-to-female transsexual who stops short of surgical sex reassignment and lives full-time, or episodically, as a lady with a penis. There are several cultural variants of this type of individual. The name in the Arab culture of Oman is xanith (pronounced “HAN-EEth”); in India, the Hijras show the trait; in Africa, they are called serrer; in the Mohave American Indian culture, it is alyha or nadle. In French, it is berdache, and in Tahitian, it is mahu (Money, 1988, pp. 97–99). There is also the “true” hermaphrodite: those rare cases of individuals who have a complete set of both male and female sex organs, like the thirty-one-year-old Karl Holzer of Frankfurt, Germany. Holzer got himself pregnant and gave birth to a four-pound, seven-ounce boy on June 12, 1992.[558]

Drag queen is the street term for the male who feels like a woman, acts like a woman, and dresses like a woman in spite of having a penis between the legs. Shakespeare is given the credit for the first use of the term drag to describe an actor who dressed as the opposite sex. Looking beautiful is extremely important to drag queens. They endure pain and sacrifice for this by electrolysis, breast implants, and hormone shots. Many become prostitutes.

Several attempts have been made to ascertain the causes of gender identity disorders, and some progress has been made mainly in understanding the female-to-male transsexual (FMT) type of disorder. Perkins (1981) found that the “transsexual-like” women with narrower hips, taller stature, broader shoulders, and more muscular mass were the most psychosexually dominant.[559] Meyer-Bahlburg (1979) found three of seven studies reporting testosterone elevation in one-third of their samples of untreated FMT.[560] Futterweit et al. (1986) and Kula et al. (1986) reported similar findings.[561]

Bosinski et al. (1997) mentioned the other studies and found similar conditions in their own sample of fifteen FMTs, 42.9 percent of whom showed manly proportions in six of fourteen bodily measurements. Bosinski et al. also found significant hormonal differences between their FMTs and a sample of healthy women with similar backgrounds: FMTs were significantly higher in testosterone and androstenedione, but dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex-hormone binding globulin tended to be lower in FMTs. Body mass index also tended to be higher in FMTs.[562]

One shocking case that illustrates the dire consequences of the transsexual desires in some individuals is that of the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, who bombed and killed three people and injured twenty-eight others over a period of nearly twenty years. In 1966, he had visited a psychiatrist to discuss his desire to become a woman, and it became a turning point in his life, which set him on a path to becoming a killer, when his desire was frustrated. Kaczynski was a brilliant mathematics professor from Harvard University who resigned and became a recluse in the Montana hills.

Rehman et al pointed out that a review of postoperative cases concluded that transsexuals who underwent the surgery were many times more likely to have a satisfactory outcome than transsexuals who were denied this surgery. They found that overall sexual adjustment closely tracked the outcome of the genital surgery.[563]

Two of the books published in 1998 that dealt with much more detailed information on intersex and hermaphroditism were: Lessons from the Intersexed by Suzanne J Kessler (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press) and Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex by Alice Domurat Dreger (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). These books were reviewed in the Journal of the American Medical Association (March 24 and 31, 1999, pp. 1137–1139). The A&E television channel aired a program in their investigative reports entitled Series on Transsexuals on March 15, 2000. Another one-hour program, What Sex Am I, on the Discovery channel was broadcast February 25 and March 8, 2001, which claimed 300 groups of these people were active in America.

In Valeria Finucci’s 2003 book The Manly Masquerade (Duke University Press, p. 216), she quotes Ambroise Pare’s book On Monsters and Marvels as saying there are four types of intersexuality: the male hermaphrodite, who possesses a functioning penis but inactive female organs; the female hermaphrodite, who has functioning female organs and periodic menses, but only a rudimentary penis; the hermaphrodite in which neither the male nor the female organs are functional; and the hermaphrodite in possession of functional male and female organs.

Children who meet the DSM-IV criteria for GID invariably display an array of pervasive and persistent cross-gender behaviors such as toy interest, dress-up play, roles in fantasy play, and peer preference. These children also show a marked avoidance or rejection of same-sex stereotypical activities. Central to the GID phenomenon is distress about being a boy or girl, which is often expressed verbally with repeated remarks about wishing to become a member of the opposite sex. The first behavioral signs of GID typically appear in late toddlerhood to preschool years.[564]

Historically, there are stories of the Amazons of Old Dahomey in West Africa dating between 1727 and 1892. The Amazons were trustworthy warrior women who claimed to be men and carried swords, muskets, or bows and arrows. They were often members of the king’s elite guard. There was also the famous woman chief of the early nineteenth-century Crow Indian nation. She was taller and stronger than most women, and personally slew and scalped two of the enemy Blackfoot tribe male warriors.

The transgender community has expanded so greatly that it has even suffered at least one epidemic disease specific to the community. Since 1998, transgendered individuals living in groups that participate in drag balls have been testing positive for a particular strain of tuberculosis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention first identified cases of this strain in Baltimore, then in New York City, among young men who were born male but live mainly as women. As of April 2000, dozens of cases have been diagnosed.[565]

Recent research has shown that there are indeed biological mechanisms that make the male-to-female transsexual feel that he is a woman, even though he has a penis and testicles. The nucleus of the hypothalamus in these men is more typical of females than males, and the central nucleus of the stria terminalis. A female-sized nucleus has been found in male-to-female transsexuals.[566]

For many decades the predominant view was that human gender identity and gender role behavior were determined primarily by psychological and social forces. In the past twenty years, however, a growing body of evidence has accumulated to indicate that the androgens play an important role in male gender identity and behavior. This evidence stems from the work of Imperato-McGinley and her colleagues, who showed that genetic males with either of two autosomal recessive mutations that impair androgen synthesis during embryogenesis frequently change gender role behavior to male after puberty.[567]

Wilson identified the specific genes and described many of the details of their mutations and the effects on the endocrine abnormalities, which cause different types and degrees of gender identity dysphoria in the human male. The genes mainly responsible in her article affected the 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency so that testosterone was not converted into the more potent dihydrotestosterone, which is essential for many androgenic actions, and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3, which brings the reaction in the terminal step in the synthesis of testosterone in the Leydig cell.

Q. Osphresiolagnia

This is the fetishistic-libidinal attachment to odors, especially those which emanate from some part of the loved one’s body.[568] This attachment is sometimes categorized under the deviant actions of the “renifleur” (sniffer), who receives sexual stimulation from excretory smells—especially that of urine. Individuals with this deviation sometimes come to the attention of the police for annoying women in crowded buses or elevators in the summer when body odors are highest and clothing is thinnest. Other similar terms are olfactophilia, osmolagnia, and osmophilia in which sexuoerotic stimulus is associated with the smell of body parts (from the Latin olfacere, “to smell”).

R. Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment became a legally recognized form of sex discrimination under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It became common after 1986, when the Supreme Court first ruled that it was a legal complaint, and women entered the work force in greater numbers and varieties of jobs, which were formerly considered male territory, such as in the military services and criminal justice system. It is defined as “any unwelcome verbal, physical, or sexual conduct that is made a condition of employment or advancement, interferes with work, or creates a hostile work place” (by the Association of the Sexually Harassed). A Redbook magazine survey in 1976 found that 88 percent of the 9,000 women who had been questioned reported that they had been thus harassed. Most of them characterized the incidents as “embarrassing,” “demeaning,” or “intimidating.” A few, however, felt “flattered,” while nine out of ten incidents were never reported. The U.S. Merit Protection Board reported that 42 percent of the women in the employ of the federal government had experienced sexual harassment, and 4,800 complaints were filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1987. Charges ranged in seriousness from looking down a woman’s blouse to attempted rape.

Former employee, Linda Dean, sued John McLaughlin, of a syndicated TV talk show, for sexual harassment in 1987 for an unprecedented $4 million. A former staff member, Kathie Jennings, sued former Florida House Majority Leader Fred Lippman in April 1991. She had been paid $47,000 in a secret agreement in 1988 to hush her claims, but the episode was made public, and Lippman was forced to resign his leadership post just the same. In October 1991, the nation was riveted to the television display of Anita Hill’s harassment accusations of Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas for nearly a week. The Supreme Court suspended former President Clinton’s law license as a follow-up to his law license suspension in his home state of Arkansas because of the Paula Jones sexual harassment investigation.

Secretary of the navy, Lawrence Garrett III, accepted his responsibility for a “leadership failure” demonstrated by the reported sexual harassment of twenty-six women at the naval aviators’ 1991 Tailhook Association convention in Las Vegas. President Bush accepted Garrett’s resignation June 26, 1992, with the statement that “sexual harassment will not be tolerated.” The usual expression of regret was absent in the statement. The navy’s top admiral, Frank Kelso, announced that every sailor would undergo special training in avoiding sexual abuse. If the message does not take, Kelso warned, the man will be drummed out of the service.[569] The male sex drive has become a major problem to a great many people in this nation in the workplace. The male is hard-wired to respond to the stimuli of the female by his hormones, nerves, and neurotransmitters. When he is placed in close proximity with her on the job, there is bound to be some sexual interaction. It is inevitable that some of this interaction may not be welcomed.

Sir—Were, it not for The Lancet, I would not have asked myself whether I have been sexually harassed at work. Now I know; I have been so repeatedly and in clear violation of the Bill of Rights. Often upon entering my workplace I have been assaulted by olfactory stimuli dispersed in a premeditated manner for the sole purpose of pushing me into a frame of mind not conducive to clinical productivity. Such stimuli were regularly followed by acoustic signals and continuous displays of visual messages and movements of my coworkers of the other sex, all combined to arouse an undesirable (to me) state of covetousness. Hair dyes designed to catch my eye, moist lips enhanced with lush colors, vistas of bared necks, arms, shoulders, and legs all had to be endured. Mammary bodies have been brought into my field of vision in their natural condition and in artificial modifications. Along hospital corridors they would walk in front of me employing various muscle groups for the distraction of me rather than for locomotion. A combination of olfactory, acoustic, and visual stimuli in trying to attract the male is universal in the reproductive behavior of mammals. But it is seasonal; only in the human female is the ability and willingness to engage in sexual play and copulation divorced from the capability to conceive. The great myths and epics of mankind are witness that this continuous desire to be attractive is an endless source of conflict. Society has tried a variety of schemes: it sequestrated the female, forbade her to look attractive, covered her so that only her eyes were visible, silenced her. But to no avail. In the 20th century, and starting in the U.S., the human female has proceeded to “liberate” herself from being a property, subject to the caprice of the male. She can now, probably for the first time in the animal kingdom, ignore him. Yet she still wants to be attractive to the male—and when he responds, especially at their place of work she sues.[570]

Almost a third of workingwomen say they have been sexually harassed at some time at work, but the majority of male and female workers do not believe there is harassment at their workplaces, a Harris Poll showed. All the reported sexual harassment of women were done by men—mostly by men in senior positions—and most of those who say they were harassed took no action. The nationwide Harris Poll surveyed 782 full-time or part-time workers between February 2 and 6. Eighteen percent of all workers, 31 percent of women and 7 percent of men, say they have been sexually harassed at work. Younger workers are more likely than older workers to report they were harassed. Black and Hispanic workers are more likely to have been harassed than white workers. Almost two-thirds of all working people (63 percent) say there is no sexual harassment at their workplace. However, 4 percent say there is “a lot”; 15 percent say there is “some, but not a lot”; and 17 percent say there is “a little.” All the women who were victims say men harassed them. Among the men who were harassed, a majority (59 percent) say they were harassed by women. Most sexual harassment is done by supervisors (38 percent) or other senior people (25 percent). However, some harassment is done by equals (25 percent) and juniors (10 percent). Most of those who were sexually harassed (62 percent) say they took no action. Only 39 percent of the women involved and 32 percent of the men say they took some action. The poll has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points.[571]

Another major sexual harassment case reached its tearful end on September 7, 1995, when U.S. Senator Bob Packwood, sixty-three, announced he would resign effective October 1st. Senator Packwood had been under investigation by the Senate Ethics Committee for thirty-three months reviewing complaints from seventeen women, most of whom had worked for Packwood in the past, who claimed that he had made unwanted sexual advances to them. The chairman of the investigating panel said, “There was a habitual pattern of aggressive, blatantly sexual advances. The committee has heard enough. The evidentiary record, weighing in, as I said, at 40 pounds and 10,145 pages, is here for everyone to see.”[572] Packwood had usually, in his twenty-seven years service as a senator, supported and fought for women and their rights, but they had, in the end, turned on him.

The Civil Rights Act of 1965 makes it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, age, national origin, and sex (42 U.S.C. 2000-2(a)(1)). Title VII of the Act prohibits employers from discriminating on the basis of sex, and sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination. The guidelines identify two forms of sexual harassment: quid pro quo harassment and hostile work environment harassment. Quid pro quo means “something for something.” This type occurs when an employee is required to choose between submitting to sexual advances or losing a tangible job benefit. Acquiescence or even voluntary participation in sexual activity does not mean that the advances were not unwelcome. Unwelcome means that the person did not invite or solicit the advances. The hostile work environment form of sexual harassment is unwelcome conduct that is so severe as to change the conditions of the claimant’s employment and create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

On March 4, 1998, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that same-sex harassment on the job can violate the anti-discrimination law. In that lawsuit, Joseph Oncale alleged that three co-workers sexually harassed him in the shower while he worked on an oilrig in the Gulf of Mexico in 1991. Only about 100 same-sex harassment cases in ten years have reached the courts, but in the 1990s, there were over 15,000 heterosexual cases of sexual harassment filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission each year. The Supreme Court also ruled on three other sexual harassment cases providing important roadmaps for navigating the legal landscape. They ruled school districts need not be held financially liable over teachers’ sexual relationships with students, under most conditions. In two other rulings, the Court ruled the Americans with Disabilities Act protected people infected with HIV, even if they were without symptoms, and the act covers disabled prison inmates.[573]

S. Apotemnophilia

Apotemnophilia is a rare paraphilia of the “stigmatic/eligibilic” type in which sexual arousal and attainment of orgasms are responsive to and contingent on being oneself an amputee. The name comes from the Greek apo, “from,” plus temnein, “to cut,” plus philia. An apotemnophile becomes fixated on carrying out a self-contrived amputation or obtaining one in a hospital. The reciprocal paraphilia is acrotomophilia—sometimes called amelostasis—in which orgasm is responsive to and contingent on a partner who is an amputee. The stumps of the amputee partner erotically excite an acrotomophile.[574] People with these traits frequently have a homosexual or bisexual gender identity. Hirschfeld classified this type of perversion as bodily defect fetishism.[575]

T. Sexual Addiction

This addiction is a relative, new term first employed by psychologists and sex therapists in the 1980s to label people who are so obsessed with sex that it interferes with their livelihood and well-being. It is a “compulsively frequent reiteration of highly ritualized usage of the sex organs, under conditions of extreme specificity. The addiction is not to sex, generically, but to a particular animate or inanimate sexuoerotic stimulus that is incorporated into the ritual activity. The activity itself may or may not qualify as paraphiliac.”[576] “Any paraphilia can be conceptualized as an addiction.”[577] The term was first discussed and explained in Patrick Carne’s 1983 best-selling book Out of the Shadows. Other terms frequently used are sexual impulsivity, sexual compulsivity, nymphomania, male hypersexuality, satyriasis, and Don Juanism. In 1990, there were four different nationwide support programs for sex addicts boasting a total membership of 20,000 (Time, June 4, 1990). Dr. Gene Abel debated sexual addiction with Dr. Carnes at the annual meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, in Fort Worth, Texas, November 7, 1991. Abel called it “poppycock” and inferred that it was a way for Dr. Carnes to get high ($20,000 per treatment) fees. On the other side of the argument, a recent book by psychologist Harvey Milkman and chemist Stanley Sunderwirth titled Craving for Ecstasy points out that sexual arousal triggers an increase in neurotransmitters (mainly dopamine) in the brain just the same way that taking mood-altering drugs does. My own view is that it is a matter of degree of one or more of the sex problems mentioned in this book, or even “normal” sexual behavior, which has become habituated beyond the threshold of the individual’s ability to control.

The DSM-IV does not use the term sexual addiction because of the lack of consensus concerning the description of this deviance. The nearest description in this authoritative publication is listed under 302.9 Sexual Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in the following manner: “Distress about a pattern of repeated sexual relationships involving a succession of lovers who are experienced by the individual only as things to be used.” Estimates of the prevalence of problematic hypersexuality vary between 3 and 6 percent of the general population.

Sexual pleasure is a big hook that brings on addiction. The surge of the testosterone in the brain, along with the other hormones and neurotransmitters, produces a thrill at the time of orgasm. With the sexual sadist, the addiction is more likely from the surge of the endorphins, which the pain induces. Very much like morphine, it becomes habit-forming. The brain’s enkephalins and other endogenous neuropeptides bind in the brain with the same receptors in the neurochemistry of sex as they do in the use of habit-forming drugs. Many chemically dependent patients are also addicted to sex. This interrelationship has greatly contributed to the AIDS epidemic. By late 1995, many of the behaviorists agreed that learning and conditioning theories couldn’t adequately account for deviant sexual behavior’s repetitive nature. In fact, some of the aversive conditioning treatments for sex offenders have been found to further victimize the sex addict by increasing his shame that initiated his deviant cycle. Blanchard (1995) has shown that the linkage of high-voltage excitement and sexual fantasies often escalates the level of sexual addiction to produce the lust murderer and his serial killings.[578]

“The relationship between abuse of certain substances and sexual compulsivity was further studied by Washton (1989). He found that 70% of cocaine-dependent men and 50% of cocaine-dependent women being treated in a chemical dependency treatment facility also reported compulsive sexual behaviors.”[579] VanNostrand and Tewksbury (1999) reported they found their female customers frequently offered male drug dealers sex in exchange for drugs and that such behavior is generally accepted in the drug economy.[580]

Sexual addiction can have dire effects on a man’s career as Judge Robert A. Young, fifty-six, of Polk County, Florida, found out. Judge Young admitted in a news release, on June 19, 2000, that he was resigning immediately and that he had “sexual addiction” and would seek professional help.[581]

U. Mate Swapping

Also called “swinging” or “group sex,” mate swapping has been defined as the “exchange of sexual partners among two or more married couples.”[582] One study estimated that a million Americans regularly engaged in mate swapping in 1970.[583] An article in the September 2000 Playboy magazine estimated 3 million enjoy “the lifestyle.” Another study by Redbook magazine revealed 4 percent of the 100,000 women who were queried admitted having engaged in group sex.[584] This conduct is still punishable under adultery and fornication statutes in several jurisdictions. The 1972 Handbook of Psychiatry listed it as a sexual deviation, but many objected to this characterization as being more in the nature of a social deviation. In 1988 there were at least two monthly newspapers with about thirty pages of photographs, articles, and advertisements for swingers.

Swinging is more properly known as “co-marital sex,” and it is the exchange of partners solely for sexual purposes. Jenks has studied this deviance from the societal norm for nearly twenty years and written an exceptionally comprehensive review of the literature.[585] He finds the incidence of swinging among married couples in the United States “fairly low,” around 2 percent. The majority of swingers fall into the middle and upper middle socio-economic class with the majority (over 90 percent) in the white race component of our society. The mean age of American swingers is about thirty-nine, and the majority fall between twenty-eight and forty-five, and this majority does not attend church regularly—70 percent said they did not currently attend church services in a typical month.

Swinging is perceived by the general public as a deviant activity; and swingers are perceived not only as “specific” deviants but as “general” deviants—that is, deviating in not just one way, but in areas totally unrelated to their swinging. The primary reason expressed for swinging is the variety of sexual partners and experiences; variety was named by 26 percent of swingers in one study. The second most frequent response to reason questions was pleasure or excitement … the “forbidden fruit” well known from Biblical times. There are an estimated 300 swing clubs scattered over twenty-four countries at the present time; ten years ago about 200 existed. The largest organization related to swinging is the North American Swing Club (NASCA) with a mailing list of around 30,000. Attendance at the annual convention reached 3,000 in 1997.

Although many people disapprove of swinging and think the swingers are unhappy, there is no evidence for such a claim. “Swinging is like a two-edged sword—it may swing in the direction of positive consequences or in the opposite direction of negative consequences. The nature of the consequences depends more on the individual who uses the sword than on the sword itself.”[586] Jenks found that the biggest disadvantage of swinging is the fear of contracting venereal disease; 33 percent of husbands and 10 percent of wives in one study feared VD. AIDS fear cut back the amount of swinging in the 1980s, but it resumed its trend to increase in the 1990s. Almost 7 percent said they had quit swinging because of the AIDS epidemic, and more than a third said nothing. Not even AIDS would get them to change. Other problems with swinging that Jenks investigated were jealousy, anxiety, fear of public exposure, and time factors. Thirteen percent of the swingers who were questioned reported being jealous of one’s partner being attracted to others and/or having sex with others. Of those who had dropped out of swinging, 24 percent did so because of jealousy. Anxiety stemming from concerns with sexual performance was reported by 25 percent of males who were unable to achieve an erection on a regular basis at swing parties. Fear of public exposure is a problem with swinging because it is a deviant activity to most people, and disclosure must be guarded from their children, neighbors, and employers. Guilt feelings caused 15 percent of those who dropped out of swinging to do so. The time factor is a problem with swinging because it takes considerable time to find the right kind of people with whom to swing that have similar interests and are attractive. Swinging often comes to dominate the person’s life (Jenks, 1998).

One article told of the arrest of thirty-one people in the Athena’s Forum club in Pompano Beach, Florida, on January 17th, and another twenty-four people arrested at the Trapeze II club in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in February.[587] These people faced up to sixty days in jail and a $500 fine for their lewd behavior. The raids were a response to citizens’ complaints. Lewd behavior in this case was defined as an act committed that substantially infringed on the rights of others. This same paper, on July 11, 1999, wrote about the convention of about 3,000 swingers that had come to the Lifestyles ’99 Reno Rendevous swinging conference in Reno, Nevada, to do what swingers like to do and attend workshops such as Sex Without Guilt: The Morality of Sexual Pluralism, and HIV Update. The attendees stood up with their fists in the air and chanted, “No more raids.”

A new book, The Lifestyle: A Look at the Erotic Rites of Swingers, was reviewed by Richard Jenks, with more details of the “lifestyle.”[588]

V. Concubinage

Concubinage (etymology: with plus to lie down) is the state of cohabitation of a man and a woman without the full sanctions of legal marriage. It is defined as “the enduring practice of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman not bound to each other by legitimate marriage” by the Catholic Encyclopedia. I am using this subject in my enumeration of the sex offenses for a number of reasons: 1) It provides a rather good example of the ambivalence of the laws that have been established over the ages concerning sexual behavior; 2) It deepens our understanding of the public attitude toward sexual behavior; 3) It is little discussed today (like my main treatment—castration); 4) It is well documented in the ancient writings of many cultures and figures, prominently in our Biblical heritage; 5) The attitude against it in our own culture today is well known to most readers; 6) Like many of the other “sex offenses,” it seems to have been at one time a natural state of sexual relations. It was to be found in many of the earliest ethnic groups, even though there was no known cross-cultural contact. It was found that only 16 percent of some 850 human societies that were studied practiced monogamous systems of marriage such as we have in the United States. Evidence from anthropology shows that nearly 1,000 of the 1,154 past or present human societies ever studied, including most of the world’s “hunter-gatherer” societies, have permitted a man to have more than one wife.

The Greek and Latin words for concubine are identical and are both directly derived from the Semitic pillages meaning “paramour.” Concubinage could not, however, have been a universal condition of all men in any given society because there would not have been enough females to provide every male with several wives or concubines. The number of male births usually is slightly greater than the number of female births, so there would not have been enough to go around. As a consequence, in all the early cultures, it was only the highly placed, the powerful, and the most aggressive males that could attain and hold more than one woman. At the lower levels of civilization, only the old and influential men—the best hunters, the bravest warriors the head-men—had concubines; at the higher levels of civilization, only the kings, sultans, chiefs, men of rank, the rich, and the influential had concubines. It was all the younger, poorer, weaker men could do to gain and hold one wife, so they were, perforce, monogamous. Comparable polygynous mating behavior is also found in the higher apes, man’s closest relatives in the mammalian hierarchy. The biggest, strongest males have the largest group of females in their harems.[589]

The practice of concubinage probably originated in neolithic times along with slavery and castration of male slaves. Male captives in raids or wars were also likely to be slain or sacrificed so they could not be a future threat. Women and children captives were most generally made slaves, secondary wives, or concubines—although they were sometimes sacrificed, eaten, prostituted, or sold. The primary wife was usually chosen from the native women of a man’s own rank, and the concubines were usually foreigners or of a lower rank. Polygyny has gradually given way down through the ages to monogamy in most highly civilized societies. At first, concubines, either legally or illegally, would be combined in some manner with the wife’s duties, but eventually complete monogamy won out in the Christian world. The historical records of concubinage are extensive and worthy of review. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, edited by James Hasting, is my reference for most of the following information:

  1. The earliest recorded laws were in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 2285 BC) and regulated the Babylonian concubinage: A king might have several wives and several concubines; the son of one of the king’s concubines might be nominated as successor to the throne; any man might take a concubine if the first wife became ill or was childless; a concubine might be put away, but her marriage portion must be returned; the children of concubines might share the goods of the father at his death, but only if the father had acknowledged them as being his; concubines must wear a stone engraved with her name, the name of her master, and the date of their union. In the same region of the world, at a later period (about 2000 BC down to about 612 BC), Assyrian kings and rich men might have several concubines in addition to having a regular wife.

  2. Among the Hebrews, the laws concerning concubinage were somewhat similar to the Babylonians. Reference is invited to Deuteronomy 21:l0 ff. (c. 1635 BC); Genesis 16, 25:6; Exodus 21:7–11; Leviticus 25:44 ff.; and Numbers 31:9–20. The kings of Israel had several concubines; it is recorded that David had ten, Solomon (1 Kings 11:3) had 300, and Rehoboam had sixty. Solomon made a test of pleasure and classified concubines as “man’s delight” in Ecclesiastes 2:8.

  3. In China, from about 1766 BC down to the communist take-over in the 1940s, it was legal to take secondary wives, or concubines. The first wife must be of the husband’s rank, and a marriage ceremony must be gone through. Raising a concubine to the rank of wife during the lifetime of the wife was illegal, but a man whose wife reaches the age of forty without having any children must take a concubine for the sake of the ancestral cult. The first wife calls the man “husband,” while the secondary wives call him “master.” The first wife is not expected to show jealousy of the concubines and should provide for their comfort although they are of inferior station. They are mainly a luxury of the rich, as they are usually purchased. Poor parents could freely sell their daughters—either directly to the rich men or to others who trade in concubines and who educate them and resell them at a higher price. A man might repudiate his concubine without any formality, or sell her again. Children of concubines had the same legal rights as the children of the wife, as long as their mother had been received into the house. They were regarded as the wife’s own children, not the concubine’s; they lavished expressions of affection and respect on the first wife while they treated their own mother with contempt. The mandarins of Korea in the same time period were obliged by custom to have more than one wife and several concubines.

  4. In India, the Vedas (c. 1500–590 BC) and the book of Manu (c. 200 BC–AD 100) indicate the practice of concubinage by the rulers and wealthy, although the bulk of the people lived in monogamy. By law, a Hindu may marry as many wives as he chooses and, by custom, keep as many concubines as he may choose, although certain tribes and subcastes prohibit it. The high caste Brahman might have four wives, but the first wife must also be a Brahman. The first marriage was regarded as more sacred, being contracted from a sense of duty rather than mere self-gratification. The rich Kshatriyas were permitted the loosest forms of marriage and often had lesser wives or concubines. Even devotees of some of the religious cults who had taken vows of celibacy sometimes had concubines under various pretexts. The priestesses and dancing girls of the Siva and Vishnu cults were sometimes concubines of the temple Brahmans. Concubines are entitled to maintenance when the connection with them has been of a permanent character, and their children may receive a minor part of the inheritance.

  5. In Egypt, from earlier times down to about 730 BC, monogamy was the general rule, but there were few restrictions on concubinage. Monogamy was binding upon the priests, but some of them appear to have had concubines. Kings had one chief wife (the queen or “great spouse,” often a sister), many lesser wives, and innumerable concubines (foreign women, hostages, captives, or slaves). From about 730 BC down to about AD 643, when Muhammadan law took over, marriage contracts are found in which a wife has a clause inserted that insists on the husband making her a payment in the event of his taking another wife or concubine.

  6. Among the ancient Persians, from about 539 BC to about AD 600 including the Parthians (c. 200 BC–AD 300), the king had several wives and many concubines, whom he had a right to take from any part of his kingdom. In war, the king frequently made presents of women to his bravest warriors. The wealthier classes of Persians and Medes would imitate the king and take several concubines and wives. The first wife would have to be of the husband’s rank.

  7. Among the ancient Greeks, concubinage was based upon slavery. In Homeric times (c. 800 BC), a man might have a regular wife and a purchased or captured slave girl. The sons born of the slaves were bastards and not considered proper citizens of Greece, but the father often brought them up with his lawful children. In Athens in later times, it was no discredit to a man to marry a foreign woman who had been bought as a slave, but the children remained bastards, could not enjoy the rights of citizenship, and could not receive more than 1,000 drachmae of the paternal inheritance. About 445 BC, no legalized system of concubinage existed in Athens, but a man might kill with impunity a lover whom he found in the company of his cohabiting slave woman.

  8. In ancient Rome, down through the time of the Republic (449–31 BC), the moral rigor prevalent repudiated every other sexual relationship besides the legal wife. Even though a sexual relationship might exist between master and slave girl, they did not achieve as favorable recognition as in Greece due to the downtrodden condition of Roman slaves. Any children of such a liaison were the responsibility of the mother only and did not share in the father’s inheritance. During the period of the Empire (31 BC–AD 326), a slave girl living in intimate relations with her married master was considered his mistress, and any offspring were considered to follow the status of the mother. Although the relationship was not illegal, the wife might require an indemnification. A somewhat different situation existed for the Roman soldiers because they were forbidden to marry during the period of their active service. The women with whom legionnaires cohabited had the status of concubines, and their children were not entitled to citizenship even though the concubine became a legal wife after the period of the enlistment. Septimus Severus removed these restrictions about AD 200, and soldiers were allowed to marry during their period of active duty.

  9. The Christian emperors of Byzantium from Constantine (AD 313–324) onward endeavored as a rule to suppress concubinage and to legitimize the children of these unions. The Church gave its sanction to the type of concubinage that was permanent and substantially like marriage, and tolerated it even among its clergy for a time. From the beginnings of the Christian Church there were two distinct movements regarding sexual union—one elevating and sanctifying the family, the other glorifying celibacy and virginity. The words of Christ, quoted by Matthew in [590]verse 12, chapter 19, and the words of St. Paul in his first letter to the Corinthians in chapter 7 were interpreted to support celibacy.

  10. In Roman law, the concubine differed from the wife in that 1) she brought her husband no dowry; 2) she was not raised like the wife to the rank of her husband; and 3) her children were not legally the relatives of the father but cognates of the mother. In the fourth century ad, Constantine the Great ruled that the marriage of a concubine should legitimate her children as heirs to her husband, provided that there were no existing legitimate heirs. In the eleventh century, the councils of Rome suspended men from communion if they had a wife and a concubine at the same time. In 1241, the Jutland Code of Valdemar II provided that a concubine kept openly for three years should thereby become a legal wife; this section of the code remained in force until 1582.

  11. Koranic law permits a man to have not more than four wives at any one time. Where a Muslim harem contained more, the excess over four were rated as concubines. A wife was entitled to a widow’s dower, but the concubines were not. By the sixteenth century, Ottoman sultans seldom took wives; all his women had the status of concubines or slaves. Concubinage in China was rather similar. The marital status of the Chinese concubine hardly differed from that of the legitimate wife, and her children were legitimate. In actual practice, most concubines throughout history were taken simply for sexual pleasure and were not intended to share the rank and status of their men, although many of them did so. At the Council of Nicaea (AD 325), a law concerning celibacy was voted down, but the Synod of Elvira, a few years later, insisted on celibacy for three higher grades of the clergy. In the Church of the East, however, marriage was always allowed in the clergy, although priests could not marry a second time. The Church did not make any positive statement against concubinage for the laity for nearly 400 years.

  12. Constantine’s law of AD 320 forbade a man to have a concubine if his wife was living. The First Synod of Toledo in AD 400 marks a positive turning point from the practices of old Rome. It declared that a Christian having a believing wife and a concubine should be excluded from the Church. The Third Synod of Orleans in 538 forbade the ordination of a man who kept a concubine. The Roman Council of 826 forbade a married man to have a concubine. The Roman Council of 1059 established the strict procedure against all priestly marriage or concubinage. The Council of London in 1102 laid down the most stringent laws against the secret marriage or concubinage of priests and monks, yet these rules were repeatedly broken down to the time of the Reformation. Adrian IV (1154–1159), the only English pope, was the son of a monk of St. Albans. The Bishop of Ely’s concubine, Maud of Ramebury, made a valiant defense of his castle at Devizes in 1139 until the raiders threatened to hang her son.

  13. John of Paris in his tracts (about 1330) questioned whether the law of celibacy should be withdrawn, in view of the fact that it was so poorly observed. The General Council in Basel (1432) demanded that all priests “shall put away their concubines,” but about 1452, de la Bere, bishop of St. David’s, drew 400 marks a year from priests for the privilege of having concubines. In 1500 in the diocese of Bamberg, five gulden were paid by the priests for every child born to them, and about 1,500 such children were born annually. The income of the Swiss see of Constance from this source is said to have been 7,600 gulden in 1522. A report of the Council of Trent in 1562 reported that in Bavaria, of a hundred priests, scarcely three or four could be found who did not live in concubinage. The council strictly defined marriage as a sacrament, repudiated divorce, and made all forms of concubinage unlawful and “sinful.”

  14. The attitude of the Protestant Churches of the Reformation repudiated all concubinage as an adjunct of marriage or a substitute for it. Luther took the ground that marriage is the natural state ordained by God and that it had a dignity above the celibate state, and he urged nuns and monks to marry rather than indulge concealed passion. The Articles of Henry VIII (1491–1547) really came down heavy on the priestly concubinage! They punished it, after the first offense, by death.

  15. With the ancient Mayas, Mexicans, and Chifchas (c. AD 300–1000), a titular monogamy prevailed, especially among the poor. The rich and powerful practiced polygyny on a large scale. Besides the first, lawful wife, whose children alone inherited, there were lesser wives and numerous concubines. Nobles had as many as 800 concubines, and they were counted in the thousands in the palaces of the monarch. Concubines were war captives or sold as children by their parents, and they were often sacrificial victims.

  16. In Mohammadan countries across the Middle East and North Africa, from about AD 590 down to the present day, a man may have four wives and, if he can deal with them “with equity,” as many slave concubines as he pleases, according to the law of the Koran (iv. 3), provided they are not his sisters or otherwise related in a way that would prevent his marrying them. Concubines may be war captives, offspring of a female slave, or women given as a gift, but most often they are purchased. When the father acknowledges the child of a concubine, that child enjoys the same privileges and inheritance as the child of the free wife. Emperor Moulay Ismail (D. 1727) of Morocco is reported to have fathered 1,056 children by concubines. He was the most prolific parent in human history according to the Guinness Book of Records.

  17. The Germanic and Scandinavian people of ancient times were generally monogamous, but the kings, emperors, nobles, and the rich also had concubines down well into the Christian era. Concubines did not have the rank of a wife, and their children had no claim to the succession unless the mother had been a concubine of twenty years standing.

  18. Among the Celts and Gauls down to the sixth century, concubinage was quite usual, especially among the higher classes. Concubinage was provided for as a recognized institution in the Brehon Law of the ancient Irish.

  19. In ancient Japan, beginning about AD 710 down to about the beginning of the twentieth century, concubinage was legalized, the law specifying the number of concubines a man might have according to his rank. The children of the concubine were equal in law to those of the wife. In modern twentieth-century Japan, concubinage ceased, being regarded as incompatible with civilization.

  20. In Peru, from about AD 1200 to 1533, the Inca had at his disposal all of the women of the kingdom, and it was a signal favor for them to be chosen for the royal harem. They were honored and maintained in high state when he dispensed with them, and they returned to their homes. The royal seraglio often numbered several thousands, dispersed throughout the different palaces.

  21. A common form of concubinage, which dates from the first contact of white men with savage or primitive races, was for the white man to live with the native women in different parts of the world.

  22. In the 1980s, Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia and his father had many wives and concubines until the Communist regime took over that country. Several of the nobility, royalty, or chiefdom in many Arab countries and black African nations continue to keep concubines down to the present day.

    Inasmuch as the old, wise, experienced, rich, aggressive men were the ones who could afford concubines and the poorer, weaker could not, down through the ages, our species has greatly improved as a result. Certainly many more offspring have inherited more tendencies for greatness in a biological way and through an environmental way since many children of concubines were raised in the richer environments of their wealthy fathers. Rat and flatworm genetic studies have shown that a certain amount of intelligence—learned behavior—is also inherited. Concubinage must have been a major factor in the improvement of races. Now that it is fading from vogue, we find the rich are having fewer offspring and the poor are having proportionately more. The priesthood is sworn to celibacy, which makes matters even worse. Their intelligence and high character are not passed down if they have no offspring. The feminist and religious demands for monogamy are overruling the law of survival of the fittest. Medical science, too, is exerting itself to the utmost to assure the survival of the unfit, the diseased, the mentally deficient, the lazy, and the slackers.

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Each succeeding generation in our monogamous society is composed of the children of lower and lower intellects as a result—we headed for an inevitable eugenic disaster when we outlawed concubinage. We should learn from our observations of the other mammals where monogamy is a rarity. We should learn from the evidence of our human physiology, which permits the insemination of thousands of women by one man from age fifteen to ninety-five or more—the fertile years of women being less than one-third that long (age thirteen to forty-five). We should learn from the records of human history (roughly outlined above) that at least 75 percent of the world’s cultures were polygynous or polygamous, and, although the losses from disease and incessant warfare were much higher than today, the quality of the races definitely improved. We see many alarming trends in monogamous countries today that well may be a result of the experiment with monogamy: 1) The high school dropout rate has been increasing steadily and stood at 25 percent in 1987, and will progress to 40 percent by the year 2000 if the trend continues. 2) Our youthful American (age fifteen to twenty-four) suicide rate has increased 300 percent in the past thirty years. 3) Our illiteracy rate is high, at about 13 percent of our population. 4) Crime has increased to the point where our prisons and jails cannot hold all the felons and misdemeanants. 5) About half of our marriages end in divorce. The divorce rate doubled between 1960 and 1986.

Evolution is a tyrant whose inexorable laws cannot be flaunted without serious penalties. Let us hope that our present propensity for furthering the survival of the unfittest will quickly fade from custom, and we will bring our civil and religious laws concerning sexual behavior more into harmony with those of evolution.

The last great flowering of the odalisque (female slaves and concubines in harems) began in Byzantium and flourished throughout the Ottoman periods. During Suleiman’s reign, there were about 300 women in the royal harem, but by the time of his grandson Murad III, the number had risen to 1,100 or 1,200.[591] Abdul Hamid was the last of the Ottoman sultans to inhabit the grand seraglio. Today, tribal leaders in Nigeria still have harems, which typically consist of three wives or concubines. Bigamy, being married to two people at the same time, is an allied sex offense. It became a sin in Christianity in 1563 after about 400 years of permissiveness and another 1,160 years of ambivalence.

Concubinage is an important subject in this book, which seeks to elucidate a fairly comprehensive understanding of castration. One of the main uses of human castration down through the ages has been to make eunuch harem attendants. The earliest records I can find of such use of eunuchs are the pictures and carvings of concubines being attended by eunuchs on the walls of the tombs of the third Egyptian Dynasty (2686—2494 BC). This use of castration still continues in some of the Muslim countries down to AD 1997 … 4,683 years! Life magazine showed a picture of ten pretty women of the Harem of Brunei, a tiny, oil-rich nation in Southeast Asia. These women were probably concubines of the sultan’s brother, Prince Jefri Bolkiah.[592]

W. Polygamy

Polygamy is somewhat similar to concubinage except that the multiple spouses are legally married and generally have equal status; it is marriage in which a spouse of either sex may possess a plurality of mates at the same time. In general usage, the term bigamy refers to a husband with many wives, and the term polyandry is reserved for the practice of having more than one husband at a time. Polygyny is another term for a plurality of wives, and exogamy means “marriage outside of a specific group.” King Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines about 580 BC, according to the Bible in I Kings 11:3. Polygyny was, and still is, the rule in many African tribes.

Polyandry, although relatively rare, is still practiced by the Lepcha people of northeastern India because food and shelter resources are so scarce there. A single woman there legally marries two men—usually brothers—in order to gurantee their offspring’s survival.

The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, commonly called the Mormon Church, authorized polygamy from about 1830 when the sect was first formulated but rejected the practice by the “Manifesto” of their president, Wilford Woodruff, in 1890. Today, however, there are more than 30,000 men, women, and children in American polygamous communities. One of these sects is known as the Fundamentalist Church of Latter Day Saints. It has thousands of adherents and dominates the Twin Towns of Hilldale and Colorado City, Arizona.

At one time, polygamists were hunted down and jailed for flouting the laws against bigamy and cohabitation, but Utah authorities have not undertaken such raids since the 1950s. Today, they generally ignore the practice of bigamy. Utah Attorney General Paul Van Dam said prosecution is not worth it. “When you consider the difficulty of prosecution, the social disruption, and the constitutional considerations[of freedom of religion], it all adds up to an allocation of resources that many of us feel would literally deplete our ability to prosecute more harmful crimes,” he said (Pensacola[Florida] News Journal, May 20, 1990, and repeated on television on November 8, 1999).

A two-hour program on the A&E television channel’s Investigative Reports series on November 8, 1999, titled “Inside Polygamy,” featured several families consisting of one husband, three or four wives, and many children. Although they all appeared to know that polygamy was against the law of the land, they seemed to be generally happy with the arrangement. Some of the problems they mentioned were feeling isolated from mainstream society, financial difficulty maintaining very large families, and jealousy on hearing the husband making love to another wife in the next room. The husbands in the program felt that a man needs more than one wife for variety, each wife contributes her special value to the family, and the first amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees free exercise of religious freedom, so they are protected by the law. Another A&E TV program, Investigative Reports, March 17, 2000, told about a man who was sentenced to five years in prison for bigamy. Another case was reported in the newspaper on March 19, 2000,[593] about Bobby Joe Sexton, sixty-two, pleading guilty to felony polygamy in Monroe, Michigan, for a reduced sentence of two to eight years. In still another case, Warren Allen Carskaden was arrested for bigamy at the home of his fourth wife in Jacksonville, Florida, on September 1, 2000. Charges were pushed against him by wives numbers two and three.

One article claimed that “more Americans than you might think are practicing polygamy but what adherents now prefer to call ‘polyamory,’ loving more than one person simultaneously and openly.”[594] Today, there are perhaps 250 polyamory support groups, mostly on the Internet but some that meet for potluck suppers. The four-year-old child of one of these threesomes was removed from the mother by a court order resulting from a petition by the mother’s paternal grandmother, which argued that the threesome’s relationship revealed such depravity that it could endanger the morals or health of the child. Others have argued that people are biologically polyamorous, and even in countries where it is punished by death, polyamory still continues.

On August 24, 2001, Tom Green, fifty-three, was sentenced to five years in prison in Provo, Utah, for polygamy. Green lived in the remote Utah desert with his five wives and thirty children, but he had been quite outspoken on the practice of polygamy. He was on several television shows to defend his lifestyle, and that was probably the reason he was singled out for prosecution. Stephen Chapman wrote an article[595] on the Green case contending that polygamy is no reason to throw someone in jail if they are living openly. On the other hand, the guy who will leave one wife and marry another, without first getting a divorce, or pretend to be a faithful husband to each of two women living in separate cities, deserves to be punished. The June 10, 2003, National Enquirer told of bigamist John Carman, sixty-two, with four wives who had served more than three years in prison for bigamy.

X. Cohabitation

Cohabitation is the term used to describe the act of a man and woman living together as husband and wife usually without a legal marriage having been performed. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of unmarried couples living together in 1960 was 500,000. In 1970, the number was 523,000, and in 1991, the number was 3 million. As of March 1997, there were 4,130,000 couples living together. According to the 2000 census, 5.4 million households have unmarried partners. Once considered a sin, a crime, or an abnormality, cohabitation has become almost normal. Some couples are choosing to test their relationships by living together before getting married. Others, fearful of the marriage penalty on federal income tax, simply see it as a financial issue. In most countries in the Western world, a surviving live-in partner has no automatic inheritance rights, but children born out of wedlock have the same inheritance rights as other children.

Marcus and Swett reported the results of two studies that showed that cohabitation tends to increase the violence experienced by college-age couples. One study showed a prevalence of violence increasing approximately 50 percent for each relationship stage from casual to cohabiting. The other study comparing violence prevalence rates showed 20 percent for dating, 36 percent for married, and 40 percent for cohabitating couples.[596]

Y. Satyriasis

Satyriasis is an exaggerated desire for sexual gratification on the part of a man. The term comes from the mythical satyrs of ancient Greece, which were depicted as half man and half goat and given to lecherous revelry in their dedication to the god Dionysus. Satyrs are also mentioned in the Bible: “Wildcats shall meet with hyenas, the satyr shall cry to his fellow; yea there shall the night hag alight” (Isaiah 34:14). In the rare cases of the pure form of this sexual variation (estimated at less than 1 percent of the population), sexual hunger overshadows all other activities, and once aroused must be fulfilled, regardless of consequences. Satyriasis is sometimes labeled “insatiable sexual desire” or “excessive sex drive” in those individuals who have a dozen or more orgasms daily. “It may be an outgrowth of a physiological condition, but more often the basis is psychological” (Auerbach, 1968). Physiological conditions that are thought to cause satyriasis are hypergonadism and the XYY genotype. Psychological conditions can arise in the classical learning-theory etiology. Dr. John Money classifies it as a hyperphilia and compares it to another form of compulsive cruising, which he calls “polyiterophilia,” the multiple repetition of an erotosexual practice with many partners as an essential prerequisite to one’s own orgasm.[597] Julio Iglesias, forty-five, popular Spanish singer, who is said to have made love to 3,000 women, may typify this condition.

The term for insatiable sexual appetite in women is nymphomania, from the nymphs of Greek mythology who were personified as beautiful forest maidens. Nymphomania was listed in the 1953 DSM-I as a form of mental illness, but it was deleted in the 1980 DSM-III. Kathy Willets, thirty-three, was arrested July 23, 1991, in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, for selling her body for $50 to $150 a session, and her husband was charged with sharing the up-to-$2,000-a-week profits. Nymphomania, allegedly caused by the drug Prozac taken for an earlier condition of depression, was their court defense by their lawyer, Ellis Rubin. The case was featured in the March 1992 Playboy magazine with two nude photos of Kathy and on national television September 7 and 9, 1992, on CNN’s Sonya Live and ABC’s A Current Affair programs. When police arrested the Willets, they confiscated a notebook containing the names of over fifty of their clients, including prominent officials. All of these people’s lives were nearly ruined. Doug Danzyer, the Ft. Lauderdale vice mayor who was known for his anti-vice campaigns, resigned July 30th because his name was mentioned. Similar symptoms when coupled with sleep disturbance, hyperactivity, agitation, excessive spending, and indiscriminate sexual solicitation may also indicate manic depression, temporal lobe disease, or substance abuse.

Z. Promiscuity

Promiscuity is generally defined as the participation in sexual intercourse with many people on a more-or-less-casual basis. Another term is Don Juanism, after the mythical Spanish libertine, Don Juan, who was popularized by Byron and other seventeenth through nineteenth century writers. Studies of promiscuous people have shown that their sex drive, as such, was no stronger than the general populace, and many of them have shown other personality problems.[598] Promiscuity is often regarded as a threat to the institution of marriage and to the physical and mental health of those involved. Hunt (1974) gathered data on the number of sexual partners in a sampling of the active members of the “singles scene” and found that those who were called promiscuous had a median of six premarital sexual partners.

A well-known case is that of John Holmes, pornographic film star and magazine model in the 1980s. Holmes was an average-sized man who possessed a penis that measured fifteen inches when fully erect and allegedly had over 8,000 different sexual partners. When he died of AIDS in 1988, it was feared that he might have infected as many as 1,000 women with the deadly disease.

Another well-publicized case was that of Nushawn Williams, twenty, who was infected with the HIV. Williams continued to have unprotected sex even after he knew he was HIV positive. He infected at least nine women in the little town of Mayville, New York, in 1997. By late 2001, at least thirty states had enacted laws making it a felony, punishable by up to eight years, for HIV-positive persons to knowingly expose others by engaging in unprotected sex.

Another term entered into the consideration of the promiscuity phenomenon in the late 1990s was hooking up.

George Will is a very intelligent writer who accurately defined promiscuity as the central problem of the AIDS plague:

In Africa, AIDS is transmitted primarily by heterosexual sex. The problem is promiscuity. This underscores the primacy of cultural factors, including the notion that calling attention to promiscuity reveals a racist’s obsession with the supposedly unmastered sexuality of black men.[599]

More than 12 million sub-Saharan Africans have died of AIDS. Almost 23 million people in the same area carry HIV, the AIDS-causing virus—more than in any other part of the world. “Casual sex with multiple partners in the midst of an AIDS pandemic amounts to suicide on a continental scale. What is to be done?” Castration can stop promiscuity.

The Greek Orthodox Church in Athens, Greece, announced on February 5, 1999, that sex before marriage is indeed a sin. This was an effort to fend off accusations that the Church had been promoting promiscuity in a campaign to attract young people. The church said it would publish an encyclical to spread the word against premarital sex.

Promiscuity is like an errant vine. It often grows where it is not wanted. Vines put out tendrils and cling to other plants, houses, and windows, climbing over more useful and beautiful plants and blocking the life-giving sun from them. The powerful fertilizer of testosterone feeds human and mamillian promiscuity. Testosterone is an exciting hormone, pushing the vine of promiscuity into areas where it is not wanted, making many kinds of bad acts, as well as the necessary reproductive family behavior.

AA. Priapism

Priapism is sometimes confused with satyriasis. It is named for the fertility cult god, Priapus, of classical antiquity. Priapus was frequently shown in artworks as a misshapen man with a large, erect, red-painted phallus. Medically, priapism is a painful, persistent, and abnormal erection of the penis, which is not necessarily accompanied with sexual excitation or desire. Approximately 1 in 40,000 men suffer from priapism. It is a physical condition of the penis due to complex vascular and neurologic abnormalities. It is frequently seen in cases of sickle cell anemia, which is a genetically determined disease found almost exclusively in the black race. Priapism may be minor (infrequent and lasting less than three hours) or stuttering (episodes lasting less than three hours and occurring several times a week for four weeks or more). For stuttering and recurrent minor priapism, some researchers are using diltiazem, a calcium-channel blocker … Major priapism (which lasts for more than one day) calls for emergency exchange transfusion and possibly verapamil, an agent that can reverse sickling, along with good hydration and major analgesics. The selective serotonin inhibitors Prozac and Zoloft have also been used to reduce priapism. Fibrosis of the penis can develop within a few days, so prompt surgical decompression is needed if priapism persists longer than forty-eight hours.”[600]

Drug addicts who apply cocaine powder to their penis in their sexual activities sometimes induce a condition resembling priapism. The drug is rapidly absorbed through the skin and closes the venous drainage to the erectile tissue, keeping it filled with blood. The erection is often so intense that it is painful and can last for twenty-four hours.[601]

In early 1995, several drugs were under development for erectile dysfunction (formerly known as “impotence”): injections into the penis of Caverject, Edex, or Invicorp; oral medications such as Viagra, Spontane, or Vasomax; and urethral suppositories like Muse. Some of these resulted in priapism in vulnerable men. Priapism of more than six hours can cause permanent damage to the penis. Once an erection is established, very little fresh blood enters. The bloc stagnates and can clot. The oxygen drops and requires that a needle be inserted into the corpus cavernosum to draw out the stagnant blood. As the pressure abates, the veins can be opened again to drain the remainder.

Foucault (1986) quotes the ancient writer Aretaeus of Cappadocia (c. AD 285) concerning satyriasis or priapism: “It is a disease in which the patient has erection of the genital organ. It is an unrestrainable impulse to connection; but neither are they at all relieved by those embraces, nor is the tentigo soothed by many and repeated acts of sexual intercourse. Spasms of all the nerves, and tension of all the tendons, groin, and perineum, inflammation and pain of the genital parts.”[602] Foucault also quotes the physician Galen’s (c. AD 131–200) treatise : “Priapism is an increase in the length and circumference of the male genitalia without sexual desire and without the acquired increase in heat which some people experience in the recumbent position. Other physicians describe it in the following manner, which is a shorter definition: a persisting increase of the external genitals or a persisting swelling.” He also quotes Galen as saying this kind of disease is found in men who “have too much sperm” and “abstain from intercourse.” Foucault was using priapism as an example to the ambivalence and the dichotomy of sexual activity, which is a source of therapeutic effects as well as pathological consequences. Batra and Lue reported that about one-third of all cases of priapism were ideopathic, 21 percent were related to drug or alcohol abuse, 12 percent were related to perineal trauma, 11 percent were related to sickle cell disease, 8 percent were related to inflammatory disorders of the urogenital tract, and the remainder were related to sexual overactivity, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, or impairment of the detumescence mechanism.[603] Priapism has also been caused by anti-psychotic drugs, mainly thioridazine (mellaril) and chlorpromazine (thorazine).

BB. Triolism

Triolism is also called “three way” or “menage a trois.” It is the sharing of a sexual partner with a third person. It may also involve two or more couples having sexual relations within sight of one another. Dr. John Money coined the word autagonist-ophilia, in 1984, to categorize those individuals whose sexual arousal is contingent on being observed by others while engaged in sex acts. The scientific literature sometimes uses the term extradyadic sex for sex involving more than two persons.[604]

On February 24, 2001, in Spotsylvania, Virginia, Cathy Turner, thirty-six, stabbed her live-in boyfriend in the chest, belly, and collarbone with a kitchen knife when he suggested a threesome with another woman. On August 28, 2001, Turner pleaded guilty to unlawful wounding, and the judge gave her five years in prison, but suspended the sentence and let her off without penalty.[605]

CC. Gigolos

Gigolos are men who provide sexual services to women for pay. They are seldom arrested, and there is almost no data on them since there are very few official complaints on them. Most women would not admit to the need of hiring a man for such services.

DD. Hubris

Hubris is a very old Greek word meaning “overweening pride, self-confidence, arrogance, insolent, wanton or violent.” To the Greeks, hubris referred to someone who possessed considerable gifts and presumed that, because he had those gifts, he could take advantage of other people. If you are rich and powerful, human nature and testosterone being what they are, you are likely to commit an act of hubris, overstepping normal moral bounds.

In Sophocles’ (c. 495–406 BC) play Trachiniae, Hercules, son of Zeus, destroyed a city, killing all the men, in order to get a young girl for his mistress. This hubris is followed by a second, when he sends the girl to live in his wife, Deianeira’s, house. Aescoylus (c. 525–456 BC) mentions in his Oresteia the common belief that the gods grudged human greatness and sent infatuation upon a man at the height of his success and so brought him to disaster. But this infatuated act was one of impiety or pride (hubris), for which his downfall could be seen as a just punishment.[606]

The press and TV used the words hubris and hubristic in January 1998, with reference to the alleged sexual goings-on at the Clinton White House. The addition of Monica Lewinsky’s name, to those of Paula Jones and Jennifer Flowers, on the list of the president’s alleged libidinous indiscretions—and hints that there might be still others unnamed—has led many Americans to a disturbing suspicion of hubris. Popular writer, John Leo, pointed out that President Clinton may have had the “alpha male syndrome”—strong leaders are victims of their hormones, which go along with political success, and leadership and libido are linked.[607]

EE. Saliromania

Saliromania is a sexual disorder found primarily in men that is characterized by the desire to damage or soil the body or clothing of women. Hostility is symbolically expressed by throwing acid, tar, ink, or excrement on a strange woman or statue, or sometimes, by cutting or tearing women’s clothing or paintings. The 1980 disfigurement of Michelangelo’s Pieta in Rome was the act of such a man. Saliromaniacs usually become sexually excited and sometimes ejaculate while performing their acts of destruction.

FF. Gerontosexuality

Gerontosexuality is also called “gerontophilia.” It is a variance in which a young person has an abnormally strong erotic preference for persons of advanced age. It is not illegal, provided the younger gerontophilic partner is no longer a legal minor. In gerontophilia, a young adult is compelled to have a partner old enough to be a parent or grandparent. Although rapes of women over age fifty are rare (about 3 percent of all rapes), they are usually more violent and more often result in murder.

GG. Klismaphilia

Klismaphilia refers to erotic pleasure from taking enemas. The research that has been done on this subject shows that it develops early in the anal stage of the Freudian psychosexual developmental cycle and becomes fixated as an obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Some cases have shown that the paraphilia was caused by the repeated enemas that had been administered with a particularly zealous regularity in childhood. It is also associated with enemas administered with a highly aroused sense of genital titillation. Being given an enema by the partner is, for the klismaphile, superior to penovaginal conjunction.[608] In recent years, thriving businesses have developed that cater to this deviance, known in the trade as “water sports,” by selling special newspapers, books, magazines, videotapes, and paraphernalia. Their special “toys” consist of such items as various sizes and shapes of syringes, butt plugs, rubber bags, and lubricants.

HH. Nudism

Nudism is regarded as a sexual variance by a large segment of the population because they connect it with voyeurism or exhibitionism. Others, however, rationalize the practice of living unclothed with full exposure to the sun and fresh air with good health. Nudism is disallowed in the general public, except at certain isolated special camps, farms, or beaches. It seems to have gained a certain level of popularity and acceptance in some communities. “Party Naked” bumper stickers may be seen on automobiles in some parts of the country.

Nudity is a criminal offense in many locations. People who sunbathe in the nude have been arrested and fined for disorderly conduct at some beaches. At Navarre Beach, Florida, sheriff’s deputies arrested seventeen nudists on April 10–12, 1999.[609] The penalties ranged from fines of $35 to $500.

II. Erotolalia (Obscene Phone Calls)

Obscene phone calling is usually considered a nuisance to the women receiving such calls from a man who makes obscene suggestions or describes his masturbation over the telephone. Since about 1984 there has been a regular, paid, “call girl” business using 900 numbers and providing women who will talk “dirty” and respond appropriately with obscene talk for a fee. Coprolalia is another term that refers to the deriving of sexual stimulation from obscene talk, particularly street words referring to feces. Scatalogia and scatophilia are other words referring to similar subject telephone calls. Coprophrasia is another term from the medical literature, and narratophilia is an allied term for receiving sexual gratification from listening to sexy stories. Telephonicophilia is the term applied to the making of obscene telephone calls, which has risen in frequency or intensity to the level of a paraphilia. According to Weir, the dial-a-porn industry is a multimillion-dollar business.[610] The New York Telephone Company earned about $15 million a year from the obscene telephone industry, according to Brown.[611] Approximately 1.5 million sexually intrusive phone calls are reported to authorities annually in the United States.

JJ. Koro

Koro is an acute anxiety reaction with sudden onset in Malayan and Southern Chinese men that consists of the fear that the penis will disappear into the abdomen and that death will ensue. To prevent this, the patient grips his penis firmly, and when he gets tired, his wife, relatives, and friends help him. The Chinese have a special wooden clasp constructed for the purpose.[612]

KK. Couvade Syndrome

The Couvade syndrome affects about 10 percent of expectant fathers who manifest symptoms of a pregnant woman such as vomiting, nausea, and toothache.[613] The word couvade means “cowardly inactivity” and also refers to a primitive custom in which when a child is born, the father takes to bed as if bearing the child.

LL. Paraphiliac Coercive Disorder (PCD)

PCD is a new, controversial sexual disorder, proposed to describe a subgroup of rapists with at least a six-month history of fantasies and sexual urges involving forced sexual contact. With such people, the coercive nature of rape—not signs of suffering as in sexual sadism—is the stimulus for sexual excitement.[614]

MM. Autassassinophilia

Autassassinophilia is stage-managing one’s own masochistic death by murder or assassination. Money defines it as “a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to, and dependent upon, stage-managing the possibility of one’s own masochistic death by murder (from Greek auto, “self,” plus assassin, plus philia).[615] Police generally view it as homicide or suicide, depending on the evidence at the scene of the event or from witnesses.

NN. Sexual Trauma

Beginning about 1991, this term came into general use to describe the results with some people of various types of sexual molestation as children. It is allied clinically with PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) by doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers employed in treating mental and criminal behavioral problems. A large percentage of pedophiles and other sex offenders were the victims of “sexual trauma” as children mainly arising from rape, incest, or ritual sexual abuse. Cameron reports that:

According to a review by Goleman (1992), these studies have shown that wartime trauma had generated a series of neurobiological changes that left these veterans with an altered brain metabolism. Three major change areas were evident: First, the brain’s noradrenaline system seemed to have been reset—making these veterans prone to adrenaline surges decades later (p. 65). Anything reminiscent of the original trauma could trigger fight-or-flight alarm. The result might be an anxiety attack that seemed totally unwarranted. Second, the brain circuit linking the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland responded to crisis by triggering CRF—a stress hormone. This, in turn, secreted a chemical (ACTH) that activated a stress reaction, compounding the effects of adrenaline surges. The response of veterans with too much ACTH was exaggeration of perceived danger; they experienced the body reactions (sweat and pounding heart) and emotions (fear, anger) of their past trauma. The third brain area that showed change in veterans with PTSD was the opioid system, which blunts pain during injury. It produces chemicals, such as endorphins, which act like opium to dull pain while evoking a “pleasant, detached dreaminess” (p. 66). This may explain the walking wounded in battle, who continue to function while they are dying. Change in the opioid system may also clarify the “downers” of PTSD—emotional numbness, apathy, lack of zest—which may alternate (or run side by side) with “uppers” like jumpiness, nightmares, and irritability … These three changes in the brains of trauma victims reinforce each other, producing the major symptoms of PTSD—re-experiencing, numbing and arousal.[616]

Vietnam veterans and survivors of child sexual abuse evidently have much in common.

OO. Computer-Driven Sexual Exploitation

This exploitation was recognized as a special problem by postal authorities in approximately 1992. At the second national Colloquium of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children at Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 4 to 7, 1994, an hour-long lecture was scheduled on this subject. The use of computers in sexual exploitation had been known for some time prior to this, however. Police had found computer-dating lists for prostitutes, child molesters, homosexuals, and sadomasochists for some years. It became necessary to develop special techniques in order to develop computer-driven search warrants in order to avoid civil and criminal liability. U.S. Postal Inspectors become involved under the Child Protection Act of the federal statutes when child pornography is involved.

Yossi Vardi and his son, Arik, sold their high-tech business in 1998 for $407 million. The company, founded by the Israeli and three friends, created the instant-message program ICQ (I Seek You), which lets people find each other on the Internet and chat.

The Newsweek magazine, March 19, 2001, cover story was a special report on the “Darkest Corner of the Internet: How the Web has fed a shocking increase in the sexual exploitation of children.” The article explained how, before the Internet came along, pedophiles were lonely and hunted individuals. Authorities formerly had child pornography under control, but today, networks of child abusers are proliferating worldwide by clever usage of the Net. Now, pedophiles can use their own computers to make copies of pictures and send them to like-minded men around the world. Child pornography can be made with film-free digital cameras without the need to risk exposure at a photo shop. Thousands of children around the world have been abused to create the pornographic pictures, and the demand is burgeoning on the Internet. One child-porn Web site, known as the Tajik Express, was found to have recorded 147,776 hits from Internet users and had a download of 3.2 million images in one month in the summer of 1999. Officials generally agree there is a link between the child-porn voyeurism and the sexual abuse of children. The number of people incarcerated for sexual assault against juveniles increased 39 percent between 1991 and 1997, from 43,500 to 60,700. This was the same period that saw an increase in child porn on the Internet.

Internet pornography has become very profitable. The commercial sites charge for access to pornographic materials with videotapes and other “adult” merchandise for sale. In 1997, the revenues for adult entertainment on the Internet were estimated to be $137 million (Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior, 2001, vol. III, p. 63). In June of 1999, George and Tracy Miller, a married couple in Scottsdale, Arizona, operated a sexually explicit Web site, which charged 22,000 members $14.95 a month to watch them have sex.[617]

PP. Cybersex

Similar to the above in that it is mainly a personal computer phenomenon, cybersex goes considerably further in problematic sexual activities, frequently leading to addictive behavior, adultery, and the breaking up of homes and families. The computer technology and burgeoning growth of the Internet or Web offers a “Triple A Engine” of access, affordability, and anonymity, which combines to accelerate and intensify online sexual interactions. Flirtation and innuendo rapidly escalate into sexual discussion and proposals on the Internet. An estimated 9 to 15 million people access the Internet each day, and this appears to be growing at a rate of 25 percent every three months. Internet users spend an average of 9.8 hours per week visiting the more than 200 million Web sites now in existence. Cybersex compulsives spend an estimated average of fifteen to twenty-five hours per week pursuing online sexual material.

In a special issue of the journal Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity (vol. 7, no.1 (2), 2000), the dark side of the cybersex force was elucidated in eight major articles. One of the studies estimated that 8 percent of the 57 million Web computer users fit the description of being addicted to cybersex (p. 143). This equals a staggering 4.5 million persons. In another study, cybersex addiction was a major contributing factor to 22.3 percent of the respondents who were separated or divorced, and several others were seriously contemplating leaving. One or both partners had lost interest in their relational sex in 68 percent of the couples. Some couples had had no sex in months or years. Partners felt hurt, betrayed, rejected, abandoned, humiliated, jealous, and angry.

In February 2000, Time magazine published an article, “Are You with Anyone” by Michele Orecklin, that listed eight organizations that specialize in online dating: Match.com, AmericanSingles.com, Matchmaker.com, Jdate.com, Blacksingles.com, Webwoo.com, XseeksY.com, and Saferdating.com. Matchmaker.com claims over 1 million members, over 1,100 marriages, and at least forty-four babies.

QQ. Autonepiophilia

This is “a paraphilia of the stigmatic/eligibilic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on impersonating a baby in diapers and being treated as one by the partner (from Greek autos, “self,” plus nepon, “infant,” plus philia).” Dr. John Money had one correspondent who had been in seven adult diaper clubs and had corresponded with some 300 men who love diapers, too.[618] The Diaper Pail Friends (www.dpf.com) is a national organization that claims a membership of more than 15,000.

RR. Self-Injury

Cutting, bruising, burning, or puncturing of the body for the relief of sexual tension was fairly common in the gay and S & M population as the twentieth century drew to a close. These are generally people who have a sensitive nature and react strongly to emotional stress. Turning to drugs, cigarettes, alcohol, over-eating, or starving are probably more common in the general population as stress relievers, but self-injury is used by a segment of the population. Favazza and Rosenthal classify it as self-mutilation and identify three types:

1. Major Self-Mutilation

The most extreme and uncommon form of self-injury consisting of infrequent destruction of major amounts of bodily tissue (castration, limb amputation). About fifty cases of genital self-mutilation are reported in recent psychiatric literature. Often associated with psychotic or acute intoxication.

2. Stereotypic Self-Mutilation

Fixed, rhythmic patterns of injury such as head banging, eyeball pressing, and finger biting. Often seen in autistic people or those with Tourette’s or Lech-Nyhan syndromes.

3. Superficial or Moderate Self-Mutilation

Less injurious with relatively little tissue damage, often occurs sporadically and repetitively. Needle sticking, cutting the skin with a razor, scratching, and burning are some of the examples.[619]

Self-injury (also called “self-harm,” “autoaggression,” and “deliberate self-harm”) provides a release from overwhelming psychological distress and tension and can be a symbolic substitute for masturbation. Self-injury has been described as “addicting” by many of those who engage in it. The inability to resist the impulse is the cornerstone of the repetitive self-mutilation syndrome. Apparently, the body’s own narcotics and the endogenous opiates (mainly beta-endorphin) provide the pleasant effect that makes it addictive.

The true prevalence of self-injury is unknown but was estimated to be 750 cases per l00,000 persons per year by Favazza and Conterio (1988).[620] In a study of psychiatric in-patients by DiClemente et al., 61 percent of them had cut themselves at some stage in their illness.[621] Occasional superficial or moderate self-mutilation is common today in teenagers and people in their twenties and is believed by some to be on the rise along with the increase in depression in this age group. The more socially acceptable forms of self-mutilation—pierced noses, tongues, ears, tattoos, and brandings—are being seen in the schools and on the streets more frequently than a few years ago.

There are many other aspects of self-injury that might be considered, but they are usually disassociated to some other category of classification such as castration, circumcision, masochism, flagellion, transsexualism, scarification, stigmatophilia, and apotemnophilia. Castration (orchiectomy, eunuchizing, sterilizing, gelding, emasculation) has been used since about 6000 BC down to the present day by ardent religious men to purify themselves of sinful sexual desires. The ancient cult worshipers of the Great Mother goddesses, from the most ancient times down to about AD 350—Byzantines, the Essenes, the Hijras, the Skoptsi, and the Heaven’s Gate cult—are some of the other cults. There were also individuals who heeded the Bible’s teachings in Matthew 5:27–30, 6:29–30, 18:8–9, 19:12; Mark 9:43–47; and Romans 7 and 8 and castrated themselves for the Kingdom of Heaven down through the past 2,000 years of our Christian history. Most of the religious castrates would not refer to their condition as “self-injury” but rather “purification.”

Circumcision has been used in many cultures from as early as 4000 BC for religious and disease prevention purposes. The tomb of Ankh-ma-hor at Saqqhra in Egypt, dating between 2400 and 2300 BC, has a scene on the wall of a boy being circumcised. The Old Testament called for it in Genesis 34:14–24; Exodus 4:25–26, 12:44, 48; Joshua 5:2–8; 1 Samuel 14:6, 18:25–27; Isaiah 36:41, 52:1; Jeremiah 4:4, 6:10–11, 9:25–26; Ezekiel 28:10, 32:10–24; and Maccabees 1:15–60, 2:46, 6:10. Debates about the use of circumcision continued in the New Testament in Luke 1:59, 2:21; John 7:22–23; Acts 7:8–9, 11:2–3, 15:1–24, 16:3, 21:21; Romans 2:25–29, 3:1, 3:30, 4:9–12, 15:8; 1 Corinthians 7:18–21; Galatians 2:3–12, 5:2–15, 6:12–16; Philippians 3:3–6; Colossians 2:11–13, 3:11; and in saying #53 of the Gospel of Thomas. As the twentieth century drew to a close, more than half of American hospitals routinely performed the surgery on newborn males unless they had a genital anomaly like hypospadia, an objection by the parents, or a family history of hemophilia. Many other religions, cults, nations, and tribes, particularly in the equatorial regions, still practice circumcision—some of them on female as well as male children.

Masochism (algolagnia) is the tendency to take pleasure in physical or mental suffering inflicted by oneself or by another person or in the practice of extreme self-denial or self-punishment.

Flagellation (beating, whipping, flogging, scourging) has been a practice in several religious groups since the twelfth century as a religious rite. People who respond sexually to being beaten by or to beating another person also employ flagellation.

Transsexualism (also called gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder) is a disturbance of gender identity in which the affected person has an overwhelming desire to change his or her anatomic sex stemming from the fixed conviction that he or she is a member of the opposite sex; such persons often seek hormonal and surgical treatment to bring their anatomy into conformity with their belief. Although the prevalence of the disorder is unknown, an estimated 3,000 to 6,000 adult Americans had the surgical reassignment therapy in 1979.

Scarification (cicatrization), the making of scars or a number of scratches and small incisions on the skin or mucus membrane, is the mode of self-injury often used by the youngest and is usually classified as superficial self-mutilation. Stigmatophilia. Apotemnophila is a paraphilia in which orgasms and sexual arousal are responsive to amputations of the limbs of one’s partner or oneself.

SS. Thrill Seeking

Thrill seeking is another sex-hormone-associated phenomenon somewhat similar in its chain of causations to self-injury. A number of extremely dangerous sports like BASE jumping (an acronym for building, antenna, span[bridge], and earth[cliffs]), mountain climbing, extreme skiing, snowboarding, parachute jumping, race-car driving, etc. BASE has one of the sporting world’s highest fatality rates: In its eighteen-year history, forty-six participants have been killed. Yet the sport has never been more popular, with more than a thousand jumpers in the United States. Snowboarding now boasts nearly 5.5 million participants. Mountain biking, skateboarding, and scuba diving are also increasing at a rapid rate. Boxing, wrestling, football, and soccer are as popular as ever. In 1997, the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission reported that 48,000 Americans were admitted to hospital emergency rooms with skateboarding-related injuries. Visits to the emergency room due to snowboarding injuries increased 31 percent; mountain climbing injuries were up 20 percent. Americans are participating in and injuring themselves through adventure sports at an unprecedented rate.[622] Even our social behavior has tilted toward the treacherous, with unprotected sex on the upswing and hard drugs like heroin becoming the choice of the chic as well as the junkies. Scientists have pointed out that thrill seeking is associated with the brain chemical messenger dopamine, and dopamine is increased in effectiveness by testosterone, our principle male sex hormone.

Thrill seeking has led many men into dangerous sports that frequently cause traumatic brain injury. In the United States, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million people incur these concussions each year, principally as a result of sports injuries, acts of violence, falls, and vehicular accidents. More than twice as many of these injuries occur in men than in women. The estimated rate is 100 per 100,000 persons, with 52,000 annual deaths. The highest percentage of incidence is among young persons aged fifteen to twenty-four years.[623]

Traumatic brain injury is one of the chief causes of the intellectual disabilities that underlie some of our most problematic behavior crimes. These injuries are poorly recognized and poorly treated by most of our medical professionals. It has long been known that people with intellectual disabilities are also the most difficult to rehabilitate. A large number of studies have consistently demonstrated the high incidence of intellectual disability in offender populations in the United States.[624] It is only in recent times that there has been recognition of the processes of stigmatization and segregation that have contributed to the marginalisation of people with an intellectual disability. These people are significantly more vulnerable to the criminal justice system since they are more likely to have their crimes detected, to confess, be victimized in the prison system, and have harsher punishments imposed. Thrill seeking is another factor that causes brain injuries and contributes to our huge prison population. It is also amenable to the castration treatment.

One of the viewpoints concerning thrill seekings has to do with the feeling of power and dominance that a man gains when he overcomes someone else in a contest. Schultheiss et al. showed that the results of several studies provided ample evidence of the link between these feelings and testosterone levels. Both men and animals showed an increase in testosterone when winning and in anticipation of winning and a decrease when losing.[625] Rosenblitt et al. reported several studies that showed an association between sensation seeking and men’s levels of testosterone and cortisol.[626]

TT. Stripping

Stripping by professional dancers has long been a profitable enterprise by both female (mainly) and male dancers, and there is extensive research literature on it.[627] Research on amateur stripping is a relatively recent development. Unlike professional strippers, amateur strippers voluntarily remove their clothing in public in hopes of winning prizes, which they may or may not win, so they engage in the practice mainly for fun. Alcoholic drinks enhance this sex-stimulating entertainment for both the audience and performers. We are reminded of Salome, the daughter of Herodias, who was rewarded with the head of John the Baptist by King Herod in first century AD for her excitatory dance (Matthew 14:1–12; Mark 6:14–29).

The inflammatory effects of booze and broads at today’s American strip joints have resulted in many after-hours altercations, accidents, and jail sojourns. The “stripteasers” are often prostitutes who get an extra high price because their provocative stripping and dancing, along with booze and drugs, has excited their customers beyond reticence and rationality. Strip joints are often located near military bases where large numbers of single, healthy men in uniform provide the main clientele for these “impure performances.”[628] Professional strippers are elusive fugitives whenever the police seek them because they usually do not stay in one place longer than three or four weeks. They move from place to place, and few of the stripper’s co-workers get to know her very well, so they can’t provide much information to the police. Erickson and Tewksbury found professional stripping was one of the most studied components of the sex industry and that patrons were mostly white men, but blacks were slightly over-represented (21 percent in a city that was 17 percent black). Most of the patrons at stripping shows were “detached lookers” at 56 percent; others were “bold lookers” at about 23 percent and “lonely” men at about 10 percent.[629]

Topless dancers frequently have police records for petty theft, disorderly conduct, dealing in stolen property, etc. Most communities where strippers operate have special ordinances trying to minimize the increased crime inside and around the clubs. Indianapolis, Houston, Phoenix, and Pensacola have similar ordinances running to eighty pages in draft form. Pensacola has 303 licensed dancers, forty-six of whom were arrested in a fourteen-month period.[630] A male stripper hired to perform for a group of teenage girls faced lewd conduct charges for allegedly fondling at least four of the girls during his routine on October 30, 1998, in Pleasanton, California.[631]

On December 2, 1999, the Tampa, Florida, city council held a meeting of strippers, clergy, spectators, and protesters bearing signs such as “I Want My Lap Dance.” The council members were considering an ordinance requiring at least six feet of space between dancers and strip-club patrons. They had rented a large room at a convention center because they expected a large crowd, but the room wasn’t big enough. About 1,100 people showed up. The adult-club owners claimed that the “lap dance” ordinance would hurt the tourist business. In a lap dance, clothed customers pay $20 to have a naked or nearly naked woman sit in their lap and rub against them. The police said the ordinance against this was needed to fight crime, prostitution, and the spread of disease at strip clubs. The dancers said the ordinance would violate their constitutional right to freedom of expression. The city officials said illegal acts—simulated sex, masturbation, oral sex, and intercourse—were taking place in clubs like Mons Venus, Club XS, Lip Sticks, and Pink Pony and at least fifteen other clubs in Tampa.[632] On December 17, city officials sued five strip clubs for violating the new ordinance. Mayor Dick Greco said, “You have to draw the line somewhere.”

UU. Bareback Sex

Peyser, Gauthier, and Forsyth brought still another sexual deviance out of obscurity with their description of this and the allied “bug chasing” deviance.[633][634] They defined bareback sex, or barebacking, as unprotected sex and bug chasing, in which HIV-negative gay men seek to become infected with the deadly virus that causes AIDS. Barebacking occurs in several levels: 1) If the partners are married heterosexuals, little or no social disapproval occurs. 2) If the partners are unmarried but romantically involved heterosexuals, social censure increases. 3) When the behavior occurs between heterosexual partners who are not romantically involved, censure increases further. 4) When barebacking occurs with homosexual male partners, it receives serious social censure because this is the principle route for the transmission of AIDS and other STDs. 5) The censure of homosexual male partners varies from: a) mild for barebacking when both partners are HIV positive even though there may be an infection with the other STDs or another, more virulent strain of HIV, which frequently hastens death; b) moderate for those uninfected men who have sex with known HIV-positive men with the purpose of bug chasing and wanting to become infected; c) serious when the infected person purposely infects an uninfected person, which has been defined as murder in some states, punishable by death.

For some of the bug chasers, barebacking is an erotic experience filled with excitement and danger. The thrill of barebacking makes the sex hotter when they flirt with death for some of the bug chasers who may border on the sadomasochistic category. Dangerous sports like skydiving have been linked to similar sexual excitement; danger can be erotic. For other bug chasers, their past fears of infection have interfered with their perceived quality of life, and they do not want to be afraid of the man they love even though he is infected with the deadly HIV. They want to live life in a more uninhibited fashion than practicing safe sex. Peyser quoted some of the gays: “If someone has AIDS or HIV, that kind of lionizes them. It’s heroic, like fighting the battle.” “When you get with someone who has HIV, it’s like being with someone greater than you are.” That attitude may be a by-product of the high-profile AIDS publicity.

Saurez and Miller[635] mention several other factors that influence men who have sex with men (MSM) to engage in the barebacking activities. What they term AIDS burnout results from years of coping with HIV and changes to their natural sexual behavior patterns. Hope that HIV may be cured or effectively maintained long-term can lead to increase in risky behavior. Barebackers sometimes report fatigue with safe sex and lack of meaningful prevention programs. It is even possible that improved treatments work synergistically with burnout to produce risk behavior in MSM. Media accounts of barebacking may serve the same purpose. The relatively positive media attention given barebackers has the potential to shift others away from safe-sex norms.

VV. Hookups

Paul et al. (2000) investigated another specific risky sexual practice common among contemporary college students called the hookup. Hookups are defined as sexual encounters, which may or may not include sexual intercourse, usually occurring on only one occasion between two people who are strangers or brief acquaintances. Hookups usually last no more than one night and are spontaneous (i.e., something that “just happens”); they are often referred to as “casual sex” or a “one-night stand.” Paul, McManus, and Hayes found that 78 percent of their sample college students had experienced a hookup, and 47.7 percent of the males in this group had engaged in sexual intercourse, but only 33.3 percent of the females experienced intercourse in the hookup. Eighty-one percent of those that had sex reported using a condom, and 25 percent reported using some other form of birth control. Only 12 percent of the hookup participants indicated that the event had evolved into a romantic relationship, and the average duration of the romance was four months. The majority of hookup experiences included alcohol use by both parties.[636]

WW. Groupies

Groupie is a term usually used to refer to a young woman who follows rock groups around on tours. DesBarres[637] tells of her days of chasing the stars and living life in the fast lane. Many of her encounters with these stars ended in sexual exploits. The groupie subculture also surrounds professional athletes, with each sport having specific names for these women. Baseball players refer to them as “Annies,” hockey players call them “puck bunnies,” and rodeo cowboys use the term “buckle bunnies.”

Gauthier and Forsyth[638] explain that rodeo cowboys are awarded specially engraved belt buckles when they win an event. Also, some of them are given leather jackets with their names on them. These make it easy for the girls to identify the “winners” at the nightclubs, which are the most common place for the cowboys to encounter the buckle bunnies after the rodeo. Women are seeking to acquire the best cowboy, whose sexual “conquest” will be viewed as a form of status attainment. Bull riding is considered the most exciting and dangerous rodeo event. Bull riders are glamorized in the movies and on television more than other contests, so the bunnies are particularly interested in them as the most macho men. It’s like the biker gangs of the 1960s and 1980s. Women in these gangs initiated sex most often with the most macho men.

XX. Erotic Tourism

Erotic tourism is a deviant industry described by Evans, Forsyth, and Wooddell[639] as providing sexual experiences for male tourists either as voyeurs or participants in sex acts with females. There are also other types of erotic tours established specially for homosexuals and pedophiles. Erotic tours occur mainly in two general locations: Southeast Asia and the Caribbean; to a lesser extent, erotic tours also occur in the Netherlands. In Thailand, the main source of foreign money is tourism. Although prostitution has had a long history there, it got a big boost in 1967 when the Thailand government and the U.S. military signed a treaty to allow U.S. soldiers stationed in Vietnam to come there on rest and recreation (R&R) leave. When the Vietnam War ended, there was an economic need to keep this industry going, and erotic tourism filled the need.

The origin of erotic tourism in the Caribbean is related to poverty and the expansion of foreign investment in the region. The Panama Canal building (1890–1914) and maintenance brought U.S. commercial and military presence to the region, which precipitated the growth of the sex industry. The subsequent withdrawal of the military was similar to the cycle in Southeast Asia, and the erotic tourism industry evolved to fill the gap. In the case of the Netherlands, the country’s reputation as a sex mecca created a legend that has sustained the sex tours there. There was a company called The Amsterdam Red Light Tours in 1999. A growing number of customers are using the Internet to arrange erotic tours in the year 2000.

YY. Hate Crimes

Many of the crimes labeled “hate crimes” by the police and press are, in fact, sex crimes in their etiology. Sexuality can be one of the most venomous poisons that stirs up enmity and hostility. Sex is the explosive fuel for one of our most powerful biological attractions and repulsions. Often, we instinctively dislike someone and don’t quite know why. Sometimes we have been brought up to loathe certain behavior like sodomy or child molestation, and we are trained to hate the perpetrators of such acts. Sometimes we automatically abhor and recoil from repugnant sex. In any case, when we are confronted with some sexual act that is particularly abhorrent to us, we hate the perpetrator and often want to harm him. According to a report issued February 23, 1999 by the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Alabama, the number of hate groups increased from 474 in 1997 to 537 in 1998. The report blamed the use of the Internet by middle-class, college-bound teens for the increase. I blame the hormones, which surge in the teen years of puberty and early adulthood.

The March 8, 1999, issue of Newsweek reported about 8,000 hate-crime incidents in 1997 and showed that about 70 percent were race or ethnicity motivated, 17 percent biased by religion, and 14 percent (>1,100) by sexual orientation. The 1998 data showed about 16.3 percent of hate crimes were attributed to sexual orientation. The federal government has been required to keep data on bias crimes since the passage of the Hate Crimes Statistics Act in 1990. The annual numbers recorded have since varied between about 6,000 and 8,800. In spite of strong lobbying by the NAACP and homosexual organizations, the federal hate crimes law never was passed, but forty states do have such laws. However, these laws apparently have little preventive effect.

In early 1999, gay outrage and sensational publicity over two murders of homosexuals and one murder of a black man caused lawmakers in Washington, DC, to renew their campaigns for an expanded federal hate crime law. Tammy Baldwin (D-WI), the first openly gay woman elected to Congress, was one of the sponsors of the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1999. Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY), Connie Morella (R-MD), and John Conyers (D-MI) were some of the other co-sponsors. Reverend Troy Perry and the Reverend Jesse Jackson continued their campaigns for full enactment of the federal Hate Crimes Prevention Act through 1999 by gathering signatures from American religious leaders. Opponents of the new law that would increase the punishment for the ideology of hatred felt that punishing people for their ideas was reminiscent of the “thought police” of several oppressive, old, foreign regimes and should be resoundingly rejected.

Another aspect of the sexually motivated “hate crimes” is that they are justified and even encouraged by our Biblical teachings. We have been taught to hate evil, and some of the sex crimes and deviancies are certainly evil of the worst sort as I have outlined above. The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible (1990) tells me as follows: “The Lord loves those who hate evil” (Psalm 97:10); “Do I not hate those who hate you, O Lord?” (Psalm 139:21); “I hate them with perfect hatred; I count them my enemies” (Psalm 139:22); “The fear of the lord is hatred of evil. Pride and arrogance and the way of evil and perverted speech I hate” (Proverbs 8:13); “You have loved the righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has anointed you” (Hebrews 1:9).

Some of the ways hatred comes out are shown in the following subsections.

1. Homosexuality

As we have seen above, much hatred is generated in the heterosexual community for homosexual activities. The well-documented fact that male homosexuals have an unending series of fleeting sexual relationships increases their dislike by others. Eighty percent of these men reported that more than half of their partners were complete strangers. Most of these men prefer quick and immediate biological sexual gratification. The high frequency of impersonal sex with a large number of partners leads to the epidemic of sexual diseases, robberies, extortions, and beatings—expressions of the general societal acrimony felt against this behavior.

Ninety percent of gay men report having been a target of verbal abuse or threats, and more than 30 percent of them claim to be survivors of violence related to their homosexuality. Ever since the 1969 three-day riot at the Stonewall Inn bar in Greenwich Village, New York, gave birth to the modern gay rights movement, several major incidents have served to increase homophobia in the United States. On November 27, 1978, the murder of Harvey Milk, San Francisco’s first openly gay supervisor, touched off another riot in “Sodom by the Sea,” and more than 160 people ended up in the hospital.

Headlines across the nation and counter-demonstrations by the KKK occurred in 1998 and 1999. On October 7, 1998, Matthew Shepard, twenty-one, a gay college freshman, was pistol whipped, tied to a fence, and left in the cold in Laramie, Wyoming. He died October 12th. Shepard had allegedly “come on” to two young men in a Laramie bar at about ten o’clock in the evening. Then, after drinking a few beers, he went out of the bar and got in their car with them. Russell Henderson, twenty-one, was sentenced to death in March 1999 for the crime. On February 19, 1999, Billy Jack Gaither, thirty-nine, was beaten to death with an axe handle and burned outside the small town of Sylacauga, Alabama, apparently because he was gay. Steven Mullins, twenty-five, and Charles Butler, twenty-one, confessed to the crime, recounting how they had planned to assault Gaither because he made a pass at one of them. At 6:35 pm, April 30, 1999, a bomb exploded at the gay Admiral Duncan pub in London, England, killing two young men and injuring more than seventy. The White Wolves, a right-wing extremist group, called the BBC two hours later and claimed responsibility.

In March 1999, the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality announced research grant awards to students for the study of hate crimes against gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Homophobia is the term for hatred of homosexuals, and biphobia is the prejudice against bisexuality. Biphobia is believed to exist in both the heterosexual and homosexual communities. Also in March 1999, Texas Governor George W. Bush was quoted in the U.S. News & World Report (April 5th, p. 43) as saying he does not support special rights based on sexual orientation: “I’ve always said all crime is hate crime.”

On April 6, 1999, President Clinton threw his weight behind the federal Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1999 by asking Congress to extend coverage of offenses based on sexual orientation. If passed, this law would make prosecution of hate crimes easier. At that time, more than forty states had hate crimes legislation, but only twenty-one covered sexual orientation.[640] For the eleventh consecutive year, the Democrat-led New York State Assembly pushed legislation to increase punishments for crimes motivated by bias against gays.[641]

Franklin (2000) studied anti-gay behavior among non-criminal young adults and found that one in ten admitted physical or threatening violence against homosexuals, and another 24 percent acknowledged name-calling. The young people were found to be motivated by peer dynamics (35 percent), anti-gay ideology (15 percent), thrill seeking (7 percent), and self-defense (6 percent), despite their relatively tolerant attitude toward homosexuality. In her sampling, Franklin found that men were 64 percent of the perpetrators, and the gap between men and women grew wider as the behavior became more violent. Male respondents committed 64 percent of the name-calling, 79 percent of the threats of violence, and 92 percernt of the hitting, kicking, and beating.[642]

2. Pedophilia

One of the most stigmatized sexual activities at the present time is the type of sexual variation wherein adults derive erotic pleasure from relationships with children. Public outrage against pedophiles is stronger than that against rapists. Pedophiles are frequently sentenced to life in prison, whereas twenty-five years is the norm for rape.

3. Abortion

Much of the hatred and resultant murders at abortion clinics, the bombing of abortion clinics, and the mailing of anthrax and threats to abortion clinics is generated by hatred for the “baby killers” who work there.

4. Interracial

Many of the hate crimes stem from interracial sexuality as described above. In one of the most gruesome racial hate crimes in the United States since the civil rights movement, John William King, twenty-four, of Jasper, Texas, was found guilty of murder on February 23, 1999. He was sentenced to death two days after his conviction for tying a chain around James Byrd’s (a black man) legs, and then King and two of his friends dragged Byrd three miles behind their pickup truck.

Why did King hate black men so much? He had lived with them all his life in the small town of Jasper, which was about 40 percent black. King was a smallish, 5’ 7”, 130-pound, eighteen-year-old boy when, in 1995, he was first thrust into Texas’s Beta, a prison where most of the inmates and staff were black. He had been assaulted within hours of his arrival. The common practice there was for two or three of the big inmates to jump on the new arrival to see if he would fight. If he didn’t fight or pay them, the new arrival would become someone’s “girl.” The usual custom was for these “girls” to be sold off to other inmates when their “owner” became tired of them. King’s defense council told the jury at his trial about these conditions, but they had been overwhelmed by the prosecution’s garish descriptions of the murder of the black man and the extraordinary publicity the trial was getting and could not cope with an understanding of the old, hidden prison experiences that had activated King’s hatred. King had ample reason for his hatred beyond even his own understanding.

The 1996 book The Coming Race War in America, by Carl T. Rowan, complains of the 1978 novel The Turner Diaries. “Almost every page reeks with talk of ‘depraved blacks raping white women.’” On page 95, Rowan, who is black, attacks Newt Gingrich for saying that 800 babies a year are found in dumpsters in Washington, DC—a predominantly black city. Rowan goes on to blast social scientists for relating white men’s sexual insecurity to the large size of black men’s genitals (page 146). On page 147, he states that “there has always been the danger of miscegenation, with white women being lured by the talk of what great lovers the ‘savage’ with the huge penis could be.” Rowan continues on to complain that blacks are deemed to be a public health threat because of their higher rates than whites in tuberculosis, AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and promiscuity. Rowan is an example of the many black authors who appear to be inflaming the hatred of blacks for whites and whites for blacks through sexual examples. Keith B. Richburg is another black author who elucidates the black race’s sexuality and the AIDS plague: “One of the reasons the pandemic has spread so far and so fast in Africa is the rampant prostitution and the African’s free-and-easy attitude toward sex. Sex with prostitutes and sex with neighbors, co-workers, or anyone is almost a way of life, especially in many of Africa’s sprawling urban centers.”[643]

5. Jealousy

Reference the information on jealousy in the previous chapter. Jealousy is one of the most inflammatory seductions to the hate crimes. The most violent rage sparked by jealousy results in attacks and murders and ironically takes place in casual settings and times of sexual intimacy or while out for a good time in a tavern. In two-thirds of the case studies by Wolfgang, the offender and/or the victim were drinking when the homicide occurred. The fact that men in America commit about 80 percent of criminal homicides shows the contribution of the male hormones to this crime.

I know the feeling of jealousy. Like most men, I have had the experience myself. My wife for a long time had a certain young, black man come and do the heavy gardening work around our house. He was big and strong. He cut the brush and trimmed the azaleas in the heat of the sun, his body glistening with sweat, and I could see that she was attracted to him. I could also see and feel his attraction to her. I know now about the pheromones and how sweating amplifies their power over our ancient animal attractions. I believe this was part of her attraction to him, even though he had a criminal record.

6. Pyromania

As described earlier, pyromania often has a sexual basis but is tagged as a hate crime by the criminal justice system and press, as in cases like the Ballinger case. Jay Scott Ballinger, thirty-six, of Yorktown, Indiana, was arrested February 21, 1999, and he confessed to setting thirty to fifty church fires between 1994 and 1998 in seven states. In another case, Frank Palermo, thirty-two, was sentenced on February 23, 1999, to twenty years in prison under the Louisiana hate crime law for trying to torch two cars belonging to black motorists.

7. Satanism

Under the heading of Satanism, I pointed out that much of the evil behavior blamed on this is of a sexual etiology. Church burnings across the nation have been blamed on hate crimes as being racially motivated, but several of those who have been apprehended for burning the churches were Satanic adherents. Jay Ballinger and Angela Wood (his stripper girlfriend) admitted on February 20, 1999, to setting between thirty and fifty church fires in eleven states between 1994 and 1998. Satanic books and about fifty contracts signed in blood by teenagers who agreed to give their souls to the devil and do all types of evil in exchange for wealth and sex were found in Ballinger’s home in Muncie, Indiana. About 17 percent of the hate crimes were attributed to religious animosity. Down through history up to the present day, religion has been the cause of devastating wars, feuds, murders, and assaults. The sixteenth-century Reformation failed to change people’s hearts, and hatred got worse. On March 13, 1999, Donald Hansard, twenty-four, was sentenced to four and a half years in prison for beating a video store owner in Hollywood, Florida, because the owner was Jewish. Hansard was a member of the White Separatist hate group, and the video store sold “exotic” videos. The hate group was alleged to believe that it is permissible to attack Jews because “they control” media outlets.

ZZ. Other Paraphilias

Paraphilias are primary sexual disorders characterized by persistent, repetitive, socially deviant sexual arousal with adverse psychosocial consequences. As Dr. Money has pointed out, the number of paraphilias varies according to the specificity with which subtypes are separated and named. The number also varies with the knowledge and experience of the classifier. I will not attempt to second-guess these experts by assigning them to categories but will simply add Dr. Money’s and Holmes and Holmes’ descriptions from their books, Gay, Straight, and In-between (1988) and Sex Crimes (2001), respectively, in alphabetical order.

1. Acrophilia

Sexual arousal from heights or high altitudes, sometimes associated with thrill seeking.

2. Agonophilia

Sexual excitation from a pretension that one’s partner is involved in a struggle to be free.

3. Agoraphilia

Sexual arousal from open spaces or having sex in public.

4. Agrexophilia

Sexual arousal from knowing that others know you are having sex in public.

5. Albutophilia

Sexual arousal from water.

6. Brachoproctism

Insertion of the arm into the rectum of another person for sexual pleasure.

7. Catheterophilia

Sexual arousal contingent on having a catheter inserted up into the urethra (from Greek catheter, “catheter,” plus philia).

8. Chrematistophilia

Arousal contingent on being charged or forced to pay, or being robbed by, the sexual partner (from Greek chremistes, “money dealer”).

9. Coitobalnism

Sex in a bathtub.

10. Coprography

Writing obscene words, usually in public places.

11. Cynophilia

Arousal from sex with dogs.

12. Dacrylagnia

Arousal from seeing tears in the eyes of a partner.

13. Dacryphilia

Arousal from seeing his or her partner cry.

14. Dysmorphophilia

Arousal from mentally impaired partners.

15. Entomophilia

Arousal from insects or from using them in sex play.

16. Eproctophilia

Arousal from flatulence.

17. Formicophilia

A variety of zoophilia in which sexual arousal is contingent on the sensations produced by small creatures like snails, frogs, ants, or other insects creeping, crawling, or nibbling the genitalia, perianal area, or nipples (from Latin formica, “ant”).

18. Gynemimetophilia

Sexual attraction is predominantly toward a gynemimetic (a “lady with a penis”) or a male-to-female transsexual before he has been surgically transformed (from Greek gyne, “woman,” plus mimos, “mimicking”). Andromimetophilia is the term for the attraction toward a female-to-male transsexual.

19. Hybristophilia

Aroused by a partner who is known to have committed an outrage or crime (from Greek hybridzein, “to commit an outrage”). The partner may have served a prison sentence as a convicted criminal, or may be instigated to commit a crime and so be sent to prison.

20. Hyphephilia

Sexual stimulus is associated with the touching, rubbing, or the feel of skin, hair, leather, fur, and fabric, especially in the proximity of erotic body parts—a touchy-feely fetish (from Greek hyphe, “web”).

21. Kleptophilia

A paraphilia of the marauding/predatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and orgasm are responsive to, and dependent upon, illicitly entering and stealing from the dwelling of a stranger or potential partner (from Greek kleptein, “to steal,” plus philia, “loving”).[644] It is also known as “kleptomania” (mania = madness), which deals more with compulsive stealing, usually of objects that have symbolic significance but not intrinsic value to the thief. It is also sometimes referred to as “kleptolagnia” (from the Greek lagneia, “lust”).

There were over one million shoplifting “events” reported to law enforcement in the United States in 1986, and the numbers grew. They jumped 45 percent between 1986 and 1996, while other types of theft dropped. In the year 2001, more than 29 million were reported. The value in 2000 was some $13 billion.[645] About 5 percent of shoplifters are kleptomaniacs: people, mostly women, who steal because they can’t stop themselves.

“No matter how much a kleptomaniac tries to resist, she repeatedly takes an emotional roller-coaster ride. First comes a building sense of tension, then a growing urge to steal and unbearable anxiety if the impulse is resisted. Theft brings a flood of pleasure and release, a thrill described in terms commonly reserved for the highs brought by drugs or sex.”[646] One kleptomaniac said: “And toward the end, the euphoric highs didn’t come anymore. It took more and more stealing to satisfy.”

Psychiatrist Eric Hollander and others have associated kleptomania with low serotonin levels. Hollander said: “Men whose serotonin levels are low are more likely to gamble, intermittently explode, or beat their wives, act out sexually, or set fires. Women are more likely to have kleptomania, compulsively shop, or binge-eat.”[647] Prozac and Zoloft are serotonin-reuptake inhibitors that raise the levels of the neurotransmitter in the brain and have been successful in stopping kleptomaniac shoplifting. Castration also raises serotonin levels and lowers the neurotransmitter dopamine, helping to curb this deviant behavior.

22. Narratophilia

Arousal responsive to using words and telling dirty, pornographic, or obscene stories (from Latin narrare, “to narrate”). The same term is applied whether reading, listening to, or telling such material.

23. Nepiophilia

Similar to pedophilia except the age range of the victim is restricted to infancy (from Greek nepon, “infant”).

24. Nudomania

Arousal from nudity.

25. Ochlophilia

Arousal from being in a crowd of people.

26. Ophidiophilia

Arousal from snakes and ophidicism—the use of snakes, sometimes for sexual purposes.

27. Peodeiktophilia

Arousal and orgasm are contingent on evoking surprise, dismay, shock, or panic from a stranger by illicitly exhibiting the penis (from Greek peos, “penis,” plus deiknunain, “to show”). Also known as exhibitionism.

28. Pictophilia

Erotic arousal contingent on viewing pictures, movies, or videos of activities commonly classified as pornographic (from Latin pictus, “painted”). Several similar terms are: pornophilia, erotographomania, statuophilia, and pygmalionism (falling in love with an object made by oneself as the statue made by the Greek sculptor Pygmalion).

29. Polyiterophilia

Arousal only after having sex with a series of partners.

30. Pygmalionism

Desire to have sexual contact with inanimate objects such as statues or mannequins. Pygmalion was a sculptor who fell in love with a statue he had created. Agalmatophilia is sexual attraction to a statue, doll, or mannequin. Inflatable dolls with usable genitals are available through mail order or adult bookstores.

31. Rhabdophilia

Arousal from being flagellated.

32. Somnophilia

The sleeping princess syndrome in which erotic arousal is contingent on intruding on and awakening a sleeping stranger with erotic caresses, without force or violence (from Latin somnus, “sleep”).

33. Stigmatophilia

Arousal is contingent on a partner who has been tattooed, scarified, or pierced for the wearing of jewelry, especially in the genitalia (from Greek stigma, “mark”). The same term applies to the reciprocal paraphiliac condition in which the self is similarly decorated.[648] In 1991, the piercing of the ears and nose for jewelry in the homosexual and punk rock milieu expanded to wearing rings in the nipples and genitals. One California business reported over 600 such piercings in the month of April. Their clients included a bank president who had his nipples pierced and many housewives who had their genitals pierced. “It became cool; it became fashion,” they said.[649] Piquerism, the obtaining of sexual satisfaction from piercing, cutting, or stabbing, is a related deviation.

The comments of other authorities on the subject of sex offenses are added here for further background.

  1. Ellis referred to sexually motivated stealing as “kleptolagnia”[650] and listed it under “eonism.”

  2. Krafft-Ebing defined kleptolagnia as “sexual arousal through stealing” and reported some case histories, mostly of stealing women’s fetishistic articles.[651]

  3. Karpman wrote: “Kleptomania is looked on as a symptomatic act, the motive of which is unconscious. Steckel’s thesis is that ungratified sexuality is an etiologic factor. Kleptomania may be related to frustrated love, jealousy and rivalry, to impotence, frigidity, to homosexuality, sadomasochism, fetishism and other fixed ideas. Occasionally cases have been found in which the act is followed by orgasm. The presence of secondary emotions, anxiousness, excitement, somatic tension and release, suggests the presence of the sexual situation. Frequently delinquency is substituted for sex activity. Thus stealing may be an outlet for sex tension.”[652]

  4. McCary (1978) quotes Alexander (1965): “Kleptomania is compulsive stealing, usually of an object that is of no value to the thief except for its sexual symbolism or its association with sexual gratification. The kleptomaniac is typically an emotionally disturbed woman beset with feelings of being unloved and unwanted.”[653]

  5. Morneau and Rockwell (1960) wrote: “A kleptomaniac is a person with an uncontrollable desire to steal. What is frequently not understood is there are a series of emotions associated with theft and these may be manifested as a form of emotional excitement … The thought of use or value is missing in the act of theft. The theft is, however, associated with a number of emotions—anticipation, tension, fear, and satisfaction. The satisfaction comes from the thrill which we describe as sexual because it is tension-releasing and therefore makes the thief feel good … The intellectual part of his personality is overcome; he acts irrationally, hoping to gain at least temporary release from his tensions.” The authors also mention that most kleptomaniacs are menopausal women or very young women perhaps affected by the pre-menstrual syndrome.[654]

  6. Money: “Paraphiliac predation by stealth is exemplified in its most undiluted form in kleptophilia, the paraphilia in which stealing induces sexuoerotic arousal and excitement. Kleptophilia is the sexuoerotic counterpart of kleptomania, the nonsensuoerotic manifestation of apparently senseless, irrational, and compulsive stealing.”[655]

  7. Money: “… Erotosexual stealing is kleptophilia, which is akin to kleptomania, though not all kleptomania is erotosexual in its symbolism … Kleptophilia may be indiscriminate or promiscuous in its manifestations, as when a youth steals all the brassieres he can find …”[656]

  8. DSM-IV: The essential feature of kleptomania is the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items even though the items are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value (criterion A). The individual experiences a rising subjective sense of tension before the theft (criterion B) and feels pleasure, gratification, or relief when committing the theft (criterion C). The stealing is not committed to express anger or vengeance, is not done in response to a delusion or hallucination (criterion D), and is not better accounted for by conduct disorder, a manic episode, or antisocial personality disorder (criterion E).[657]

VIII. What Do We Know?

A great deal is known of the sex offenses and the variations of the normal sexual behavior that causes unnatural and offensive behavior, but this knowledge is spotty and not widely disseminated in the population. Our Puritan heritage, religious scruples, political system, and educational establishment all combine to restrict the free flow of the knowledge of this most powerful and ubiquitous force of our life. There is much that is ill defined about the sex urge that causes injustice, error, and suffering. In many aspects of daily life, both males and females are subtly influenced by the filter of their sparse sexual knowledge to see situations and people differently than they really are. I know that I am unduly influenced to favor good-looking women more than men because of my sex drive. I can see it at work in the criminal justice system at all levels: police apprehension of suspected criminals, considerations by the courts and penal sanctions. Use of sexual favors is rampant in many industries and businesses, especially show business, and it is far from unknown in education and even religious organizations (the Jessica Hahn case comes to mind—she posed nude in the November 1987 Playboy magazine, even though she loudly proclaimed that she was no “bimbo”). People tend to vote that way, too. They will vote for the best-looking candidates, particularly if they create a good overall impression. Ninety percent of what we learn comes through our eyes. “Seeing is believing.” “You’ve got to show me.”

We “know” a great deal more than we take the time to put into words. We seldom verbalize “felt” fears, yet they cause us to act and react in predictable ways. Whenever there is a particularly atrocious crime in a neighborhood, there will be many changes in the behavior of the populace as a result. Some of the people will move away from the area, some will install added security devices on their home and car, some will stop going out after dark, some will stop walking in certain areas, and some will stop sleeping in bed and lie instead on the floor. The quality of life is deteriorated in dozens of ways. Now, should the atrocious crime be one of the more serious sex crimes like lust murder or rape, the sensational, titillating nature of the news coverage spreads information on it much further and faster and more emphatically than with other types of crime. The result is that the sex crimes tend to instill more visceral fear in more people and have longer-lasting effects on the populace than many other types of crime.

Another, not inconsequential, evil result of male sexuality is the lifetime of pain, disease, insanity, shame, suffering, or privation that millions of women have had to endure as a result of broken love affairs. Many millions have borne children out of wedlock as a result of a few moments of yielding to the insistent pressure of the male sex drive. Most of them were in their teens and innocent of even the most rudimentary knowledge of birth control or abortion techniques. A very large percentage of these resulted from wartime military dislocations of the young men away from the usual restraints of their parents, school, and church.

We know a great deal. More books and journals are involved with this subject in a year’s time than any other single subject today, an average of over eighty books and six journals a year. Two new periodicals came out in August 1996 alone. There are over 4,000 books in the Library of Congress on the subject of sex, according to George Mair.[658] In spite of this mountain of information and misinformation, we know precious little about how to control our sex drive, and we know very little about the results of a gonadectomy. The results of what we do not know are plain to see in the escalating problems of sex crimes and diseases. I hope by the writing of this book to shed some light on these dark corners. Something further must be done!

After more than six years of research of violence in six different areas of the United States, the U.S. Department of Justice made their report to Congress in 1999: “The most powerful predictors of violent criminality are gender and age. Boys in adolescence and young men are much more likely to be serious high-rate offenders than girls and older men. Further, studies have consistently found greater involvement of African Americans in violent offending than Caucasians.”[659]

“The South Carolina homicide study found that 88% of the juveniles who committed homicide were male.” The mean age at the time of the offense in the homicide group was 15.8 years. Youths in the assault and battery group averaged 15.6 years, and youths in the other serious offenses group averaged 15.1 years. The total population of South Carolina is approximately 30 percent African American. The South Carolina homicide study found that 82 percent of the juvenile homicide offenders were African American. These are the individuals and ages in which testosterone levels generally are at their maximum surge. The incidence of violent crimes and testosterone levels tend to decrease with later ages.

IX. Comments on the Offenses

I have now named and described more than 100 crimes, problems, and deviations that are wholly or in large part caused by the sex hormones. This discussion has revealed the extent of the universe of nastiness, which can be averted by the elimination or reduction of these hormones. As President George Bush phrased it in 1988, “a kinder and gentler America” is possible through the use of the castration treatment.

Dr. Money et al. has made a good case for the combination of physiological predisposing factors and learned influence in paraphilia formation.[660] Although his book deals with one particular paraphilia (asphyxiophilia), it has underlying implications for most of the others. He defines this as “a sexual peculiarity in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon self-strangulation and asphyxiation up to, but not including, loss of consciousness.” He tells of one particular patient’s childhood:

The memories of this period reveal evidence from an early age of unusual brain functioning which existed probably from birth, and which might be of either genetic or some other intrauterine origin. It manifested itself as auditory images (screaming head noises) and visual images (hoards of jostling, fighting creatures on walls and ceiling) resembling hallucinations. At night they prevented sleep unless counteracted by rhythmic, side-to-side rocking movements reminiscent of the stereotyped movements of childhood autism. In sleep there were very vivid dreams, some terrifying, and some accompanied by sleep paralysis of the transient type known also as one of the symptoms of the brain disease narcolepsy. In addition to these various signs of brain functioning that had been atypical since prenatal life, there is also evidence of the same early origins of immunological dysfunction, namely a lifelong history of asthma, a malady known to be related to the immune system. The significance of asthma for asphyxiophilia is that both are characterized by paroxysmal breathing blockage. Whereas paroxysmal asthma attacks are not erotic, the paroxysmal discharge of the orgasm is. It is the paroxysmal nature of both that allows the two to become associated. Though no statistics are yet available, it is apparent from the reports of parents who have lost a son to autoerotic self-asphyxiation that many of them had a history of asthma.

Money’s patient had in early childhood “… the experience of breathlessness[which] became associated with bondage, for he was tied down to his crib, to prevent wandering. Bondage and breathlessness became associated when, with a ‘pee hard,’ he would not be heard calling to be untied, and so would have to wet the bed.”

If we thought about it long enough, many of us might find that, even though we consider ourselves “normal,” we find that some of the descriptions above fit us to some degree. Let us be reassured that it is only when we act out on some of these strange impulses and they become repetitious that we could be tagged with the “paraphiliac” label.

Another consideration when dealing with the sex crimes is the era and context of the sex act. Sodomy, for example, considered deviant and dangerous for transmission of disease in the homosexual milieu, is more frequently referred to by a slightly more respectable term anal intercourse in the normal heterosexual milieu. According to Dr. June Reinisch, director of the Kinsey Sex Research Institute, in a Sally Jessy Raphael television show, September 8, 1993, four out of ten married couples have tried anal intercourse and half of those did not enjoy it, but approximately 20 percent engage in it regularly. Dr. Reinisch also mentioned that nine out of ten married couples have tried oral sex, and some of the women enjoy engaging in this form of sexual interaction. Where a large percentage of the population engage in a sex act, it can no longer be termed deviant but assumes the cloak of normality. Even here, however, it can also be considered wrong and even criminal, depending on the individual situation and presence of disease.

Walters (1997) and others have shown us that paraphiliacs usually do not restrict themselves to a single paraphilia and tend to increase the number of paraphilias as their seriousness increases. Aggressive sex offenders were twice as likely to be associated with another paraphilia as to be the sole condition. Sadism was three times more likely to be associated with another paraphilia. Multiple paraphilias are the rule rather than the exception. Some experts believe that many paraphiliacs suffer from a generalized deficit in behavior control that may actually grow with experience—somewhat similar to the drug addict who starts on marijuana, then goes on to cocaine and finally to heroin or a combination of the drugs and in increased dosage and frequency.[661]

There are other, somewhat more problematic, types of disorders that involve sexuality that the castration treatment might be used in treatment for. Kluver-Bucy syndrome comes to mind in this respect. Heinrich Kluver (born 1896) and Paul Clancy Bucy (born 1904) were American neurologists who showed that bilateral temporal lobectomy produced bizarre behavior because it destroyed important limbic structures, principally the amygdalae. The syndrome is characterized by unselective sexual and ingestive behavior toward objects not usually associated with such activity in normal individuals.

Another whole realm of “sex crime” is opened to treatment by castration if we accept Karpman and Thompson’s definition: “A sex crime is any criminal act in which some type of sexual satisfaction is the motivating force for the crime.”[662][663] Many of the crimes commonly labeled as “breaking and entry,” “burglary,” or “theft” are perpetrated for sexual satisfaction more than monetary gain. The transvestites and fetishists who break into homes and stores to steal panties or shoes are in this category. Some of them experience a sexual thrill from going through a window. The act of going through the window may symbolize rape to some men. At least 22 percent of robberies are committed more for the “thrill, rush, power, revenge” or anger than for money.[664] Car jacking provides a similar thrill. Most of these motives require testosterone for their maximum effect, and castration lowers the thrills to the point that they are no longer fun. The kicks from illegal drugs and alcohol are also lowered by castration. About half of all robbers in the Erickson survey said they were high at the time they did their crime.

As vast, frightening, and bewildering as this panorama of crime and evil is that I have sketched out here, there are indications that there are many more problems caused by the male sex urge that are not so obvious. Most of the foregoing is well known and has been the subject of considerable scientific literature over decades of time. Lycanthropy was one of these. Now there is Satanism or devil worshiping.

Geraldo Rivera hosted a television program, October 25, 1988, entitled “Devil Worship: Exposing Satan’s Underground” (parental discretion was advised), which showed the evidence of the Church of Satan consisting of thousands of people whose beliefs are directly opposite to those of the Christian churches. They believe that evil is good and good is evil. The show told of sexual rituals and the sexual abuse of children. “It is a religion to some. A chance to do evil by others.” They mutilate people and animals and drink the blood of those in ceremonies. They robbed graves in southeast Louisiana and defaced a dozen legitimate churches in Maine.

Thomas Sullivan, a fourteen-year-old boy in Jefferson Township, New Jersey, butchered his mother with his Boy Scout knife and then slashed his own wrists. Sean Sellers is in prison, condemned to death by lethal injection. He was twelve years old when he murdered three people as a sacrifice so that he could get powers from Satan. He had a “hatred for society” and wanted to break all Ten Commandments, including “Thou shalt not kill.” The woman who killed her children because she wanted to punish her husband for seeing another woman and seeking to divorce her, would not have done so if her husband had not been led astray by his sex hormones. Her anger and revenge would probably not have reached such an extreme level if it were not for the sexual jealousy factor.[665]

X. Famous Sex Criminals of History

A. Background

More evidence supporting the contention that sex crimes include the most heinous of all crimes remains in the historical record. The foregoing information still does not convey the full depth of their wickedness, so I will outline some of the cases in the historical record of the most famous of these to demonstrate and support my contention. As you will read, the record goes far back in history, and there are pathways that indicate linkages between some of these famous criminals. It may be that there is some kind of progression working to make this horrendous behavior more frequent and worse as time goes on. This is a very old and very unresolved argument. My own feeling is that there is some kind of progression working in the sex crimes, but in only about 30 percent of the cases in most categories. Hopefully, by laying out a historical panorama, we can come to grips with this question.

Mankind has come by his history of savagery and violence naturally, honestly, and normally by the laws of inheritance and evolution. Tens of thousands of years ago, aggression was necessary for survival. Today, we note that there is a tendency toward more violence in those individuals whose bloodline is closest to the less-civilized racial stock. Blacks and Indians are higher in their crime rates than whites and Orientals. We cannot change the inheritance of millennia of successful coping with our savage nature by wishing it or by passing laws. Laws concerning sexual behavior change with the winds of every passing legislature. They are bewildering to the professionals in criminal justice; the lesser educated among us cannot be expected to keep up with the changes in the laws, much less to be able to change our behavior to keep up with them. Sex crimes are motivated by the strongest drives to which humanity is heir. Indeed, some of us believe that they are the strongest drives in the entire animal kingdom. Self-preservation, procreation, and preservation of our species involve the very stuff of life itself. These drives have brought mankind to his present stage of development through the eons, while dozens of more powerful, but less sexy creatures have died out. The rule of survival of the fittest, it would seem, is also the rule of the survival of the sexiest. Given this great power of the sex drive, it is not incongruous that it can also be deviated to cause horrid and grotesque crimes. Even the Nephelium and angels were not immune (Genesis 6).

Only very brief reference to these types of crimes have been found in the ancient Chinese, Greek, and Biblical writings, and it is really not until the Roman Imperial period of history that one finds very extensive detailed records. Suetonius, Petronius, and Juvenal were three of the principle authors who detailed the orgies of the emperors and their families as well as lesser figures of the times. Gilles de Rais, one of the worst sex fiends of history, probably got some of his ideas for his horrid crimes from reading the works of some of these authors.[666]

B. Sex Criminals

1. Tiberius Caesar

Caesar (AD 14–37) was a homosexual lecher who took pleasure in witnessing atrocious tortures and executions. A trick of his own devising was to have men drink wine excessively and then suddenly knot a cord tightly around their genitals, which cut the flesh and prevented them from urinating. His wife, Julia, was a nymphomaniac who took hundreds of lovers. She would take her post by the statue of Marsyas in the Forum, which was a well-known prostitute resort. She turned away no man, and no desire, however degraded and vicious, was permitted to go unfulfilled.[667] She was sometimes compared to Cleopatra who, according to legend, had fellated 110 Roman legionnaires in one night.

2. Caligula

Caligula, Roman emperor from AD 37–41, declared himself a god and demanded to be worshipped accordingly. His passion for torture and executions exceeded even that of Tiberius, and his erotic lusts were gargantuan and aberrant. His preferred method of execution was to inflict numerous small wounds, avoiding vital organs, and his familiar order: “Make him feel that he is dying!” soon became proverbial. It was his habit to commit incest with his three sisters, and he was accused of homosexual relations, both active and passive, with various well-known men of his day (Masters, pp. 39–41). Both Caligula and Nero were chosen by a 1981 poll of the faculty of the Catholic University of America as being among the worst villains of all times.

3. Claudius

Claudius, Roman emperor from AD 41–54, would have stood out in history as a monster had he not been sandwiched between Caligula and Nero. His wife was the nymphomaniacal Messalina, whose name has achieved the status of a clinical term for lust, cruelty, and thirst for power. Claudius had the Roman incest law changed to allow him to marry his brother’s daughter, thus touching off a wave of uncle-niece marriages. When witnessing executions, he required that the victim’s face be turned toward him so that he could observe the change of expression at the moment of death. Messalina would often masturbate herself while witnessing the executions and tortures.[668]

4. Nero

Nero, Roman emperor from AD 54–68, exhibited the extraordinary cruelty and viciousness that was to characterize his life, even as an adolescent. He would prowl the taverns and streets, attacking and stabbing men and dropping their bodies into the sewers. He had his mother, Agrippina, killed after five unsuccessful tries after she became critical of his activities. He then ordered the womb torn from her cadaver so that he could see where he came from. Nero would cover himself with the skins of wild animals and attack the private parts of men and women who were tied to stakes. He killed his pregnant wife, Poppaea, by kicking her in the stomach. At one of his garden parties, he used captive Christians as human torches. Mercifully, he committed suicide at the age of thirty-two (Masters, pp. 49–53).

5. Heliogabalus

Heliogabalus was Roman emperor from AD 218 to 222. “I quote in elegiacs all the crimes of Heliogabalus, in conics I can floor peculiarities parabolous” (The Pirates of Penzance, act I, “General’s Song”). He changed his name, while still a boy, to Elagabalus after an erotic Phoenician deity. After ascending the throne, he celebrated obscene rites involving the slaughter of young boys. Their phalli were removed and tossed on a blazing pyre as sacrifices to the deity. He was very good looking and would often appear at night in rich, seductive, feminine dress and solicit strangers for fellatio and anal intercourse (Masters, pp. 47–48).

6. Justinian I

Justinian (AD 483–565) is credited by Procopius’ book The Secret History with ordering the commission of more murders than any of the previous Roman emperors. Although he is credited with a major codification of the law, he gratified his bloodlust by executing heretics and political opponents. His wife, Theodora, had been a prostitute and an actress since childhood and liked to attend the whippings and executions of those who had offended her. To be her lover was usually fatal; as her ardor cooled, the lover would find himself accused, beaten, and castrated. One such man took refuge in a church where she found him and had his penis chopped off. She stood by and watched while he bled to death. Justinian and Theodora plotted against and murdered many loyal Romans. She would often masturbate herself while watching the castrations and executions (Masters, p. 49–53).

7. Gilles de Rais

Gilles de Rais (1404–1440) was a handsome, well-dressed, wealthy baron of great estates and castles in the Brittany and Anjou region of France. He was a hero who raised an army and fought valiantly alongside Joan of Arc in the ousting of the English from French soil. The king rewarded him with the rank of marshal when Gilles was only twenty-five years old and with the rank of lieutenant general when he was thirty-three. His life seems to have changed abruptly, however, when he committed his first documented sexual assault and murder of a twelve-year-old boy in 1432, the year his grandfather died. By the time he was finally hanged on October 26, 1440, he may have murdered as many as 800 children (Masters, p. 28). Jean Benedetti, who has researched all of the available literature, reveals that his usual method was to hang the child by a rope around his neck on a hook and cut his neck so that it bled profusely or otherwise wound him.[669] Gilles would then masturbate himself, thrust his penis between the child’s thighs, and rub his penis on the child’s belly until he ejaculated. Afterward, he would dismember them, or have one of his henchmen do it, with a special weapon for the purpose: a short, thick, double-edged sword called a “braquemard.” Gilles was said to have taken more pleasure in the murder of the children than in having carnal knowledge of them. He would take delight in seeing their bodies cut open, viewing their internal organs, and seeing their heads separated from their bodies, their blood flow, and their dying. He often laughed for joy at the sight, and would preserve the prettiest of the heads and kiss the ones he liked most. The victims’ clothing and bodies would be burned in the large fireplace of the room in the tower of the castle where the murders were committed. The bones were disposed of in the cesspit, moat, or other hiding places. Approximately forty sets of these remains were removed from each of three different castles. Gilles was formally accused with more than 140 victims. Benedetti (186) believes this is a reasonable number and lists the names of thirty-seven of the boys, ages seven through twenty-six, who were known victims (p. 196). He refutes the social theory of causation of Gilles’s sexual deviation as being due to childhood feelings of guilt and inferiority because Gilles was endowed with more love and attention than most other children in history. My own belief is that Gilles de Rais was probably a sadist from childhood. The ritual manner of his murders is characteristic of this sexual perversion. He was also a homosexual, but not exclusively so, because he married and sired a baby. He had sexual relations with several males in his retinue, and five or six of them were directly involved in the murders of the children by procuring his victims and disposing of their remains. I believe that Gilles’s final descent into the preoccupation with serial killing was initiated by the removal of the last familial restraint on his deviant behavior when his grandfather died. He was then in a firm position that was above the law; he became a law unto himself—free, just as the deviant caesars before him, to indulge himself every evil whim that fantasy might conjure up. Much of his religious restraint had been alleviated earlier when the Church sentenced Joan of Arc for heresy and burned her at the stake on May 30, 1431. Gilles built himself a church, appointed himself a bishop, and staffed his religious retinue with homosexuals, thereby justifying himself reminiscent of what is being done in America today in the gay liberation movement.

8. Countess Elizabeth Bathory of Transylvania

The countess (1560–1614) was a beautiful, highly born sadist and murderess of 650 girls and young women, according to the official transcript of her trial in Bytca, Czechoslovakia, dated January 7, 1611.[670] Her Aunt Klara was also a notorious torturer and corruptor of young girls; an uncle was a sorcerer and worshiper of the devil; her brother, Stephan, was a lustful monster of depravity, and she, herself, was subject to periodic fits of rage and uncontrollable behavior. Elizabeth believed the blood of girls had a powerful cosmetic effect on her flesh; accordingly, she arranged to bathe fully and regularly in their blood. Emerging from the tub, covered with human blood from head to toe, she had herself licked clean by girls. If such a girl displayed her disgust, she was beaten to death. Hundreds of girls had been kept over the years in the dungeons of her castle and milked of their blood. They would be bound by ropes and tourniquets, causing the blood to gush forth with great pressure when their flesh was slit with knives. Some of the victims were brought to the countess’s bed where she bit their breasts until they bled. Authorities found eighty cadavers and several dozen girl prisoners in various stages from excellent health to near death from being repeatedly pierced with knives, when she was finally apprehended (Masters, pp. 12–24). Olga Antal, fifty-nine, of Bucharest, Romania, killed at least forty girls and bathed in their blood just as Bathory did.[671]

9. The Marquis de Sade (Compte Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade)

The marquis (1740–1814) was a short, 5’ 2”, grossly fat, French libertine and author, whose scurrilous writings and acts gave us the word sadism. He was a thief, liar, and cheat! He was also an atheist of the most virulent sort, the very synthesis and smell of evil. His first major work, The 120 Days of Sodom, was self-proclaimed as the “most impure tale ever told,” and describes eating of vomit and shit, and dozens of other obscenities.[672] Sodomy was his favorite sexual practice. He horsewhipped a shopkeeper’s wife, inflicted hundreds of scalpel wounds on another woman, and poisoned three others with Spanish fly.[673] He was convicted of forcible flagellation, debauchery, poisoning, sodomy, and other acts of violence and sentenced to prison many times, serving a total of over twenty-seven years of incarceration during his lifetime. No sooner would he be set free or escape one sentence and he would resume his scandalous behavior that would return him to prison again. He wrote twenty-nine published plays, pamphlets, and novels while in prison. Another thirty-six plays, histories, articles, and novels were destroyed or never found. One of these, Les Journees de Florbelle, was contained in over 200 manuscript notebooks, which were burned by the police at the request of, and in the presence of, Sade’s son, Donatien-Claud-Armand.[674] Scarcely a page of the thousands he wrote does not contain some reference to sex offenses. Could this awful outpouring of poisonous ejecta be a product of his imprisonment? I believe it was. He would not have had the time nor the inclination to produce such a volume if he had not been incarcerated. Sade’s writings, and the writings of others whom his writings had influenced (Beaudelaire, Swinburne, Kafka, Dostoevski, Guillaume Appollinaire, Maurice Nadeau, Simone de Beauvoir, Havelock Ellis, Freud, and dozens of others) have had an incalculable influence on sexual aberrant thought and behavior during the past 200 years.

10. Seargeant Bertrand

Bertrand (1822–1855) was a soldier in the French army who exhumed human bodies and killed domestic animals, which he mutilated with a knife and dismembered. He would cut the abdomens, tear out the entrails, and dismember the human bodies, having coitus with the female corpses and masturbating.[675]

11. “Jack the Ripper”

This is a name given an unknown murderer who terrorized London from 1887 to 1889 with the murders of nine women, mostly prostitutes in the White Chapel section. It is probable that he first cut their throats then ripped open their abdomens and groped among the intestines. In some instances, he cut off the genitals and carried them away; in others, he only tore them to pieces and left them behind. He does not seem to have had sexual intercourse with his victims, but likely the murderous act and subsequent mutilation of the corpse were the equivalent for the sexual act.[676] Many books and articles have been written about the “Ripper,” as have movies and television programs such as the July 9, 2000 Discovery program, titled Jack the Ripper, an Ongoing Mystery. Roy Hazelwood, an ex-FBI profiler, commented on the program that these were “sexually motivated crimes.”

12. Vacher the Ripper

Vacher (1869–1901) assaulted a small girl in 1889. In 1893, he wounded a girl because she refused to marry him, and he attempted suicide by shooting himself in the head. The shot left him partly deaf and paralyzed on one side of his face. He was treated in an insane asylum and dismissed as cured in 1894. He then traveled up and down France killing and mutilating. In March 1894, he strangled a twenty-one-year-old woman, cut her throat, trampled her abdomen, tore out a portion of her breast, and copulated with her corpse. In November, he strangled a thirteen-year-old girl and committed similar acts, except for copulation. In May 1895, he killed another girl, seventeen years of age. In August, he strangled and then ravaged a fifty-eight-year-old lady. In the same month, he cut the throat of a sixteen-year-old girl, strangled a fifteen-year-old boy, cutting off the genitals and sexually assaulting the corpse, and strangled a seventeen-year-old boy and ripped open his abdomen. In March 1986, he attempted rape on an eleven-year-old girl but was driven off by the police. In September and October, he killed two teenage girls and cut off the genitals and carried them away. In May of 1897, Vacher cut the throat of a fourteen-year-old boy. In June, he murdered a thirteen-year-old shepherd boy and committed pederasty with the corpse.[677]

13. Dr. Herman Webster Mudgett

Mudgett (alias Henry Holmes, H. H. Holmes, Herbert A. Henderson; 1859–1896) was a charming, polished, handsome, well-educated murderer of an admitted twenty-seven people in one confession and 133 in another. The actual total was probably over 150 and may have topped 200.[678] At one point in his career, he was married to six women under different names in various extortion schemes. In 1887 and 1888, he built a 105-room mansion at 701-3 63rd Street in Chicago, which was a veritable factory for murder. It had secret rooms, passages, and trap doors, a quicklime pit, and an incinerating furnace in the basement for the purpose of disposing of the bodies of his victims.[679] The most obvious motive for his murders was financial gain, but there is no doubt that most of them were also sexually stimulating, exciting, and enjoyable to him. His first murder was in August 1871 when he was only eleven years old. He struck his boyhood chum in the head with a spiked board and killed him, experiencing a powerful erection and a feeling of euphoria. His second was in July 1884 when he drowned Dr. Leacock, his accomplice in an insurance fraud, and ejaculated in his pants in the excitement (Eckert, p. 8). In April 1888, he smothered seventeen-year-old Jennie Thompson to death, made necrophilous use of her body, cut the flesh from her bones, and sold her skeleton to a medical student. In April 1891, he pushed Calvin Williams to his death from an eight-story building and masturbated. In December 1891, he chloroformed Julia Connor and posthumously raped her body. In December 1892, he smothered Emeline Cigrand to death, raped her body, and dissected and sold her skeleton. During the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, he murdered as many as 100 visitors to the fair for their money and disposed of their bodies in his incinerator furnace, quicklime pit, and Lake Michigan. Shortly before he was hanged on May 7, 1896, he sold the story of his murders of twenty-seven people to the William Randolph Hearst News Corporation for $10,000. The lengthy story was headlined the “Holmes Confession” and published in newspapers all over the country (Eckert, p. 490). Jacksonville University Professor Bob Stanton and four of his former students published another book on Mudgett’s life of crime in the year 2000. Creative Arts Book Company published the book, The Devil’s Rood.

14. Albert Fish

Fish, in our country’s history, is described by the prison psychologist Dr. Frederick Wertham, who examined him, in an absorbing book, The Show of Violence as follows. Fish was in his sixty-fifth year when he was brought to trial in New York in March of 1935 for the murder of ten-year-old Grace Budd. He was the father of six children, and, despite what would appear to have been an ample outlet for his sex needs in marriage, throughout his adult life he had gained sexual satisfaction through torturing children. He was a small, gray-haired man with a gentle, benevolent facial expression from a distinguished family. There had, however, been some seven incidents of mental illness and eccentric behavior in his branch of the family. Fish probably would never have been stopped in his sadistic career, short of his natural death, had he not been impelled to let Grace Budd’s parents know what had happened to their child. As a result, he was easily tracked down, and when he was in custody, he readily gave the details of the murder and led police to the spot where he had deposited what was left of Grace’s body. He described the murder and cannibalism with a dreadful kind of relish. After arrival at a remote cottage, Fish had gone into another room and removed his clothing. When he appeared before the child naked, she cried out that he was bad and she would tell her mother on him. Then he strangled her, cut up her body, and cooked her flesh “with carrots and onions and strips of bacon.” During the nine days following the murder, he ate the flesh in a state of intense sexual excitement.

Fish gave Dr. Wertham full details of the ways in which he had preyed on at least a hundred children: either by seducing, bribing, or forcing them. His trade of house painter, which he contrived to carry on in public buildings as much as possible, gave him an excuse to dodge away to cellars or garrets. He wore nothing under his painter’s overalls, so he could dress and undress quickly. After a particularly brutal abuse of a child, he would move to another location and never return to the old neighborhood. He lived in twenty-three different states in the course of his life, “and I have had children in every state.” Sometimes he would gag them, tie them up, and beat them, although he preferred not to gag them, circumstances permitting, for he liked to hear their cries. He would sometimes cut or insert needles into their genitals. He felt that he was ordered by God to castrate little boys. Dr. Wertham estimated that Fish had murdered at least five children. The detective who worked on the case stated that Fish had killed four in New York, and the judge put the number as high as fifteen. Fish had actually been arrested for one of the New York child murders but had been released because of his age and innocent appearance. When he was asked how he had managed to escape detection for so long—though he had been in the hands of the authorities at least eight times and twice he had been sent to psychiatric hospitals for observation, yet no one had spotted him as being dangerous—Fish replied that “it never came out. Children don’t seem to tell. I always manage to cover it up.” He was finally executed January 16, 1936.[680]

15. Peter Kurten

Kurten, the Vampire of Dusseldorf, began his killing at the age of nine by pushing two of his playmates off a raft into the Rhine River and holding them under the water until they drowned. At approximately fourteen years of age, he tried to strangle a girl. At age sixteen, he was jailed for arson and theft. At thirty, he strangled and cut the throat of a ten-year-old girl. From age forty-one to forty-five, he set fires and assaulted people. Finally, at age forty-six, he killed four girls by stabbing them and letting the blood run from their wounds into his mouth. At his trial, he was pronounced sane but “a veritable king of sexual delinquents.” Sadism, masochism, fetishism, and pyromania were listed among his disorders. At age forty-eight, he was convicted of nine murders and guillotined in Cologne, Germany, on July 2, 1931.

16. Bruno Ludke

Ludke, who confessed to the murders of eighty-five women between 1928 and 1943, was executed in Vienna, Austria, April 8, 1944.

17. William Heirens

Heirens was already a practiced burglar and arsonist when he was arrested on the north side of Chicago at age thirteen. He would steal women’s panties and experience orgasm when he put them on. Women were killed after surprising him in their homes, and he was convicted on September 5, 1945, of three murders and twenty-six counts of robbery, burglary, assault, and arson, and sentenced to life in prison. As of 1992, he was the longest-tenured prisoner in Illinois.

18. Yoshio Kodaira

Kodaira (c. 1952), called the “Japanese Bluebeard,” raped and murdered ten women.[681]

19. Albert DeSalvo

DeSalvo, known as the “Boston Strangler,” is believed to have strangled and stabbed eleven women from June 1962 to January 1964, and left their sexually mutilated bodies in garish postures. Although he boasted of assaulting as many as 2,000 women, he was never put on trial as the Boston Strangler. With F. Lee Bailey as his lawyer, he was convicted of merely breaking and entering, assault and battery, and lascivious acts with four women. He confessed to the murders in 1965 and was sentenced to life in prison. DeSalvo met his end by being stabbed to death by his fellow inmates at the old Walpole State Prison in the latter part of 1973.[682]

20. Juergen Bartsch

Bartsch ranked second only to Adolph Hitler as the leading twentieth-century German criminal, according to a 1969 poll taken by the magazine Stern. He was convicted of murdering four children.[683]

21. Jerry Brudos

Brudos, the “Shoe Fetish Slayer,” became fascinated with women’s high-heeled shoes at the age of five, when he found a pair in the dump. He brought them home and clumped around the house in them in spite of his mother’s harsh punishment. He was arrested in 1956 at the age of twelve for trying to force a young girl to disrobe. Brudos began stealing high-heeled shoes and women’s undergarments at about age sixteen. When he was twenty-eight, he killed a young woman who came to his door selling encyclopedias in Portland, Oregon. He severed her left foot, slipped it into a glamorous shoe, and stored it in his locked freezer. Her body he disposed of in the Willamette River. Burdos pleaded guilty to three murders and drew three consecutive life sentences.

22. Richard Speck

Speck broke into a nurses’ home in 1966 and killed eight of the nurses, some of whom he also raped and sodomized. He was shown on A&E TV programs Investigative Reports on March 6, 1999; December 10, 1999; and February 23, 2000, in replays of the filming of some of our prison problems. Speck had been videotaped with his black cellmate and “love,” rolling marijuana cigarettes and sniffing cocaine. He had been reported earlier in 1991 by Eric W. Hickey (Serial Murders and Their Victims) to be contentedly watching television in an Illinois penitentiary at the taxpayers’ expense. Speck had been originally sentenced to death but had been able to have that sentence commuted to life in prison. He died of a heart attack in prison at age fifty.

23. Edmund Kemper

Kemper dismembered six young girls in 1972 and 1973.

24. Dean A. Corll

Corll (1940–1973) and his accomplice, Elmer Wayne Henley (1955–present), tortured, sodomized, and murdered twenty-seven boys with a specially built torture chamber and plywood “torture board” at Corll’s home in Houston, Texas, from February 1970 to August 1973. The victims were found buried in three locations: a Houston boat shed, a pine forest north of Houston, and a Galveston beach. Henley killed Corll in August 1973 and was later convicted of murdering six of the victims himself. These crimes were labeled “the worst serial murder case in modern U.S. history” by the press until the Gacy case broke in 1978.[684]

25. Juan Corona

Juan Corona, thirty-seven, was arrested on May 26, 1971, after the bodies of nine men were found in shallow graves in a peach orchard near his home in the Sacramento Valley of California. All were stretched out face up, waxy arms above the head, and with shirts pulled up over their faces. Some of the men had their pants pulled down and bore evidence of recent homosexual activity. Further searching found sixteen more bodies. Corona was convicted of twenty-five counts of murder in January 1973 and sentenced to twenty-five concurrent terms of twenty-five years to life and was still in prison in 1992.

26. John Wayne Gacy

Gacy (1942–1994) told the Chicago police in March 1979 that he had killed thirty-three young men and boys after having homosexual relations with them. Twenty-nine skeletal remains were found buried under his house and in the yard, and three bodies were found in the river. Gacy had been paroled in 1971 after serving eighteen months of a ten-year sentence in an Iowa prison for sodomy with a sixteen-year-old boy. Gacy had been arrested several times.[685] He was finally executed by lethal injection May 9, 1994, after fourteen years of legal appeals all the way up to the Illinois Supreme Court. Gacy said on a TV tape played January 28, 2000, on the A&E channel that he was bisexual not homosexual. He had been married twice and sired three children. An autopsy by Dr. Morrison showed nothing detectably wrong with his brain.

27. Theodore R. Bundy

Bundy (1947–1989) confessed in the final hours before his execution January 29, 1989, to the murder, rape, and torture of twenty-eight women. Robert Keppel, the Washington State investigator who worked many years on Bundy’s case, believes that he may have killed as many as 100 and probably began when he was as young as fourteen years of age. I was a graduate student in criminology at the Florida State University at Tallahassee when Bundy struck on the campus. Within a half-mile of the criminology building, he entered the rear door of the Chi-Omega Sorority house at 3:30 am, Sunday, January 15, 1978. He went from room to room bashing four of the coeds with a heavy stick as they lay sleeping. Bundy had been in the custody of the police at least twice before, but was released. He was convicted in July 1979 for the February 9, 1978 murder of a twelve-year-old schoolgirl, Kimberly Leach, and sentenced to death. The sentence was appealed three times and stays of execution delayed pending the hearings, so Bundy outlived the judge who had sentenced him. At least five books, countless news articles, a movie, and a television show have been written about him. It has been estimated that he cost the state of Florida at least $6 million. He was handsome, athletic, and brilliant. He was of an engaging and popular personality. A woman fell in love with him and married him during his long trial, but behind his facade lurked one of the worst monsters of the century. Oddly enough, he had been arrested in Pensacola, Florida, February 15, 1978, by the merest stroke of luck: because an alert policeman noticed his stolen license plates. He nearly slipped through the hands of the police on this occasion as well. Ironically, a neighbor complained of “police brutality” as a result of the police scuffle to subdue Bundy.

28. Kenneth A. Bianchi

Bianchi (1951–present) confessed to murdering twelve young women in the notorious “Hillside Strangler” cases, which terrorized the Los Angeles area between October 1977 and February 1978. Angelo A. Buono (1934–present), Bianchi’s cousin, was implicated by the confession in ten of the murders. Buono was charged with sixteen felony counts of rape, sodomy, pimping, pandering, oral copulation, and conspiracy. Bianchi told investigators that Buono strangled five of the victims himself, raped all but one, and sodomized some of them. Buono hired a high-powered, six-attorney team to defend him against these charges, so the trials dragged on for two years and two days—one of the longest trials. They both avoided execution.[686]

29. The “Yorkshire Ripper”

The Yorkshire Ripper murdered twelve women in the northern part of England in a four-year period and remained at large until 1982, in spite of the most extensive manhunt in British history. Over a million pounds sterling were spent to get the public’s support in finding him. His first attack was in Leeds, October 30, 1975 when he killed a prostitute named Wilma McCann. Since then, eleven other women, eight of them prostitutes, were murdered in Bradford, Huddersfield, Manchester, and Preston. Most of the victims were attacked on the street at night by a hammer blow to the head and then stabbed and ripped open with a butcher knife. This modus operandi was similar to that of the infamous Jack the Ripper of London in the late nineteenth century. The “Ripper” also referred to himself by that name in a tape-recorded message that he sent to Assistant Chief Constable George Oldfield, holder of the Queen’s Police Medal and the chief investigator assigned to the case.[687]

30. The “Green River Killer”

This killer’s list contains twenty confirmed murders of prostitutes and a total of as many as forty-nine probable young women between 1981 and 1985 in the Pacific Northwest of Washington state. This killer remained at large in spite of the best efforts of a police task force of up to fifty-eight full-time investigators who spent hundreds of thousands of man-hours and over $16 million in their attempts to apprehend him. Hundreds of suspects, including one man whose blood type, hair, and saliva matched samples taken from some of the crime scenes, were questioned in this case by the police. A two-hour, nationwide television program on December 7, 1988, was dedicated to producing leads in this case, but the killer remained unknown until November 30, 2001, when Gary Leon Ridgeway, fifty-three, a married man, was arrested for four of the murders.

31. Henry Lee Lucas

Lucas, fifty-two, calmly answered questions on television on May 28, 1989. He told how, at age ten or twelve years old, he already had fantasies about killing people. He said that he had his first sex with a schoolgirl in 1951 when he was fourteen years old, and he strangled her to death afterward because he did not know what else to do. Somehow “sex is not right” to him, he said. He grew to dislike prostitutes for “selling themselves,” and he said he could tell that they were prostitutes just by the way they looked. He raped, tortured, and killed them, and the desire became “stronger and stronger.” Several times the police had come close but “they couldn’t catch” him because of his extremely mobile lifestyle. When he was finally caught and imprisoned, he began to tell of his many murders.

At first, the police did not believe him. Such wild talk about hundreds of murders might make law enforcement look silly. Eventually, he proved to have detailed knowledge of large numbers of unsolved murders, which only the murderer would know. His memory was surprisingly good for a poorly educated person. Memory is best for those events that give the greatest pleasure and excitement. Special Agent William Hagmaier, of the FBI’s serial murderer special study group, now believes that he was involved in the killing of twenty-three to twenty-four people. One hundred sixty-two homicides in twenty-seven states have been attributed to Lucas and cleared. The debate still continued into the year 2000 about the true number of his victims.[688] Lucas died of an apparent heart attack at age sixty-four in March 2001, in a Huntsville, Texas prison.

32. Larry Eyler

Eyler, the Interstate Killer, was thirty-one years old in 1983 when police in Indiana and Illinois suspected him of a string of murders of young men whose sexually violated and tortured bodies were found along the highways between Terre Haute, Chicago, and Greencastle. Eyler was a suspect because he had been arrested in 1978 for stabbing a young hitchhiker, and he was known to cruise the gay bars in the region. He was freed on bond and murdered a fifteen-year-old boy seven months later. He was sentenced to death, confessed to another murder, and offered to plea bargain a life sentence for telling about twenty more killings. The state refused, and he was still on death row in 1992.

33. Patrick Wayne Kearney

Kearney confessed in 1977 to killing thirty-two men, many of whose dismembered remains were dumped in trash bags along Southern California highways. He was convicted of twenty-one of the so-called “trash bag” or “jigsaw” murders and sentenced to life in prison.

34. Dennis Andrew Nilsen

Nilsen was born in Fraserburgh, Scotland, November 23, 1945. By the time he was arrested early in February 1983, he had murdered and cut up into small pieces a number of young men that he had met in London pubs. Intelligent and verbose like many of the other homosexual killers who were caught with the clear evidence of their murders, he said of his victims (fifteen or sixteen since 1978), “I’ll tell you everything.” And he did. He also said, “I wished I could stop, but I could not. I had no other thrill or happiness.”

35. William Bonin

Bonin, also known as the “Freeway Killer,” was convicted of murdering fourteen boys and young men. He abandoned their bodies near freeways in Southern California in 1979 and 1980 after having sex with and robbing them.

36. Wayne B. Williams

Williams, twenty-three, was convicted in 1982 for the slaying of two black men who had disappeared along with twenty-nine black children and young adults in the black section of Atlanta, Georgia. In a twenty-two-month period between 1979 and 1981, Williams, an eloquent, homosexual black man, terrorized the area. He was sentenced to two life sentences, but has made strong, attention-getting legal appeals and media accusations against the criminal justice system, racism, and the KKK. Up to the year 2000, two made-for-TV movies were made on his case tending to show that Williams was innocent of the murders and wrongly convicted. One two-part CBS documentary film was aired in 1985 and the other on the Showtime channel July 16, 2000.

37. Richard Ramirez

Ramirez was convicted September 20, 1989, and sentenced to death for eighteen “Night Stalker” killings in Southern California in 1984 and 1985. Ramirez was a believer in Satanism and a macho figure. Hundreds of young women asked permission to visit him in prison, but most of them were turned away because his jailers could not handle the large numbers of requests.[689] There is a strong fascination to sex slayers like him that has been well documented in such recent books as Sheila Isenberg’s Women Who Love Men Who Kill (NY: Simon and Schuster, 1991) and Rosemary Daniell’s Sleeping with Soldiers: In Search of the Macho Man (Holt Rinehart, and Wilson, 1984). On February 24, 1999, the A&E television channel’s American Justice program aired a one-hour program titled “Richard Ramirez, the Night Stalker.” This program told how Ramirez “got an erotic thrill from killing” most of his victims with a .22 caliber revolver. Most of his victims were women whose homes he had broken into, some of whom he raped and mutilated. He cut one woman’s eyes out and took them home. He would also ransack their homes and take the most valuable items that he could carry. He used cocaine and sold the stolen articles to buy his drugs. Phil Carlo wrote a book, The Night Stalker, that told how Ramirez was a fan of heavy metal music and Satanism, which may have been instrumental in leading him to murder.

38. Christopher Wilder

Wilder, a rich, intelligent man, tortured and killed young women in several states in 1984.

39. Jeffrey L. Dahmer

Dahmer, thirty-one, was arrested on July 23, 1991, at his dingy, fly-infested apartment in Milwaukee, where police found boxes filled with genitalia and other body parts from eleven young men and boys of various races. Dahmer had been convicted of sexually assaulting a thirteen-year-old boy, had served ten months in prison, and was on a five-year probation sentence. His female probation officer had never visited his home, as is required for felons, because of her workload and because Dahmer’s home was in a high-crime neighborhood. Had she done so, the overpowering stench of the decomposing remains might have alerted her to the gruesome situation. Another example of how inept the justice system is in dealing with these sex criminals occurred on May 27, 1991: A naked, fourteen-year-old Laotian boy, bleeding from wounds on his buttocks, was allowed to go back to his apartment after Dahmer convinced police officers that it was “just a domestic dispute” between two homosexuals. The boy became Dahmer’s seventeenth victim and was tortured, killed, and partly eaten just as the others were. The three police officers who were involved were suspended as a result of a national furor over this crime.

Dahmer was caught red-handed with the gory evidence of his crimes and so confessed at great length and in vivid detail to each of the seventeen mutilations and killings. We stand to learn much from these confessions. He pleaded guilty but insane in an effort to obtain a lighter sentence. Expert defense witness Dr. Fred Berlin, director of the sexual disorders clinic at Johns Hopkins University, told the court that Dahmer had a “cancer of the mind” and lacked the willpower to control his horrendous behavior. Dr. Park Dietz, forensic psychologist, said, “His orgasm is more valuable[to him] than your life.” Judith Becker, another psychologist, aided the defense plea of “not guilty by reason of insanity” by telling of Dahmer’s distressed childhood fascination with the insides of animals. The three-week sanity trial ended February 17, 1991, with the jury deciding ten to two that Dahmer was sane. He was sentenced to fifteen consecutive life terms in prison and would not be eligible for parole for 936 years. Dahmer, along with another notorious Wisconsin killer, were bludgeoned to death at eight o’clock, Monday morning, November 28, 1994, while they were cleaning the gymnasium at the 600-man Columbia Correctional Institution. Christopher Scarver, a black, twenty-five-year-old inmate killer, with “borderline intelligence,” confessed to a guard that he did it because “God told me to do it.” Corrections Secretary Michael Sullivan announced on June 20, 1995, that four prison guards were suspended for the security breakdown after the investigative panel found that Scarver acted alone. One guard had left his post and another was on the telephone for twenty minutes, failing to monitor the inmate as required.

Such was the notoriety of the Dahmer cases, due to the sensational revelation of the horrendous details of the murders, that it was still national news in May of 1996.[690] The lawyer of eight of the eleven families of Dahmer’s victims planned to auction off hundreds of Dahmer’s belongings, and a group of Milwaukee business leaders tried to come up with the million dollars to buy the lot and burn it in an effort to erase the memory of his serial killings. The lawyer planned to give $75,000 to each of the families and keep the remaining $400,000 for his fees and expenses. The lawyer, Tom Jacobson, said, “We saw what Camelot brought: $34.5 million. Dahmer’s the flipside of Camelot.” Jacobson was referring to the auction by Sotheby’s in New York of President Kennedy’s wife Jackie Kennedy Onassis’ belongings, which was held in April 1996.

On July 14, 1997, on the Learning Channel television program To Kill and Kill Again, a full hour was devoted to Dahmer’s life. It was revealed that much of his killing ideation had come from detective magazines. This is very similar to the story of the early youth of Ted Bundy, another notorious serial killer who had told in the last hours of his life before execution in Florida how at age twelve he had masturbated to these detective magazines. There are at least six of these magazines that have been on display at the corner drugstore for at least fifty years, which usually show sexy women on the cover being threatened by a man with a knife, gun, or club. Fear usually shows on the faces of these women victims of male aggressors. Psychologists believe that the urge is ignited in certain men for power and dominance over their victims, but I believe the rush of the hormones, testosterone, and adrenalin cause the high of dopamine level that gives these killers the feeling of power and sexual excitement. The sexual basis of Dahmer’s necrophilia, lust murders, and cannibalism were again brought out in another hour-long television broadcast in prime viewing time June 17, 1996, on the A&E channel. Dahmer said he “couldn’t control his urge.” A larger segment of the American population should now be aware of the horrors that the sex drive can produce. This broadcast showed how the sex drive works to increase the addiction to the excitement of killing and bizarre horrors in men of a certain type of behavior in their early years, bringing ever more serious acting-out progression.

40. Andrei R. Chikatilo

Chikatilo, fifty-six, a Russian language teacher and grandfather, also known as “Citizen Ch,” was captured in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, in November 1990. Chikatilo gouged out some of his victims’ eyes, cut off their breasts or genitals, ate some of their flesh, and raped some of them before their death and some after their death. His actual victims probably number more than 100, but his signed confession lists fifty-three: twenty-one boys, fourteen girls, and eighteen young women. His killing began in 1978 with the murder of a nine-year-old girl, whom he had tried unsuccessfully to rape. Soviet officials did not release any information on his killings or warn the public that a killer was loose in their area for more than five years. At the time of the murders, the government policy was that serial murder was a capitalist phenomenon and was not supposed to exist in the Communist legal system. Ideology was placed above public safety in importance.[691]

Some fifty-five investigators worked on this case for more than ten years. Often as many as 400 officers were involved in stakeouts, and the total number of suspects named in the case ran to more than 25,000. At one point, a paroled convict who had been seen in the vicinity of one of the murders was arrested, tried, convicted, and executed before the authorities realized that they had the wrong man.[692] Psychiatrists in the case said that Chikatilo acted out of rage stemming from sexual inadequacy. He was unable to obtain orgasm without the extra excitement that the mutilations, violent death, and mangled corpses gave him. Like Dahmer, Chikatilo revealed several of the details of his killings so that it became much clearer to the general public that these were sexually motivated crimes that could have been controlled by castration. Chikatilo was executed on February 14, 1994.

41. Danny Rolling

Rolling killed four coeds and one of their male companions in August 1990 in their dormitories at the University of Florida in Gainesville. He confessed and wrote out the details of his breaking into their quarters late at night, cutting them up, and having sex with their bodies. The Globe paid $20,000 for these writings and published them in a three-part series in September 1994. Five years later, the case still dragged on, and although he was sentenced to death in April 1994, the first legal brief in Rolling’s appeal was in December l995. Rolling again returned to court July 11, 2000 to fight his death sentence.

42. Andrew Philip Cunanan

At 8:43 am, July 15, 1997, Cunanan, twenty-seven, twice shot Gianni Versace, fifty, the famous clothing designer, in the head with a .40 caliber pistol at point-blank range in front of Versace’s Miami Beach mansion. Both men were homosexuals. Cunanan had been on the FBI’s Most Wanted List since May for the killing of two ex-lovers in Minnesota, a developer in Chicago and a cemetery caretaker in New Jersey. His mother had described him as being a high-priced gay prostitute of above-average intelligence, fluent in French, Spanish, Filipino, and Italian.

The nation’s newspapers and magazines published major articles about the murder, and the stories became “curiouser and curiouser,” according to Larry King in three full-hour TV programs devoted to the case. Motives for his murders mentioned were: jealousy, notoriety, con man, manipulator, thrill, bizarre, sadomasochism, AIDS, money, etc. Forensic psychologist Park Dietz, an FBI consultant, said, “Whatever point[the killers] are trying to make … is more important to them than the lives they take. They want to be told that they’re the best.”[693]

To me, Cunanan’s behavior fits the description of pique. Cunanan may have learned that he was infected with HIV in November 1996, and in fact, he was quoted as saying, “If I find out who did this to me, I’m going to get them!” On April 29, 1997, Jeffrey Trail, twenty-eight, was found murdered, and four days later, another former lover, David Madson, thirty-three, was found shot in the head with .40 caliber bullets.[694] Police who later searched Cunanan’s San Diego apartment found a trove of S & M gear, clamps, harnesses, and videos featuring sex with animals. The clothing designer Versace had featured an array of leather bondage dresses in his fall 1992 collection.

At 3:30 pm, July 23, 1997, the caretaker of boats parked along the Miami Beach waterfront about two and a half miles north of the mansion where Versace was gunned down and about a mile from a motel that Cunanan had lived in, heard a shot in the upstairs bedroom of a two-story houseboat belonging to the owner of a gay bath house. About 8:30 pm, police found Cunanan’s body on a bed and a .40 caliber handgun in the master bedroom of the $250,000 houseboat.

After Cunanan’s suicide, the search for the causation and meaning of his murders continued to escalate. Dr. I. Townsend Dann of the Florida Psychiatric Institute shed some light when he was quoted as saying, “When I see patients who are homosexual … the pathology is much more serious. This is not to say that just because someone is homosexual that he is crazy.” Even some of the members of the South Beach gay mecca were quoted as saying that excessive behaviors are all too common in the homosexual milieu. This appears to touch on the heart of the matter. Gays are high-testosterone people loaded with the hormones and neurotransmitters that exacerbate lustful emotions and aggression into the deadliest forms of pique. One of the difficulties of getting to understand the meaning of gay murders is that much of the key information is shielded by the purposeful actions of homosexuals, their friends, and organizations. More than a week after Cunanan’s body was found, authorities were researching whether to release information that he had the AIDS virus. A person’s AIDS status is confidential under state law, and they were trying to determine whether a dead person had any privacy rights … Versace’s body was cremated soon after his death, so his AIDS status was protected by destroying the evidence. On the March 9, 1999, NBC Today TV show, Maureen Orth said she had learned that Versace was HIV-positive from lead investigator Paul Scrimshaw. Maureen was a Washington journalist who had written a book claiming Versace had the virus.

Although Cunanan’s HIV status was not disclosed by the medical examiner’s office because of the Florida law that prohibits disclosure of test results in most cases unless a court order is obtained, the Miami Herald reported August 1 that law enforcement sources said the autopsy showed that he did not have the virus. The rumors that Cunanan’s slayings were motivated by “AIDS rage”—the compulsion to lash out and seek revenge against those who might have infected him—still persist however.[695]

Bill Hagmaier, chief of the FBI’s Serial Killer Unit, said Cunanan had begun as a “spree killer”—murdering his first victims in a rush, motivated by rage or vendetta. But he had evolved into a “classic serial killer.” After the first few times, killing gets easier. The killer begins to feel “absolute power over human beings.” Serial killers become intoxicated by their celebrity status and have to kill again to maintain the “euphoria of murder.” Like addicts, they eventually become strung out.[696]

43. Gerald (Jerry) Stano

Stano, forty-six, was executed on March 23, 1998, for killing a seventeen-year-old hitchhiker in December 1973 and dumping her body in a drainage ditch in Florida. Stano was arrested in Daytona Beach on April 1, 1980, after attacking a prostitute with a can opener. Before the day was out, Stano had confessed to the murder of Mary Carol Maher, twenty, a former swimming star, and he later confessed to a total of forty-one murders of women across three states.

44. Denis Roy Yancy

Yancy, twenty-seven, of Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, was arrested April 9, 1999, for the sexual torture and death of Marie B. Parker, twenty-two, who disappeared in 1997. A bloody, naked woman had been found on the road March 22nd wearing only a steel, padlocked collar, and she told the police she had been sexually tortured. The woman was able to implicate others in lust murders, and the investigation was extended across ten states. David Parker Ray, fifty-nine, and Cynthia Lea Henry, thirty-nine, were also charged with numerous sexual abuse crimes.

45. Charles Ng

Ng, thirty-eight, was convicted February 28, 1999, in Santa Ana, California, for killing six men, three women, and two baby boys in a 1984-to-1985 spree of bondage and sadism. Ng and co-conspirator Leonard Lake incriminated themselves with videotapes they made while tormenting the women they held as sex slaves before killing them in Northern California. The Orange County jury saw these scenes during the trial. Lake killed himself with a cyanide capsule after police arrested him. But Ng was tried in a emotional court case that lasted seven months and cost $12 million. The ABC television program 20/20 of January 21, 2000, showed some of the Ng torture tapes and interviewed five of the women jurors who were so disturbed by the horrors of the tapes they had to be treated for post-traumatic stress syndrome after the trial.

46. Louis Alfredo Garativo

Garativo, forty-two, confessed in October 1999, to killing 140 children during a five-year rampage in fifty-nine towns around Pereira, Columbia. He was apprehended in April 1999 for attempting to rape a twelve-year-old boy. He had lured his victims with a myriad of disguises—a cripple, a monk, a beggar, a priest, a charity worker. Garavito gained his victims’ confidence by offering them money and soft drinks.

47. Javed Iqbal

Iqbal, forty, of Lahore, Pakistan, confessed to killing 100 children in a letter to the police December 2, 1999. In the letter, Iqbal said he sexually assaulted the children before killing them. He said he was a chemical engineer and used chemicals to dispose of the bodies. The police found the remains of two bodies in a large, blue barrel in a home in Lahore and a lot of children’s clothing. Parents and relatives of fifty-seven missing children recognized clothing of missing boys and girls. Pictures and stories about the children dominated the front pages of Urdu-language newspapers December 4, 1999. Iqbal was arrested December 30th, as he wrote another confession in the Jang newspaper office in Lahore. He was sentenced on March 16, 2000, to die in the way he killed the 100 children—strangled, dismembered, and his remains dissolved in acid at a Lahore park in front of his victims’ parents. Pakistan is a signatory to the human rights convention, which does not permit this kind of execution, so the government planned to challenge the judge’s sentence. Under Pakistani law, family members are allowed to kill a convicted murderer in the same manner as their relative was killed, so the legal battle was likely to take some time.

48. Tommy Lynn Sells

Sells, thirty-five, was arrested in his trailer home near Del Rio, Texas, January 2, 2000, for slitting the throat of a thirteen-year-old girl New Year’s Eve 1999. He confessed to the rape and slaying of another thirteen-year-old girl in Kentucky and twelve murders in at least five other states. Sells told investigators that he had committed his first serious assault when he was thirteen and first killed someone when he was about seventeen. He offered no explanation for his crimes but said, “Sometimes it’s like a pressure cooker. He’s about to blow up …”[697] Sells was convicted of capital murder September 18, 2000, and faced life in prison or lethal injection when sentenced.

49. Larete Patrocinio Orpinelli

Orpinelli, forty-seven, was arrested January 14, 2000, in Rio Claro, Brazil, and confessed to killing at least ten children over a twenty-year period. His victims were both boys and girls, ranging in age from five to eleven. Orpinelli said he was driven to kill the children after he was unable to perform sexually. “I got angry when I was not able to have sex,” he told police. “So I hit them and strangled them.” Orpinelli had been arrested in 1996 for attacking two children and had been committed to psychiatric hospitals five times between 1967 and 1993.[698]

50. Herbert Baumeister

The A&E television channel broadcast the story of this bisexual man (Investigative Reports’ “The Secret Life of a Serial Killer”) on the evening of January 28, 2000. Baumeister had lived in a million-dollar mansion in the country outside Indianapolis with his wife and two children. In 1995, he would go into the city and pick up men in the gay bars, bring them to his mansion, practice sexual asphyxia, kill them, and bury them behind the house. Skeletons of seven men were found there in 1996, but Baumeister committed suicide before he could be arrested and tell the details of his crimes.

51. Rory Conde

Conde, thirty-four, was sentenced to die March 7, 2000, in Miami, Florida, for the last of his six strangled victims. Known as the “Tamiami Strangler,” he had strangled and raped at least five prostitutes. Conde’s lawyer had testified that Rory was raped from age six to twelve by an uncle, but the court rejected the psychological testimony on the explanation of his behavior.[699]

52. John Eric Armstrong

Armstrong, twenty-six, admitted to as many as thirty murders worldwide after being charged on April 18, 2000, with the murder of five Detroit-area prostitutes. Police said the 300-pound Armstrong told them he strangled young prostitutes after having sex with them, all to get back at a woman who scorned him in high school.[700]

53. Robert Lee Yates, Jr.

Yates, forty-seven, was arrested by sheriff’s deputies April 18, 2000, in Spokane, Washington, and charged with the murder of one of four prostitutes that matched the DNA profile of semen on her body with blood drawn from Yates after his arrest. The NBC TV Dateline program of June 21, 2002, told of his confession to eighteen other similar murders of prostitutes in Washington state, from 1990 to 1998, to avoid the death penalty. The inquiry into this innocuous-appearing father of five children has widened to include unsolved murders of twenty-six prostitutes near U.S. Army bases in Germany, where he was stationed earlier.[701]

54. Michael Swango

Swango, forty-five, pleaded guilty to killing three patients and was sentenced to life in prison September 6, 2000, in the Central Islip, New York court. Prosecutors read from Swango’s handwritten journal evidence that Swango killed for pleasure. “He liked doing it,” Assistant U.S. Attorney Gary Brown said outside the court. A best-selling book, Blind Eye: The Terrifying Story of a Doctor Who Got Away with Murder, suggested that Swango might have killed as many as thirty-five patients as he moved from hospital to hospital.

55. Nathaniel Bar-Jonah

Bar-Jonah was charged December 20, 2000, in a Great Falls, Montana courtroom with kidnapping a ten-year-old boy, raping, then butchering and eating him. Bar-Jonah’s history of violence against children dated back decades. In 1975, he had received a year of probation after pleading guilty to choking an eight-year-old boy in Webster, Massachusetts. Bar-Jonah served two years in prison for choking two boys near Charlton, Massachusetts. He also faces charges of sexually assaulting boys and dangling one from a ceiling with a rope.

56. Saeed Hanaei

Hanaei, thirty-nine, confessed July 27, 2001, to killing sixteen prostitutes after having sex with them in Mashhad, Iran. Strangely enough, many hard-line supporters of the regime publicly cheered the murder spree as a moral cleanup campaign. “Who is to be judged?” demanded the conservative newspaper Jomhuri Islami. “Those who look to eradicate the sickness[like the killer] or those who stand at the root of the corruption[like the victims].”

57. Dr. Harold Shipman

Shipman was convicted in February 2001 of killing fifteen elderly women and given fifteen life sentences in London, England. The fifteen murders placed Shipman among Britain’s worst serial killers. He was accused at his trial of killing because he “enjoyed exercising the ultimate power of controlling life and death.” Police said they had sufficient evidence to prosecute Shipman for an additional twenty-three murders. However, the Crown Prosecution Service decided against further trails, concluding that it would not be in the public interest. A judge in London announced July 19, 2002, after a year-long investigation, that Shipman had killed at least 177 women and forty-four men, ranging in age from forty-one to ninety-three.

58. Paul Frederick Runge

Runge, thirty-one, was charged June 15, 2001, with murdering six women and an eleven-year-old girl in a string of Chicago-area sex attacks between 1995 and 1997. Police said that Runge confessed to all seven killings. DNA linked him to two of the crimes, the deaths of the child and her mother. Police said his victims were bludgeoned to death or strangled. In some cases, their bodies were dismembered.

59. Lawrence Singleton

Singleton, seventy-four, died of cancer, December 28, 2001, at the North Florida Reception Center Prison in Starke, Florida. He had raped fifteen-year-old Mary Vincent and cut off her forearms with an axe in 1978. After serving eight years in a California prison, he had been paroled in 1987. Then in 1997, he stabbed to death thirty-one-year-old Roxanne Hayes and was sentenced to death.

60. Cary Staynor

Staynor, forty, known as the “Yosemite Killer,” pleaded guilty to killing a female nature guide in Yosemite National Park in California and three female tourists. After his arrest, Staynor told the FBI that killing the tourists made him feel “like I was in control for the first time in my life.” He said he sexually assaulted one of the women after killing the other two and that she had begged him to end her misery.

61. Cory Morris

Morris, twenty-four, admitted involvement in five deaths of prostitutes found dead near Phoenix’s red light district between July 2003 and April 2003.

62. Joel Tiller

Joel Tiller, fifty-one, pleaded guilty August 28, 2003, to the rape and murder of a Ft. Lauderdale woman and was sentenced to life plus forty years. Tiller had raped and murdered at least four other women dating back to 1968. He raped and killed a twenty-eight-year-old Atlanta woman when he was sixteen and said a voice in his head named “Judah” commanded him to do it. He served twenty-three years and after release had raped and murdered at least four more women.

X. Comments

America is the most violent nation in the developed world with some 1,250,000 violent crimes a year being recorded by the police; some 20,000 of these are murders. Dozens of reasons have been given for our shamefully high murder rate: “We have a fascination with guns and are heavily armed”; “We become angry because of our frustrations” (the frustration/aggression hypothesis); “We learn to act out this violence from our vivid entertainment and news media”; “We have too many mentally disturbed people out there who are walking time bombs”; etc., etc. No doubt there is a kernel of truth in each of these reasons given, but there has got to be something more. Something we are missing, or maybe something that we really know about but are not given sufficient recognition of for some reason.

I hope that now there is no doubt whatsoever left in the reader’s mind that the sex crimes include the most heinous of all of the crimes known to man. My personal experience at the scene of the Ted Bundy Chi Omega Sorority girls murders was my original motivation to write this book. Here, surely, are the worst of all of the crimes; yet paradoxically, we will not recognize the obvious sex-drive motives for most of them and apply the near-perfect castration treatment. Tragically, our pundits espouse other cures.

It should not go unnoticed that in the above list of the more notorious sex killers, about 45 percent of them were either homosexual or bisexual. This is much higher than the estimated 1 or 2 percent of homosexuals in the population at large, thus lending credence to my contention (above) that there is a stronger propensity for gays to fold over their perversion into the most serious of crimes.

Our understanding of lust murder is tragically flawed. Our criminal justice system makes horrendous mistakes over and over again in dealing with this wicked crime. As Professor Elliott Leyton said April 3, 1992, in his keynote address to the First International Conference on Serial Murder in Windsor, Canada: “The present tools are too crude for the task of investigating the darkest areas of the human heart.” None of our academic disciplines seem to have the answer. Professor Leyton named the “twelve pillars” of current wisdom and commented that each has its strengths and weaknesses, but we need to “demolish the Berlin Wall that presently separates these disciplines.”

As bad as the errors are that are revealed in understanding and prevention of these heinous crimes in the United States, that’s not the worst of it. The whole world looks to us in the United States. The failure to deal effectively with lust murder has worldwide implications. This worst of all human behavior must be stopped, but instead of its stopping, what we apparently have is an increase. Reams of data have shown the futility and great expense of policies depending on deterrence. We must recognize that the hormones of sex and aggression are the fuel that drive these engines of destruction. We must learn to recognize the lust murderer at an early age and cut off his testosterone-fueled acts through the simple and inexpensive castration treatment.

In spite of the excellence of most of the thousands of articles and dozens of television programs and books that have been produced about these sexual killers, no one has been able to really move a substantial portion of the public to feel the stark horror of the acts of these poisonous snakes in human form. On the contrary, teams of lawyers—mostly from the American Civil Liberties Union—spring to the defense of these fiends. Their lives are extended interminably; they are photographed, interviewed repeatedly, and quoted for years, educating, in this process, other fledgling sadists in the foibles of our fumbling criminal justice system. John Wayne Gacy, in spite of the irrefutable evidence of twenty-nine bodies buried under his house and garage and his confession of sexually sadistic torture and excruciatingly painful murder of thirty-three boys and young men, had a television set and a telephone in his cell and a 900 number playing his recorded protestations of innocence for pay. The teams of lawyers appealed for him on four major cycles over a fifteen-and-a-half-year period before he was finally executed by the humane and painless injection of drugs into his right forearm in the Stateville penitentiary of Joliet, Illinois, May 10, 1994. Charles Manson, sixty-five, lived on in prison in 2003, appearing on television programs regularly and receiving lots of fan mail and phone calls.

Several religious organizations have been preaching that there are many signs that we are becoming eviler and there are warnings, like the AIDS plague, that the Lord is punishing us for this. There is even a British Broadcasting Corporation documentary scheduled for airing on March 1, 2003, Newton: The Dark Heretic, that shows that the great Sir Isaac Newton has predicted from Bible studies that the world will end in 2060. I maintain that there is one treatment that will stop the sinning and disease that forebode such a catastrophe, if only people will listen and use the castration treatment as Christ advised in Matthew 19:12.

VOLUME II – The Solution

I. Background

What we have had in the United States prior to about 1965 was mostly no treatment at all to rehabilitate sex offenders. Only in a small percentage of cases of those arrested—less than 5 percent—was there sufficient money and talent available to give significant treatment. There was a great awakening in the decade of the 1980s to the pervasiveness of the sex crimes and their far-reaching consequences. In the early 1980s, the increased awareness centered on the crime of rape, and in the latter 1980s, it centered more on sexual offenses against children. Thousands of people have become involved on a full-time basis in rape and child abuse crisis centers. These two sex offenses have received considerable study, and billions of dollars have been expended in efforts to control them. From 1986 to 1990, the Safer Society Program’s listing of specialized sex offender program providers increased from 642 to 1,167. Most of these are in community-based outpatient settings (77 percent), and about 56 percent of them are provided by the private sector. Although some modest successes have been reported, the rape and child-sexual-abuse rates seem to have increased rather than decreased. There has been an increase in the media coverage of these crimes and an outcry for more and more severe sentences for offenders. More political action has been taken to affect a solution, but sensational news items still tell of rapists and murderers who have been imprisoned, treated, and released only to rape and kill more victims.

On Sunday, November 24, 1996, the Attorney General’s Office convened a national summit entitled “Promoting Public Safety Through the Effective Management of Sex Offenders in the Community,” in Washington, DC. Approximately 170 representatives from a variety of agencies and groups interested in the prevention and control of sexual assault met for two and a half days to begin to formulate a systematic approach to this problem. It was a highly diverse group, which included state legislators, judges, prison representatives, attorneys, police chiefs, and offender treatment specialists. Their top-level administrators represented a number of the federal agencies. In spite of this and similar indications of the concerns of the administrators, several signs appeared to indicate that nothing was really working to the required degree of effectiveness. Quinsey et al. (1998) evaluated a thirteen-year treatment program that used a variety of behavioral treatments and found that 38 percent of the graduates had recidivated within an average forty-four-month period. Quinsey’s results were similar to other evaluations of behavioral programs, yet they continued to be the main ones used. Seven states passed laws calling for the chemical or surgical castration of repeat sex offenders between 1996 and 1998, but by the end of 2000, less than a dozen men had been surgically castrated. Some of the inmates who had asked to be surgically castrated still had not had the surgery.[702] More than 1,000 had received the chemical castration, mostly with medroxyprogesterome acetate (Depo-Provera).

In order to affect a cure for the problem of deviant sexual behavior, we should first understand in great detail what causes it in each individual case, just as a doctor studies the patient with a medical ailment in order to ascertain the cause before he tries to prescribe medication. Many books have been written about human behavior. Rows and rows of books have been written, regular libraries assembled, categorized, and filed by the library science all dealing with the general subject of human behavior. Every one of these books has some insight into why we behave as we do. If a person were to start reading all of these books, he would soon discover that many of the authors placed their ideas of why we do certain things in direct opposition to the ideas of other authors, yet they would all have some aspect of the truth in them.

“How can this be?” you might ask. A good question! The answer is that people are so extremely variable that what is right for one person at a given time may be wrong for another person, or even the same person under different conditions. We are all different, as is shown by our fingerprints, our handwriting, and our very genes and DNA.

Another reason for various theories is given in the old German professor’s saying: “as mann Weiss, mann sieht,” meaning that “what a man knows, he sees.” If I had read all of the books by Sigmund Freud and his contemporary Havelock Ellis, plus all of those other books by people who have written about psychoanalytic theories of behavior, then I could develop a pretty sound idea of what caused a given individual to do a given sex crime. Once I had a clear idea of why he did it, I could prescribe a treatment that would have a chance of deterring him from doing it again. Similarly, if I had read all of the works of Carl Jung or Alfred Adler, together with the books and articles of all of their adherents, I would get another idea of the causation of the same crime and be able to prescribe a treatment that might work.

There are dozens of theories in the psychological realm. There are several genetic theories, there are many hormonal theories, there are sociological theories galore, and there are religious theories, mystical theories, and so on. An adherent of any of these various theories of behavior and personality will probably be able to describe a different theory of etiology. The array is truly bewildering. Each expert in each field will see the given sex crime and its treatment in a different light. The psychiatrist, the psychologist, the sociologist, the criminologist, the biologist, the medical doctor, the lawyer, the priest, and all of the other learned experts, together with others in each individual branch of their discipline, will see a given sex crime somewhat differently.

So, as we come to grips with the variations in the bewildering array of treatments, we would do well to keep Murphy’s tongue-in-cheek Laws of Experimentation in mind as we go forward. 1) If anything can go wrong, it will. 2) No matter what the result, there is always someone eager to misinterpret it. 3) No matter what occurs, there is always someone who believes it happened according to his pet theory. 4) Nature always sides with the hidden flaw. 5) When left to themselves, things always go from bad to worse. 6) In any collection of data, the figure that is most obviously correct—beyond all need of checking—is the mistake.

There are other problems of the sex crimes that tend to complicate their treatments. First, most sex crimes do not result in apprehending the criminal because these crimes are poorly reported by the public, and, when they are reported, the rate of catching the offender is low. Second, if the sex offender is apprehended, the rate of prosecution is relatively poor. If he is prosecuted, it is usually for a less serious version of the crime. The average expense of these types of crimes is generally higher than other types of crimes. Third, when there is a conviction for a sex crime, the sentence is often mollified in some manner, such as being placed on probation, parental supervision, or outpatient care. Fourth, where the sex offender is sentenced to incarceration, it is usually to some prison or mental hospital where there are no special programs for rehabilitating him. Fifth, sex offenders are a major custodial problem wherever they are incarcerated, regardless of whether there are special programs for sex offenders. And sixth, in those institutions where there are special programs, the programs are voluntary, and many who need the treatment do not volunteer. Some institutions screen the inmates so that only those “easy” cases, which are quite certain to be successful, are entered into the treatment. Often, the tough cases of fixated sex criminals who are not likely to be successfully rehabilitated are not offered the treatment. Some states have “indefinite” sentences for sex offenders to allow their being kept locked up until they are “cured.” Unfortunately, mistakes can be made in the judgment of the therapists, and sex criminals released as cured can recidivate to their crime. When this happens to be one of the more serious sex crimes, the resultant media coverage can be devastating. Such was the case of Willie Horton in Massachusetts, whose recidivism influenced Governor Dukakis’ losing the presidential election in 1988.

The following information is offered by way of substantiating some of these machine-gun-like accusations, first with regard to sex crimes being poorly reported. A YWCA study in 1974, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, reported that the number of rapes was four to nine times the number of rapes that were reported to the police. Only a third of the cases that were reported resulted in an arrest, only 3 percent of those arrested were prosecuted, and only 16 percent of the prosecuted cases resulted in a conviction (Center for Women’s Policy Studies Report, 1981). The LEAA’s (Law Enforcement Assistance Administration of the U.S. Department of Justice) monthly newsletter for August 1978 reported that 100,000 children are sexually molested in the United States each year, and yet only 16.5 percent of boys and 43 percent of sexually abused girls reported it.

Shame, fear, disbelief by parents, and lack of willingness to discuss it are among the principle reasons given for not reporting. The National Crime Survey for the years 1973 through 1979 reported that 39.9 percent of rape victims reported the crime to the police. Reasons for not reporting were fear, shame, and futility. The Florida Annual Crime Report announced that the police cleared 52.5 percent of forcible rapes on their records in 1978. The principle reason for the low arrest record was that victims are often slow to report to police. In 1994, there were 12,586,227 offenses known to the police. Only 21.4 percent were cleared by arrest.[703]

Another reason that sex crime is often unreported, unprosecuted, unpunished, or untreated is an observable phenomenon that I call “polarization.” By this, I mean the natural concentration of groups of individuals at opposite poles on interests, mores, lifestyles, and principles. Artists and other Bohemians have their art colonies, Africans have their “quarters,” Chinese have the Chinatowns, heroin addicts have their “shooting galleries,” religious cults have their Jonesboros, and sex criminals have their modern equivalents of Sodom and Gomorrah. A sex crime that will be viewed with disgust and diligent prosecution in Plymouth, Massachusetts, or Salt Lake City, Utah, will scarcely cause an eyebrow to be lifted in parts of San Francisco, California; New Orleans, Louisiana; Key West, Florida; or New York City. The large homosexual population in San Francisco, for example, is not so much homegrown as imported. Gays are driven out of areas where a common Saturday night pastime of the rednecks is “beating up on queers.” Conversely, the gays will be attracted and even solicited to go to places that have gay bars and baths. Gay newspapers (over 200 known) and clubs spread the news of “safe” locations, and the gays drift to these locations. The police in these safe havens can’t arrest half of the sex deviant population; indeed, even if they did, they might find themselves on the carpet explaining to the city fathers, who themselves are sex perverts. I believe that the polarization phenomenon causes sex crimes to be poorly reported in many areas and probably causes this type of crime to proliferate.

Another phenomenon similar to polarization is mobility. Many serious sex crimes go unpunished because the repeat offender is able to keep moving from city to city and state to state. Albert Fish, Theodore Bundy, and Henry Lee Lucas were able to avoid capture for extended periods of time in this manner. The “Green River” murderer of an estimated forty-nine women on the West Coast was still at large after more than ten years of intensive police investigations costing over $16 million.

Another factor that sometimes makes sex crimes poorly reported and poorly prosecuted is the natural embarrassment and reticence associated with these matters. Sometimes the attitude of the police also comes into play here. They tend to be less than diligent when some kind of a sex pervert is robbed, beat up, or killed. They will not pursue their assailant with the same zeal that they might if the victim were an upstanding citizen.

Secondly, with regard to the prosecution of those sex offenders who are apprehended, the LEAA newsletter of May 1978 reported that half of felony cases in thirteen jurisdictions were dismissed because of poor evidence or problems with witnesses, 62 percent did not go to trial because of heavy workload problems, and less than 10 percent of arrests resulted in trials. Of those cases that involved sexual assault and were tried in court, only 22 percent resulted in a conviction of the same charge. The rate for other crimes in the same jurisdictions at the time was between 30 and 35 percent. In another study, 52 percent of decisions to decline prosecution and 40 percent of decisions to dismiss cases were due to problems with witnesses, such as alcoholics who might not show up to testify or people whose close relationship with the defendant made them ineligible to testify.

Many convictions for aberrant sexual behavior are disguised under such broad charges as “murder,” “assault,” “kidnapping,” “disorderly conduct,” “public nuisance,” or even “vagrancy.” This leads to erroneous conclusions by those who study the statistical data on convictions. There is a strong relationship between sex offenses and alcoholism. Eighty-five percent of convicted sex offenders in the Hartley and Parker study of 1980 also had alcohol and/or drug abuse problems. Another study reported that about a third of the inmates had drunk heavily—more than 4 ounces of alcohol—just before committing their crime, and about 25 percent had drunk heavily almost every day for an entire year before their incarceration.[704] It is not so surprising, therefore, that some sex crimes are concealed under the behavior associated with drunkenness.

Americans spend vast sums of money each year on their health and criminal justice protection. In 1985, healthcare spending consumed $425 billion, the highest level in history up to that time, equivalent to 10.7 percent of the value of all goods and services produced in the nation—$371.4 billion was spent for personal healthcare and $53.6 billion for public healthcare. Approximately $40 billion was spent in 1987 on the criminal justice system, escalating to $74 billion in fiscal year 1990 and an estimated $200 billion by 2005, with an additional $20 billion for private security protection systems. One news report estimated $450 billion for the criminal justice system and $300 billion for defense in 2001. According to the Nisle Bulletin for January 1980, the average larceny arrest cost about $747, the average robbery arrest cost $1,234, and the average crime-against-the-person arrest cost $15,973. The average guilty plea cost about $312, and a jury trial cost $2,125. By the end of 1987, the state of Florida had spent $6 million, mostly in legal fees and expenses, on only one serious sex offender: Theodore Bundy. The McMartin preschool molestation case trial, which lasted nearly three years and cost $13 million, was the longest, costliest criminal trial in U.S. history. The jury deadlocked on eight counts, and these were again tried over again in 1990.

Thirdly, only about one-fourth of offenders under correctional supervision are actually incarcerated. The remainder are in the community on probation or parole.[705] Studies of the PROMIS system of records of crime in Washington, DC, showed that chances of a person serving prison time after being arrested for a felony was one in ten, and the odds of being sentenced for more than two years was only one in twenty-five. At one time, before the Furman v. Georgia court decision (408 U.S. 238, 1972), the death penalty was frequently inflicted for the more heinous sex crimes. Today, almost no death penalties are carried out for these crimes, and prisoners languish in prisons for many years at great expense to the public. Some of them have been paroled to once again commit their despicable crimes.

Fourthly, a 1964 survey found that about 10 percent of the 122 hospitals receiving sex offenders provided some special treatment for them, 71 percent of them treated the sex offenders with their psychotic patients, and 19 percent of the hospitals treated the sex offenders as mentally disturbed patients. Typically, most sex offenders were handled like other inmates in our hospitals and prisons, and they were released on parole under the same conditions as other inmates. More treatment programs specially designed for sex offenders have been inaugurated in recent years. By 1985, more than half of all mental hospitals and prisons provided some kind of treatment. Mental hospitals and prisons have different goals. The hospital seeks to restore mental health, while the prison usually seeks to reduce recidivism.

Recidivism remains a serious problem, however. According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics’ 1979 survey, almost 95 percent of persons entering state prisons were repeat offenders. Although the numbers of special programs for sex offenders mushroomed across the nation in response to a growing concern in the public consciousness, there were still three states—Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi—at the middle of 1990 with no juvenile sex offender services, and three states with only one program (New Mexico, Oklahoma, and West Virginia, also Washington, DC). In 1990, the situation was almost as bad for adult sex offenders, with no services in one state, Mississippi, and only one service in four states, Alabama, Delaware, Rhode Island, and West Virginia.[706] Another factor bearing on the treatment of sex offenders was the attitudes of correctional officers investigated by Weekes, Pelletier, and Beaudette (1995). Weekes, Pelletier, and Beaudette found that sex offenders were viewed as more dangerous, harmful, violent, unpredictable, aggressive, immoral, and irrational than were nonsexual offenders; they were also viewed as mentally ill, unchangeable, and bad. Offenders who committed sexual crimes against children were rated as significantly more immoral than those who offended against women. Only 20.7 percent of the officers felt that sex offenders were treatable.[707]

It may be well to pause at this point and reflect on just what is—legitimately—the best objective of treatment. Is it to punish? To make the good people feel better? To satisfy an indignant group in our society? Is it to deter other people from committing crimes? Is it to be the most cost effective? Various treatments for criminals use different measures of offender improvement. Some use general adjustment to the community at large. Some use personality or attitude changes, adjustment to prison life, educational achievement, vocational success, or recidivism. All of the measures of effectiveness of a treatment program have, to be sure, some virtue. I believe that the overall best measure of effectiveness is the recidivism rate (the rate at which offenders return to crime). Even this measure is often flawed by methodological inaccuracies and misunderstandings, however. For example, where in the criminal justice system do you measure recidivism? Is it at the time of the recommitting of the same or a different crime? This is usually not the case because, in the majority of cases, there is no record since there may be no complaint, confession, or apprehending. There is no record of a relapse into crime until there is a complaint and/or an arrest. Even at this point, many researchers will not accept the data that is recorded because it is not proven that the individual is guilty—in America, a man is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, the record is flawed for research purposes because it is incomplete and lacks descriptive particulars. So it is, then, that we find most of the recidivism data is taken at this later point in the criminal justice process, after the individual has been found guilty or confessed and is incarcerated or is on probation or parole. Voluminous records are available on him at this point, and the individual himself is readily available for an interview by the researcher.

The criminal justice system is far from perfect or even uniform in its various jurisdictions, and a defendant may drop out of the system at any point. Particularly in the case of the sex crimes, we often find inadequate prosecution because the victim, family, or witnesses do not want to suffer the moral taint and public exposure that is part and parcel of the trial. Because of inadequate testimony, the defendant is found not guilty, and all records are expunged. Sometimes, even when found guilty, the judge will release the defendant to medical treatment, psychiatric treatment, outpatient care, parole, family supervision, or social worker supervision. Still, the rate of recidivism to incarceration is used and represents the best and most frequently used measure of the treatment’s effectiveness that we have. In 1989, the average conviction rate was 83 percent of those brought to trial for serious felonies in Florida. The success rate for the individual state attorney’s districts varied from a high of 92 percent to a low of only 55 percent.[708]

Another of the compartments of the leviathan of the criminal justice system that leaks is the pretrial area. In 1992, 48 percent of the rapists who were apprehended were released, on bond or otherwise, before disposition. About a third of those released were rearrested on a new charge, failed to appear in court as scheduled, or committed some other violation that resulted in the revocation of their pretrial release. Eight percent of these absconded from the criminal justice system entirely.[709]

Fifth, sexual aggression is very prevalent in the milieu of the correctional institutions and correctional literature. Books about notorious criminals add to this picture. Daniel Lockwood’s 1980 Prison Sexual Violence and Vincent Bugliosi’s Helter Skelter, a best seller about Charles Manson, for example, tells how Manson held a razor to another prisoner’s throat while he sodomized him. Within the next eight months, Manson sexually attacked three other prisoners. He later committed the infamous and atrocious Sharon Tate murders.

For a large percentage of the prison population, being deprived of their normal sexual release with women is the biggest single deprivation and punishment that prison imposes. Many strategies have been employed by prison authorities to mollify the aggressive behavior resulting from this deprivation. Some jurisdictions have permitted conjugal visitations as a reward for good behavior; others have imposed extra, heavy physical labor to meet the threats of violent behavior among prisoners. A relatively new problem is the epidemic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in New York, New Jersey, California, and Alabama prisons resulting from homosexual rape and consenting homosexual activity. AIDS is presently incurable and deadly, usually resulting in death within four years once developed. Another problem is the high suicide rate of young sex offenders in prison due to their guilt and fear complexes resulting from hazing and rape by other inmates. Constant surveillance must be kept up in order to avert suicides.

Sixthly, the prestigious Panel on Research on Rehabilitative Techniques reported in their summary in 1979 to the National Research Council and National Academy of Sciences that after hundreds of studies, there was no known program or method of rehabilitation that could be guaranteed to reduce the criminal activity of released offenders.

Cohen, Garafalo, et al. reported in 1979 that 36 percent of dangerous sex offenders incarcerated under Massachusetts’ sexual psychopath laws were found responsive to psychotherapy. After six years, 36 percent of them were still confined. It is largely because of the loud hue and cry of the public, which resulted when sex offenders repeated their horrid crimes within a short time of being released from confinement, that several states enacted laws that provide for incarceration for indefinite periods until cured.

In the United States in the l990s, the incidence of crime was so frequent that plea-bargaining became a necessary evil. In spite of the addition of more judges and prosecutors than there had ever been before, they simply could not keep up with the demands to try all of them in open court without use of the plea bargain.

Plea-bargaining is the process that allows a criminal defendant to plead guilty to a lesser crime than the one charged, and the prosecution and the defense come to an agreement to resolve the case. More than 95 percent of cases are settled without a trial. They are decided by negotiated pleas.[710] The criminal justice system would be paralyzed without plea-bargaining. The U.S. Constitution provides that “in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy trial,” but in truth, criminal trials have largely disappeared in the United States and have been replaced by copping a plea. Some view plea-bargaining as a procedure devoid of values in the disposition of criminal cases because it does not meet any of the traditional objectives of the criminal law. It does not serve the goals of retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, or rehabilitation.[711]

Doesn’t it seem that we are doing something terribly wrong in America? On average, we are more prosperous than ever before. We have more and better schools and more and better information-sharing systems. We know more, we are healthier, we live longer, and we are better fed, housed, and clothed. We are freer to travel, to come and go, yet crime increases, mental health problems proliferate, and new and deadly diseases (e.g., AIDS) appear and take their deadly toll along with alcohol, drug addiction, and suicide in ever-increasing numbers. Quo Vadis? Where are we headed? Crimes of violence are increasing. At the end of 1988, we were at an all-time murder record in several of our major cities, and the bloody pace showed no sign of abating. In New York, homicides were up 18 percent, in Houston 44 percent, and in Washington, DC, 65 percent. Whither goest thou America? We had better give ear to some new proposals. The following will offer a new approach to the treatment of some of our most serious crimes precisely where it is most desperately needed.

The Journal of Interpersonal Violence for March and April 1999 published a series of articles on sex offender treatments in Europe. These stemmed from two major conferences on this subject, the first of which was held in Utrecht in September 1995. The second meeting was held in Prague in October 1996. A major study of crime in many of these countries was published in Dutch, and an English version is available (two volumes).

One recent study across several countries showed the most important predictor of high crime rates was the percentage of the population who are young males, ages sixteen to twenty-nine.[712] This is the time in most men’s lives when their testosterone peaks, making them more lustful and aggressive and prone to commit crimes.

All of the countries are greatly concerned about the sex offender problem. Most of them rely most heavily on their criminal justice systems and punishment as their primary treatment, but there is considerable interest and use of all sorts of other treatments, including castration. Czechoslovakia appears to be the main user of castration with eighty-four of the worst types of sex offenders castrated in the past ten years with zero recidivism. Next in line for number of castrations is Germany. The political upheavals in several of the countries (reunification of Germany … splitting of the Soviet Union … Balkan wars) were major factors affecting sex offender treatment. Expense was also a factor, reducing psychological treatments and CPA use also.

II. Punishment

Punishment will be considered as a treatment, and it will be considered first among our panoply of treatments because it has been used since the dawn of recorded history and because its objective of preventing recidivism is really the same as most of the other treatments. Also, we need to examine it to some extent in order to round out our comparisons, and, of course, punishment is universally the principal modality employed with sex criminals. In 1994, the number of Americans doing time behind bars or under “correctional supervision” was 5.1 million.[713] In 1995, it was 6.3 million, 2.8 percent of American adults.[714] In 1996, the total was 5.5 million.[715] In 1997, 2.8 million arrests of persons under age eighteen were made.

Where are we with punishment? We are on the same endless merry-go-round that we have been on for thousands of years—cycle after continuous cycle. The endless arguments go on about whether punishment deters people in general from committing crimes, or whether it works to deter special people who are weighing the pros and cons of committing a crime, or whether it deters one who has received punishment from committing a crime again, and so on. One thing we can say for punishment is that it makes the punisher feel good. Revenge is sweet. Exacting retribution gives the “good” people, and the population as a whole, a lift—a feeling of moral rightness, of being justified.

Over thousands of years, the chief priests have enacted penances for sins and codified them into the canonical laws. National governing bodies have developed their civil and criminal laws to do the same—“Lex talionis,” an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth—much like the rest of the animal kingdom.

The earliest written records of punitive laws and actions come down to us from the cuneiform impressions in clay tablets in the Sumerian civilization dating back to about 4500 BC. The oldest legal code surviving intact is from Hammurabi, king of Babylon from 2076 to 2025 BC.

Does punishment really do anything to prevent crime or recidivism? The answer is no, or at best, it is very iffy: if it is sure that the punishment will inevitably result from any given crime, if it is severe (the pain of the punishment must outweigh any pleasure that the crime might give the criminal), and if it is swift (right away, immediately after the crime, not at some uncertain future time). It was said that in the days of Genghis Khan (AD 1162–1227), punishment was so sure, severe, and swift that a virgin could walk at midnight with a bag of gold down any street in the city without fear. We do not have that kind of justice today, and we have not had it for many centuries, except very briefly in limited areas, in spite of major efforts with all the ingenuity that civilization could muster. The more serious of the sex crimes seem to have an even worse record than the other categories of crime with their characteristic resulting swiftness, surety, and severity of punishment. In 1992, the average number of days between arrest and conviction for felony cases disposed by state courts was 173—almost a six-month delay.[716]

B. F. Skinner proved with scientific experiments that organisms respond to both reward and punishment, but not equally. He found that behavior is very strongly determined by various schedules of rewards, but moderate punishment does not permanently eliminate the operant behavior it follows. Punishment only temporarily decreases the frequency of the behavior. Another complication to the consideration of punishment as it relates to the sex crimes is that what might be considered punishment to the ordinary person might be a pleasure to the sex criminal. The homosexual can find a happy hunting ground in prison. The sadomasochist may derive pleasure from his punitive sufferings of prison. Albert Fish eagerly helped the executioner affix the electrodes to his body, anticipating “the one big thrill that I haven’t tried yet,” as he said before they threw the switch that ended his long, grisly career.

James K. Stewart, director of the National Institute of Justice in 1985, reported, “There is perhaps no judicial function more profound in impact than the power to punish. Thus, it is not surprising that issues of sentencing and punishment are subjects of intense public debate.” Arguments about these complex issues reflect the varying purposes assigned to punishment by our society and our criminal justice system. One view emphasizes protecting society through incapacitation of offenders, preventing them from committing additional crimes while they are incarcerated. Another view focuses on deterrence—that the severity of the sanction not only curbs future crimes by the sentenced offender, but also acts as a threat to dissuade other would-be criminals from breaking the law. Punishment as retribution is still another viewpoint in which the gravity of the crime primarily determines how severe the sentence should be, rather than considerations of incapacitation or deterrence.

Paternoster and Piquero reviewed several studies of deterrence and concluded that formal sanctions may lead to further offending.[717] Punishment frequently backfires and produces defiance rather than deterrence. Defiance is the result of unacknowledged shame for the one punished. When punishment is imposed without procedural fairness, their data showed that it could backfire. In the absence of substantive fairness, as with disadvantaged youths and African youths in some jurisdictions, defiance frequently overcomes deterrence. Spence generalized even further: “Punishment cures nothing. Punishment does not free us of crime. It only creates it … crime will end when punishment ends.”[718]

In spite of the ineffectiveness of most of the punishments, they have been made more threatening with new laws. In 1996, prominent new laws to punish and control sex offenders were passed. Megan’s Law legislation was passed in most states, which required that local residents be warned of the presence of a sex offender. In 1997 and 1998, civil commitment of violent sex predators became law in nine states, and at least nineteen state legislatures had such measures pending as of March 31, 1998. Treatment and other costs of keeping sex offenders under civil commitment cost the state of Washington $5.5 million for sixty-four offenders ($859,375 per prisoner).

On a moral level, we are taught by the Bible, “Judge not, that ye be not judged,” “Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord” (Deuteronomy 32:35), “To err is human, it is divine to forgive,” and the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as ye would have them do unto you.” These and many others, like pieces of the ancient wisdom, as well as modern scientific studies affirm that revenge, vindictiveness, and vengeance do not work in rehabilitative strategies. Many people daily pray to be forgiven for their sins, yet they are constantly demanding the extraction of evermore severe sanctions from those unfortunate enough to be caught, but these sanctions simply do not work. As Jeremy Bentham deduced in 1789, since all punishment involves pain and is therefore evil, it ought to be admitted only “so far as it promises to exclude some greater evil.”

On a philosophical level, we find wide differences of opinion that affect how punishment is applied. Disparities exist between urban, suburban, and rural jurisdictions, which can be attributed to the local legalities and religious norms and practices. Even within a single jurisdiction, the individual philosophies and views of judges and prosecutors result in widely varying disparities of sentencing for similar offenses. Minorities have long been discriminated against in this manner. The criminal justice system’s operations are further varied by the deliberations and discretionary judgments of parole and probation boards, which further modify judicial sentences in many cases. Sentence lengths vary widely from state to state, as well as within the state, for similar crimes and similar circumstances. In Florida in 1983, a person sentenced by a judge to serve life in prison actually served an average of seven to twelve years. There have been many studies of sentence length effects, but the results are so variable that it is impossible to relate sentence length to recidivism rates.

The recidivism rate remains around 63 percent for most crimes. One deduction that could be made from this surprising fact is that if the public can accept this high risk of the criminal repeating his crime after release from prison, then money could be saved in the prison system by early release or short sentences.

Efforts have been made to eliminate the injustice of sentence length disparity by standardizing sentences … a kind of computer justice that would eliminate philosophical differences between judges. Florida enforced such sentencing guidelines between 1983 and 1986 to correct the obvious discrepancies. In January 1987, standard sentences were scorned by judges, mocked by politicians, maligned by prosecutors, and considered by the Florida Supreme Court for major overhaul, elimination, or changing to a list of non-binding suggestions to judges. The guidelines were originally designed to create “truth in sentencing” with offenders serving close to their full terms, but they failed to do this because of generous “gain time” provisions and prison-crowding problems. Judges stayed within the guidelines 81 percent of the time, levied lighter sentences 12 percent of the time, and demanded heavier penalties 7 percent of the time.

The time actually served also varies widely. A report released in January 1999 by the Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics showed that on an average, violent offenders freed in 1997 had served 54 percent of their sentences. In 1993, they had served 47 percent. About 18 percent of those released in 1997 served full sentences compared to 13 percent in 1990. More than 90 percent of prison admissions for violent offenses were in states requiring that at least 50 percent of the sentence be served. About 70 percent of prison admissions were in states requiring violent offenders to serve at least 85 percent of their sentences. Federal legislation passed in 1994 authorized the government to reward states with grants that set the 85 percent minimum. Twenty-seven states followed the U.S. government’s guidelines in this respect.

In the late 1990s, it became apparent that the deprivation-of-liberty model of punishment was once again giving way to the “penal harm” movement. Penal harm advocates contend that the incarceration experience should inflict pain and make conditions of confinement as harsh as possible. Vaughn and Smith list several references demonstrating the various aspects of the penal harm movement, including the diminishing of the commitment to treatment, healing, and rehabilitation by prison medical personnel.[719] This has been considered unheard of by the general public and goes directly against the normal commitment of doctors to the Hippocratic oath “to at least do no harm …” Whipping of prisoners was formally abolished in 1972 in the USA, but torture of prisoners was still epidemic worldwide in the 1980s, with more than half of the countries using the practice.[720] Remote-controlled, electroshock stun belts that inflict shocks of 50,000 volts for eight seconds are commonly used on defendants in some American courtrooms.[721] Shariah, the Islamic legal code derived from the Koran, has called for flogging and the amputation of limbs for 1,400 years. Shariah law allows flogging for certain sexual offenses and drinking of alcohol.

Robert Martinson’s monumental study[722] of 231 studies of attempts at rehabilitation of criminals between 1945 and 1967 was the first really comprehensive review of the voluminous research literature on treatments designed to rehabilitate prisoners and prevent recidivism. He concluded that, with few exceptions, these attempts had no appreciable effect on recidivism. Further continuing studies of work on rehabilitation after Martinson’s have led to similar conclusions. In spite of the fact that Martinson identified castration as one of the very few treatments that worked more reliably than any others, he downgraded it with the hope that policy implications of its success would be found “distinctly limited.” He apparently saw castration as a treatment to be imposed forcibly as punishment on convicted offenders, thus becoming so draconian that the moral conscience of a democratic society would be offended.

Dr. James L. Mathis points out in his 1972 book Clear Thinking About Sexual Deviations: A New Look at an Old Problem (p. 210) that sexual deviants are undesirable patients for psychiatrists, and they have generally avoided sexual deviants in the past. He further points out that the traditional methods of psychiatric treatment have not been good answers to their severe personality disorders. Responses come painfully and slowly, if at all … Nevertheless, in spite of the demonstrated futility of most of these other treatments, I consider it essential we enumerate as many of these treatments as we can find descriptions for in order to give as complete a picture as possible of all the options.

III. Capital Punishment

I feel we must consider the death penalty in some detail under the heading of punishment, because it is considered the ultimate of all punishments. It is the only one that compares in effectiveness with castration. It is the one punishment that is nearly 100 percent certain of preventing any given criminal from repeating his crime. Even here, however, there is not perfect unanimity of opinion among the experts. Some may consider the ultimate punishment to be burning in hell for eternity. Others may consider the ultimate punishment to be breaking on the rack, dismemberment, being pulled apart by horses, or some other gruesome process. It can be said, however, that some progress has been made over the centuries in the search for the most expeditious and painless methods of execution such as by electric chair or narcotic overdose. The other “ultimate” punishments are seldom heard of today.

The Old Testament of the Christian Bible calls for the use of the death penalty in Genesis 9:6; Exodus 21:12–25, 22:18 and 20, 31:14 and 15, and 35:2; Leviticus 20:2, 9–16, and 27, and 24:11–14; Numbers 1:51, 3:10, 15:32–36, 18:7, and 35:15–33; Deuteronomy 13:6–11, 17:12, 1:8–13, and 21:18–21; and Proverbs 20:20. The death penalty is called for mostly for the crime of murder, but also for worshipping the devil or other gods, profaning the Sabbath, dishonoring parents, human sacrifice, adultery, incest, homosexuality, and bestiality. Even though murder was the most frequently mentioned death penalty crime, only four of the twenty-four murderers identified in the Old Testament were actually executed. The New Testament generally accepts the legitimacy of the Old Testament teachings, but it does not contain any overt endorsement of the death penalty.

Death by stoning, burning, decapitation, and strangulation were mentioned in the first five books of the Bible written between 1513 and 1473 BC. Burning, hanging, drowning, being buried alive, and decapitation were prescribed by the Roman Twelve Tables written about 451 BC, and the Greek Athenian law of 400 BC added being thrown off a cliff and binding to a stake to die slowly in public (an early form of crucifixion) to the other forms of capital punishment already mentioned. Joan of Arc was burned as a heretic in 1431. Slow death and instant death were in use at that time. Capital punishment increased in Tudor, England, from 1450 to 1555, but declined again by 1650. The first execution in New York State took place at The Commons in City Hall Park in 1700. The long-drop-gallows method of executing prisoners was adopted in 1783. The guillotine was first used in France in 1793. The first execution by electrocution occurred August 6, 1890, at Aubon Prison in New York. Gee Jon was the first to be executed in a gas chamber in 1924 in Nevada. Twenty thousand people at Owensboro, Kentucky, witnessed the last American public execution in 1935. Public executions ended in France in 1939. On January 17, 1977, Gary Gilmore became the first man executed by firing squad in Utah since capital punishment was reinstated, and Velma Barfield was the first woman executed after the reinstatement in 1984. She died by lethal injection in North Carolina. In 1989, New Zealand became the first country in the world to ratify the United Nations Protocol on Civil and Political Rights Abolition of the Death Penalty Act.

The quest for the most “humane” way to execute prisoners went on in 1998. The Lancet quoted a prisoner on death row in Pennsylvania as saying, “From hanging to the electric chair to lethal injection; how much prettier can you make it? Yet the prettier it becomes, the uglier it is.” Since its introduction into law in 1977 and its first use in 1982, questions have been raised about the efficacy and humanity of lethal injection and the issue of physician involvement in such executions. The American Medical Association has clearly stated that it is not the role of doctors to take part in executions, but doctors have continued in spite of these guidelines to administer sedatives and perform physical exams at executions. A report by Amnesty International, published in January 1998, surveyed the use of lethal injection and debunked some of its myths. The report cited executions lasting as long as seventy minutes and cases in which the prisoner showed signs of extreme distress during the administration of the lethal drug.[723] As of January 1, 2000, thirty-four states were using lethal injection to execute their death-row inmates. In some states, the entire procedure takes a couple of minutes. In others, it can last thirty minutes. Generally, an inmate is pronounced dead within five to ten minutes after receiving the injections. The procedure usually begins with an injection of sodium thiopental, an anesthetic to render the inmate unconscious. This is followed by injections of pancuronium bromide, a muscle relaxant that paralyzes the muscles, and then potassium chloride, which stops the heart. A common problem is finding viable veins, especially in inmates who have been drug users since frequent injections cause scarring of the blood vessels.

At one time in eighteenth-century England, some 200 crimes were punishable by death. The incidence of these crimes was not noticeably reduced by even this dire punishment, however. In the United States, crimes punishable by death have included first-degree murder, treason, espionage, rape, kidnapping, robbery, arson, train wrecking, bombing, piracy, using a machine gun in the commission of a felony, large-scale drug trafficking, mutiny, looting, and desertion in the face of the enemy. In Communist countries, other crimes punishable by death include counter-revolutionary activity, plunder of public property, organizing armed bands, destruction of important economic installations, sabotage, failure to work, violence against an official, destroying a building, endangering rail or ship travel, and failure to observe construction regulations by an official.

The sentencing of a Louisiana man August 28, 2003, for raping an eight-year-old girl reopened the debate about whether crimes that do not involve killings may be punished by death. Between 1930 and 1964, 455 men were executed for rape in America, almost all in the South. Four hundred five of them were black, and almost all were charged with raping white women.

Beginning about the time of Caesar Beccaria’s famous An Essay on Crimes and Punishment (1764), governments began an abrupt about-face in their policies of imposing the death penalty for relatively frivolous crimes, and many countries drastically reduced the number of executions. Finally, many of the countries abolished the death penalty entirely: In Luxembourg, the last execution was performed in 1822, in Venezuela it was in 1863, Portugal in 1867, Denmark in 1892, in the Netherlands the last execution (except for a few wartime instances) was in 1860, in Belgium the last peacetime execution was in 1863, in Sweden in 1910, in Great Britain in 1965, and in France in 1980. Also, Spain, Canada, Mexico, Switzerland, and Brazil have abolished capital punishment. By 1998, more than 100 countries had stopped using capital punishment. Italy and Germany not only allow no executions, but they will not permit an exchange of prisoners with other countries if they believe they will be executed as a result. It still continues in the United States, China, Russia, India, and South Africa. In 1997, China executed about 3,000 people. In 1996, there were 4,367 executions in China.[724]

For a long time, there has been considerable debate about the execution of mentally retarded prisoners, and most of the American states do not execute men with less than a 70 IQ (intelligence quotient). As of late 2001, only twenty states continued to execute this type of person. The United States is nearly alone in the world in this practice. Only the United States, Japan, and Kyrgystan have carried out such executions in recent years. The European Union opposes capital punishment in all circumstances and supports its universal abolition. Execution of the mentally retarded who are least able to defend themselves and may be the most likely victims of judicial error, offends against standards of decency throughout the world. On June 20, 2002, the Supreme Court voted six to three that executing mentally retarded murderers is unconstitutionally cruel.

In the United States, we had a ten-year moratorium (between 1967 and 1977) on the death penalty as a result of the Supreme Court’s five-to-four decision in the famous rape case Furman v. Georgia. Thirty-three of the states reformulated their death penalty laws around the Supreme Court guidelines and resumed the practice of putting certain types of criminals to death. From 1977 to May 2001, 711 were executed. Of those, 56 percent were Caucasian, 35 percent African, and 7.1 percent Hispanic. On December 18, 1998, the 500th inmate was executed since capital punishment resumed.[725] In 1991, 2,482 death-row inmates awaited a similar fate. California allowed the death penalty, but had no executions for twenty-five years, until 1992. As of June 2002, twelve states still had no death penalty. New Hampshire lawmakers were the first to vote to repeal their death penalty law May 18, 2000. The year for the highest number of executions was 1957 with sixty-five executions, and in October 1997 there were fifty-seven. The youngest executed since 1976 was Scott Carpenter, twenty-two, of Oklahoma; the oldest was Anthony Antone, sixty-six, in Florida.

The Furman v. Georgia case was over African men raping a Caucasian woman and being sentenced to death, and the appeal showed that a disproportional number of African men had been executed for this crime. Africans were about 12.5 percent of the population, but 35 percent of those executed. It was headline news when a Caucasian man was executed June 6, 1997 for the 1981 murder of a nineteen-year-old African man in Mobile, Alabama. This was the first execution of a Caucasian-on-African murderer in Alabama in eighty-three years. The Alabama Department of Corrections had 149 men and four women on death row at the time —eighty-nine Caucasians, sixty-three Africans, and one Asian.

Although at least 65 percent of Americans favor the death penalty (82 percent did in a June 2001 survey by Parade magazine), there is a vocal opposition. The main opposing organization consists of more than 50,000 people who have taken the Declaration of Life pledge. Former New York Governor Mario Cuomo and U.S. Representative Carolyn McCarthy are members, and a Roman Catholic nun from Brooklyn, Sister Camille D’Arignzo, started the pledge in 1994. Democrats, liberals, and moderates tend to oppose the death penalty. Republicans, conservatives, Caucasians, males, married persons, and members of high social classes with more education are much more supportive.

The American Bar Association called for a temporary halt to executions in 1997, and in 1999, the United Nations followed with a proposal for a worldwide moratorium. Pope John Paul II made a strong appeal to the United States to do away with the death penalty, and by 2001, many protestant churches. Judaism and other religions became more vocal against it. The pace of executions, however, rose in the 1990s, pushed by laws that limited the number of appeals. Forty-six people were executed in the first five months of 1999.[726] Eighty-five prisoners were executed in the United States in the year 2000.

Judging the effect of the death penalty by the crime statistics of jurisdictions with comparable demographics with the death penalty against those who do not have it, it is impossible to determine what the deterrent effect actually is. This country continues to have one of the highest serious crime rates of all developed nations, but the majority of the populace still believes in the death penalty. A 1986 Parade magazine survey of 40,000 readers showed that 80 percent believed there should be capital punishment, and only 20 percent did not. Forty-six percent of those who supported capital punishment believed there should be a minimum age for the death penalty, and about 54 percent believed there should be no minimum age. The 1984 and 1986 Associated Press Polls showed comparable results. Eighty-six percent supported the death penalty, 56 percent supported it only in certain cases (such as the murder of children, police officers, or multiple victims), 51 percent supported it for rape, 33 percent supported it for child molestation, 20 supported it for treason, and only 11 percent said there should be no death penalty at all. A July 2000 Harris poll found only 64 percent supported the death penalty, down from 75 percent in 1997.

During those periods in which death penalties were legal, there has been a marked ambivalence in modern times in carrying out the sentence. In England between 1900 and 1949, 1,210 persons were sentenced to death, but only 632 were actually executed. In France, between 1900 and 1913, 4,388 convictions for capital homicide were judged, but only 338 had death sentences imposed, and only seventy-eight were actually executed. Again in France from 1919 to 1938, 6,969 death sentences were imposed, while only 555 were executed. In Florida, the death penalty was reinstated in 1977, and in the following fifteen years, 454 men and women were sentenced to death, 316 death warrants were signed, and thirty-six were executed. That was more than any other state. The courts later reduced the death decisions to lesser sentences for 126 of these; six were granted clemency by the governor and cabinet, and seven were freed entirely.

Gerald Stano, convicted murderer of ten women in Florida and confessor of thirty other murders in two other states, was one of those executed. The governor signed death warrants on him on two occasions, but Stano still remained alive on appeal for eighteen years. Stano was finally electrocuted on March 23, 1998. Theodore Bundy was another multiple-murderer who avoided the death penalty three times. There are innumerable last-minute stays of execution, and the courts are burdened with heavy backlogs of appeals and retrials. Every inmate has a thorough due process, averaging about eleven years. The justice system is clogged as a result, and the process has become very expensive. Appeals alone can run as high as $3 million, according to Michael Radalet of the University of Florida. Amnesty International reported that it costs at least $500,000 to convict, house, and execute an average prisoner under sentence of death.[727] Florida’s death-row inmates will stay there an average of 9.7 years pending appeals. Nationwide, fifty-six murderers were executed in 1994. The average cost was about $2 million per person executed.

On January 31, 2000, Governor George Ryan of Illinois declared a moratorium on Illinois executions and appointed a commission to see whether the legal process for handling capital cases in his state needed to be fixed. Four other states set about doing the same thing, acting in the wake of the Illinois case. Governor Ryan was acting in response to the Anthony Porter case, which had been just two days shy of lethal injection for a pair of 1982 murders when another man confessed to the crime. Eleven other men had been freed from death row in Illinois when Porter, who had an IQ of 51, was freed, and several articles had been published in the Chicago Tribune showing the dangerously sloppy way that the death sentences had been handed out. The Newsweek cover story of June 12, 2000, told that DNA tests and new evidence had saved eighty-seven prisoners from execution in the past twenty-five years, even though most of the nation’s 3,600 death-row inmates are probably guilty as hell. The article also showed that the death penalty is far more expensive than life without parole. The difference is in the up-front prosecution costs, which are at least four times greater than in cases where death is not sought. California spends an extra $90 million on its capital cases beyond the normal costs of the system.

On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 innocent men, women, and children. He was arrested shortly afterward, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. At 7 am June 11, 2001, he was executed by lethal injection in Terre Haute, Indiana, with considerable publicity. In spite of the magnitude of his crime—the largest number of victims known in the history of the country—there were considerable numbers of people who raised an outcry against the execution, saying it was a “failure of human rights leadership at the highest levels of government … The U.S. has allowed vengeance to triumph over justice.” Members of another human rights group, Hands of Cain, demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy in Rome, Italy, even though McVeigh was the first man executed by the federal government in thirty-eight years.

A local newspaper headline blared, “Study: Death Penalty Dying,” on Monday, June 12, 2000. The article quoted a study by Columbia University Professor James Liebman of 4,587 appeals from 1973 through 1995, two-thirds of which were successful. Most of the cases were so seriously flawed that they had to be done over again. Only 5 percent of the 5,760 death sentences imposed in that period were carried out. A state or federal court threw out the conviction or death sentence in 68 percent of the cases. The main reasons appeared to be incompetent defense attorneys and misconduct by prosecutors. There were 642 executions between 1977 and June 2000.[728]

So it is then, even with this ultimate penalty, we still do not have the necessary requirements for effectiveness. The death penalty is neither sure nor swift in the manner of its administration. It has been steadily losing whatever deterrent effect it may have had to prevent other crimes for more than a hundred years. Capital punishment in America is a paper tiger. In the eighteen years after the Supreme Court allowed states to resume the death penalty, only about 2 percent of the 3,000 death-row inmates were executed. It is pretty clear that executions as performed in the United States do not deter homicides, and they may actually increase them. Thompson (1997) traces the brutalization effect and the increase in homicides in the twelve months following an execution.[729]

IV. Prison

The use of imprisonment as a criminal sanction in the United States has generally been justified as serving one of four purposes of the criminal justice system: rehabilitation, deterrence, punishment, and incapacitation. For a long time, rehabilitation and deterrence were the primary goals, but in the past fifty years, a major shift has been necessary in the ideology concerning the purposes of incarceration; the penal and retribution purposes of incapacitation have assumed much greater importance. Support for the rehabilitative ideal began to decline in the 1970s[730] along with the realization that it was a failed experiment, and the data showed that there was very little deterrence inasmuch as a large percentage of criminals who had been incarcerated returned to prison for new crimes. About two-thirds of all felons released from state prisons were rearrested within three years.

In the United States, crime and incarceration rates have long been the highest among modern societies. They are six to eight times higher than other industrialized countries. In 1993, there were 948,881 prisoners confined in state and federal prisons and reformatories. If you include the city and county jail inmates (426,479 in 1992), the total was 1,375,360. In 1995, the total figure jumped to 1.6 million. In June 1997, it was more than 1.7 million; in December 1998, it was 1.825 million and estimated to be 2 million in the year 2000. With the over-55,000 annual increase in our prisoner population, we are unable to keep up with the demand for new prison space. Prison is by far the most expensive form of punishment. We can’t appropriate money and build prisons fast enough. More than 1,000 were built between 1980 and 2000. Overcrowding has become a serious problem. Trends for the future indicate that the number of these prisoners is expected to increase even more. Our county and city jails house even greater numbers of prisoners, and there is a similar bleak forecast for their numbers to increase.

Studies of the yearly intake of prisons, jails, and reformatories in the United States and Europe show that from one-half to two-thirds of those imprisoned have served previous sentences in the same or other institutions. This fact reveals two important facets of the crime problem: one is that the criminal population is made up largely of those for whom criminal behavior is habitual, or a way of life; the other is that penal institutions do little to correct the basic behavior patterns of their inmates. The average prison stay is under three years for some 98 percent of all prisoners. Generally, the longer an offender is confined in prison and the more times he has been committed, the higher is the probability of his continued criminality. Prison contributes very little to “correction.” “We’re going to have to face up to it—the prison system doesn’t work.”[731]

Men are over eight times more likely than women to be incarcerated in prison at least once during their life. Among men, Africans (28.5 percent) are about twice as likely as Hispanics (16 percent) and six times more likely than Caucasians (4.4 percent) to be admitted to prison during their life.[732] The century-old custom of protecting young, child inmates from contact with adults has been destroyed, and an attitude of “tough on crime” toward juveniles now prevails. In some states, there is no age minimum. In Wisconsin, the minimum age is ten, and in Oregon it’s twelve to incarcerate them in adult prisons.[733]

Prisons are warehouses full of mentally ill, aggressive, crafty, and antisocial people. They serve only to concentrate together all that is bad, violent, and destructive in humanity, thereby communicating, spreading, educating, and fostering counter-cultural and immoral lifestyles among their inmates. As Oscar Wilde, who was imprisoned in 1895 for “ … committing acts of gross indecency with other male persons,” wrote in his famous Ballad of Reading Gaol (emphasis mine):

The vilest deeds like poison weeds,
Bloom well in prison-air;
It is only what is good in Man
That wastes and withers there:
Pale Anguish keeps the heavy gate,
And the Warder is Despair.
… And they scourge the weak, and flog the fool,
And gibe the old and grey,
And some grow mad, and all grow bad,
And none a word may say.
Each narrow cell in which we dwell
Is a foul and dark latrine,
And the fetid breath of living Death
Chokes up each grated screen,

And all but Lust is turned to dust

In humanity’s machine.

Incarceration alone often serves to intensify the sex offender’s desire to commit more such crimes.

Kruttschitt reviewed Samson and Laub[734] and noted that job stability and marital attachment explain adult desistance from crime, independent of youthful delinquency.[735] By contrast, the only observable effect of incarceration appears to be a criminogenic one, in that it serves to close off developmental trajectories of employment in later periods of life. These quantitative findings are buttressed by a qualitative analysis.

In addition, a tendency to spread crime, disease, and drug abuse exists in the prison environment. Tuberculosis is twenty times more frequent in prison. Hepatitis C afflicts 20 percent of U.S. prisoners (a U.S News & World Report, August 5, 2002, news item), and AIDS is more than five times the rate in the general population.[736] At the end of 1997, 0.55 percent of all state and federal prison inmates were reported to be infected with HIV—23,548 in all.[737] “… Correctional inmates frequently engage in behaviors likely to spread the disease—particularly homosexual activity.”[738] Prison healthcare expenses are a major burden. The tab in Florida in 1987 was $85 million. Half the inmates who used a major drug, such as heroin, cocaine, PCP, or LSD, did not do so until after their first arrest, according to a 1986 survey by the Justice Department Bureau of Statistics.[739] “Despite their segregation from society and continuous close supervision, prison inmates still manage to obtain illicit drugs. Such drug use in prison threatens the safety of inmates and staff, contradicts rehabilitative goals, undermines the authority of the correctional institution, reduces public confidence, and ultimately corrodes the safety of communities and neighborhoods to which offenders return after prison.”[740]

Given the poor conditions that are prevalent in most jails and prisons, it is not surprising that we frequently hear of the eruption of prison violence in bloody rampages of mindless slaughter. The worst of these in modern times broke out September 9, 1971, at the Attica Correctional Facility in upstate New York. Forty-three people, more than in any insurrection since the Civil War, were killed in the rioting there. In spite of the many glaring flaws of prisons, they are improvements over earlier forms of extracting retributive vengeance.

Some of these earlier methods were designed to eliminate the offender by execution, banishment, exile, or transportation; ostracize him by branding, wearing a “scarlet letter,” or putting him in the pillory or stocks; or make him suffer physical injury by flogging, dismemberment, or mutilation. Mercifully, these methods are no longer employed and have been replaced by incarceration.

There have been many attempts down through the years to improve the prison system. Originally, the main emphasis was on hard labor and strict discipline, which were counted on to correct the errant behavior of the inmates. Later, in the eighteenth century, rationalists believed that solitude would help the offender reflect on his crimes, become penitent, and reform his ways. The more serious offenders were kept isolated in solitary confinement for long periods of time; unfortunately, many went insane as a result. This experiment gave way to another called the “Silent System,” which allowed the prisoner to work with other inmates silently during the day, and at night, they were isolated in individual cells. The “Mark System,” introduced about 1840, required prisoners to earn marks, or credits, through good conduct, hard work, and study. Marks could be subtracted also for indolence or misbehavior. When a prisoner earned the required number of marks, he became eligible for release. More recently, some of the features of the mark system have been brought into the reformatory movement in the United States, primarily for the treatment of youthful, first-time offenders. The reformatories generally emphasize segregation of various types of criminals, vocational training, academic training, industrial employment, and rewards for good behavior. Contemporary penal institutions are not guided by any one philosophy, and correctional programs are diversified and often experimental. Several of the state prison systems are transitioning toward new philosophies of therapy and rehabilitation. These rapid changes make it difficult to describe modern institutions in general terms.

Near the end of the twentieth century, there was a discernable trend toward a return to the solitary confinement of the eighteenth century. The proliferation of super-maximum security prisons across the country spoke eloquently of the fears about crime held by Americans. The minimum-contact, so-called “super-max” prison concept was epitomized in the formidable United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) in Florence, Colorado. Constructed from the local tawny stone and rosy rock and nestled high in the arid landscape of the remote desert, the triangular, two-story, high-tech ADX is almost invisible. So are its 417 inmates. Many spend twenty-three out of every twenty-four hours locked behind a green steel door and barred grate inside an 8-by-12-foot cell with concrete furnishings and stainless steel toilets and sinks. By 1998, there were about sixty ADX-style state facilities. Most of them, such as the $73 million ADX were opened after 1990; more were on the way at the end of the century.

Another of the strange quirks of the prison treatment is that there is poor enforcement of the criminal law in the state prisons (Eichenthal and Jacobs, 1991). Prisoners in state penal institutions continue to commit crimes while incarcerated, but despite this serious problem, these crimes are seldom reported. This under-reporting of prison crime distorts the nation’s true crime rate and leads the general public to conclude that the number of offenses the inmate would have committed had he been on the streets reduces the crime rate. The offender has not, in fact, been “incapacitated;” his offending merely has been displaced from a setting in which his crime is more likely to be reported.

An infamous case occurred August 23, 2003, when the defrocked priest John Geoghan, a pedophile in a Massachusetts maximum-security prison for molesting boys, was brutally murdered by another inmate, Joseph L. Druce. Druce was serving a life sentence for a gay-bashing murder in 1988 and had told another inmate that he intended to do away with Geoghan. This inmate had warned prison officials that he was concerned about Druce six weeks before the murder, but was ignored. Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney called Geoghan’s slaying “a failure of government … In jail, we have a particular responsibility because these people are under our direct care” (Northwest Florida Daily News, August 27, 2003, p. A8).

Certain features of prison administration are in conflict with some of the more progressive and promising treatments for the rehabilitation of prisoners. Treatment is a dynamic process that requires the cooperation and active participation of the offender if it is to be successful. Therapy cannot be foisted upon resistive and suspicious prisoners. Primary objectives of any prison administration are the maintenance of control over the inmates and the prevention of escapes and riots. The most grievous difficulty the prison administrator can face is the breakdown of authority due to inmate uprising or conspiracy. Other objectives, such as therapy, are relegated to positions of less importance. Regardless of the verbal support given therapy and related functions by administrators, they usually demanded that it should not interfere with the primary responsibilities for strict surveillance and custodial security.

Prisoners have a code of conduct, which is often directly opposed to the objectives of the administration. The main concern of the prisoner’s code is the immediate gratification of inmate desires and objectives. The foremost objective of most inmates is to get out of prison at the earliest possible time. The value attached to release from prison is so great that the greatest violation of the code is to interfere with another inmate’s attempts to gain freedom, regardless of the means. The second major commandment in the prisoner’s code prohibits any inmate from interfering with the illegitimate activities of others, such as smuggling whiskey and dope into prison or sexual deviance. Treatment is not likely to be successful as long as there are significant contradictions between administrative policies, prisoners’ norms of conduct, and treatment methods.

There is some evidence that for youthful offenders who were classified as minimum security risks, a less restrictive custody produced a lower recidivism rate than a highly restrictive one. For older prisoners with a high security risk classification, the degree of security had no observable effect on recidivism. Several other institutional programs have various other features besides security to make every element of the prisoners’ environment a part of his treatment. Most of these programs go under the name of “milieu therapy.” They are designed to reduce the distinctions between the custodial staff and the treatment staff; to create a supportive, non-authoritarian, and non-regimented atmosphere; and to enlist peer influence in the formation of constructive values. These programs for adults in regular prisons have clearly had no significant effect on parole failure or success rates. Most of these programs for youthful offenders also showed no significant improvement over controls, but one program, called the Marshall Program, did show improvement for youths who had not previously spent time in regular institutions. For juveniles under age sixteen, the celebrated Highfield’s Experiment, with a highly supportive environment, has shown improvement in recidivism rates over control groups in a regular reformatory. Other programs for juveniles have not shown significant improvement.

Severe overcrowding in jails and prisons has lent an even greater urgency in recent years to the debate about the purposes and effectiveness of incarceration. In 1983, the state and federal prison population was 438,830, and the city/county jail population was 223,551. In 1985, the state and federal prison population jumped to 490,041. By the year 2003, it reached two million. In 1986, the rate of prison population growth was such that nearly two new 500-bed prisons per week were required to simply keep pace with the expanding inmate population. The average cost of construction in 1986 was $50,000 per bed. By 1991, the cost in some states was as high as $110,000 per bed.[741] Overcrowding was generally agreed to be the number one criminal justice system problem in 1986, as well as several subsequent years. Policy makers can no longer avoid some of the central pragmatic concerns: How should limited resources be allocated to achieve the greatest degree of public safety? How do the benefits of incapacitating more offenders for longer periods of time balance against the problem of finite prison space? Will the public support the fiscal burden required to expand prison and jail facilities, or will they accept the risk of incarcerating few offenders? A special program on the McNeil-Lehrer TV show of December 23, 1986, brought out the following information: $5 billion was being spent per year building new prisons and jails, and it still was not enough to hold all those who were convicted. We had one million people in prisons and jails in 1994. About one in twenty adult males will spend some time in jail was the forecast. Those jurisdictions that have the most people in prison do not have a better crime rate than those who have a lower percentage. (Washington, DC, has the highest percentage of its population in jail.) The principal reason for the large numbers in prisons now is that prosecutors and judges are asking for ever heavier prison sentences … They, in turn, believe that they are responding to a public (or at least a media and politician) demand for heavier penalties to keep criminals off the streets.

All reforms that have been tried do not seem to work, yet searches are still underway for a better way. Experimental prison programs are still being tried, all at great expense. The National Institute of Corrections said we spent an average of $15,974 a year to keep someone behind bars. The average annual cost per inmate rose to more than $22,000 by 2003. The cost at mental health facilities where many sex offenders are committed, such as St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, DC, is about $99,680 a year.[742] Prison activist Jerry Miller criticized the prison system for “spending a lot of money to destroy people.” He also compared the probation and prison systems to the cures of aspirin and lobotomy. Former Governor White of Texas said that building more prisons was “like buying more mops to clean up the mess rather than fix the leaking pipe that caused it.” Judge Donald McCallum of Oakland, California, thought that it was “the Administration of Justice Industry that was a great vested interest” and was the driving force in the demand for more prisons. Between 1985 and 1996, annual expenditures on state prison activities more than doubled, going from under $13 billion to over $27 billion.

Although we cannot expect research alone to deliver final answers on these and other thorny issues, the growing body of sound research findings is helping to untangle some of the complexities and guide necessary revisions in policy and practices.

The past few years have seen a major movement for creating more rational sentencing practices. Sentencing guidelines are examples. They are judicial tools for reducing sentence disparity and making explicit a jurisdiction’s sentencing policy. Sentencing guidelines have been incorporated into the sentencing practices of a number of states. From the legislative sector comes another mechanism intended to enhance the consistency of mandatory sentences and similar laws aimed at strengthening penalties for major crimes and limiting judicial discretion in imposing sentences for those crimes.

One concept that has emerged from the research is selective incapacitation, an approach that attempts to increase the public’s protection by incarcerating predatory criminals for longer terms, while imposing shorter sentences on offenders who do not pose a serious threat to the community. In Florida, the average percent of sentences served by inmates was 31 percent in 1990 and 74 percent in 1998.[743] For now however, the approach remains a provocative concept. The task is difficult—to establish whether we can safely predict the career paths of different types of offenders and to make judicious sentencing decisions that will reduce crime. Just as views differ about the purposes and application of punishment, so, too, there are divergent views on the concept of selective incapacitation of career criminals. Dr. Peter W. Greenwood wrote:[744]

The concept of selective incapacitation is based on recent research findings concerning the effects of imprisonment. For many years the principal theory that guided our use of imprisonment was rehabilitation. We locked up serious offenders for indeterminate terms until a parole board decided they were reformed and could safely reenter society. It was presumed that criminal behavior was caused by various deficiencies of the character or training that prison officials could fix. However, a large number of evaluations during two decades of studies have consistently refuted this notion. To the best of our knowledge, prison programs do not lead to lower recidivism rates, nor, as some have argued, do they make offenders, on the average, any worse. It is now generally accepted that the only means by which prisons affect crime rates are deterrence and incapacitation. Deterrence refers to the inhibiting effects of sentencing patterns on all potential offenders, while incapacitation refers to the direct crime-reduction effect of removing active offenders from society. Unfortunately, the magnitude, or even the existence, of any deterrent effects cannot be estimated, due to a variety of methodological problems. Nor is there any agreement about how different types of offenders are likely to respond to particular sentences. Therefore, deterrence theory offers little guidance in establishing sentencing policies. Incapacitation effects, on the other hand, can be estimated directly from information about patterns of individual criminal behavior. The higher an individual’s rate of offending while he is free, the greater the incapacitation effect if he is incarcerated … If offenders only committed one or two crimes per year, then the marginal incapacitation effects of sending additional offenders to prison would be quite small. If, on the other hand, offenders committed hundreds of crimes per year, the incapacitation effect of incarcerating these offenders could be substantial … We estimated that a more selective incarceration policy for convicted robbers in California could reduce the robbery rate by 20% with no increase in the total number of robbers incarcerated.

Professor Andrew van Hirsch of Rutgers University responds to Dr. Greenwood’s study as follows:

Sentencing on grounds of potential future criminality has been a familiar theme in American criminal justice. Proponents of the traditional rehabilitative ethic have long contended that, while curable offenders should be treated, those who are bad risks should be identified and isolated from society. In the last decade, however, doubts were raised about the accuracy of forecasting techniques and about the fairness of gauging offenders’ punishment by their expected future crimes. It has long been known, since research on prediction of criminal behavior began in the 1920s, that a limited ability to forecast risk of recidivism exists. Numerous studies have found that by using the offender’s criminal history, age, employment record, and drug history, one can identify subgroups of offenders having a higher-than-average likelihood of returning to crime. Examination of such studies has shown, however, that the association between those predictive factors and subsequent offender behavior has generally been low (around 25%). With such weak associations, a high rate of error could be expected. The errors were of two types. The first was that of failing to identify offenders who did subsequently offend again. Even though the predictive instruments spotted some recidivists, they missed many others: the rate of persons mistakenly identified as good risks has remained substantial. The second, and more disturbing type of error, was the reverse: “over prediction” of recidivism. The rate of mistakenly predicting recidivists was found to be particularly high, more than 60%, when forecasting serious criminality.

Auerhahan[745] also found that the error in predicting re-offense was very high, with most schemes having false positive rates of greater than 50 percent.

Often criminals come out of prisons unrepentant and likely to commit crimes again. This is especially true with the sex criminals. Prison punishment often increases the sex offender’s pathology so that he comes out with worse fantasies and personality problems than before his incarceration. Sex offenders come out with more violence and anger, and their crimes often escalate with more harm to their victims. Prison often reinforces the tendency toward sex crimes by increasing the offender’s guilt, shame, blame, and grief that are so often basic to his deviancy. Even in those few prisons that have some sort of therapeutic sex offender treatment program, the “great rolling momentum of the imprisonment experience overwhelms and overshadows the relatively brief therapeutic contacts and nullifies their emotional impact.”[746]

A recent government report based on nearly 300,000 prisoners released in fifteen states in 1994 showed that 67.5 percent were rearrested within three years. Another study of 1983 releases estimated that 62.5 percent recidivated. The evidence was mixed regarding the question of whether spending more time in prison reduces the recidivism rate (Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 193427, June 2003)

Also, our prisons leak. In spite of the vast sums spent on building and maintaining them, they are far from secure. In Florida, for example, some 1,700 prisoners escaped confinement in 1988—about 4.9 percent of the prison population that year. Most of these merely walked away from the work-release jobs, but others engineered innovative and spectacular escape plots. Raymond Huntly, thirty-nine, a sex offender, was one of these. He pole-vaulted over the twelve-foot-high fence at the Lake Correctional Institution. The superintendent of the prison, Ronald Holmes, said, “That was about the time of the 1988 Olympics, and we got a lot of teasing about that” (news item). Work release has been used since the early 1920s in an effort to help inmates obtain jobs. About 56 percent are termed “successful,” 13.5 percent “moderately successful,” and almost 30 percent “unsuccessful.”[747] The Kissimmee Community Correctional Center gave new meaning to the term revolving-door prisons. Between 1996 and 1998, police there recorded at least twenty-three escapes. On February 28, 1998, two work-release inmates escaped, purchased beer, returned to their dorm, and drank, then left again. They were captured four days later and linked to the murder of a Haines City police officer.

It is precisely to the sex offenders, for whom we are herein proposing the almost-perfect treatment of castration, that much of the blame for our worst prison problems belongs. Overcrowding, uneven treatment, disease, and prison crime are all exacerbated by our failure to recognize and use this cheap and effective treatment. In Florida and some of the other states, sex offenders are not eligible for incentive and other gain-time factors for early release and so remain in prison far longer than most other types of prisoners. Prison assaults and murders are much more frequent among the sex offenders because they are so hated by the other prisoners. On February 14, 1980, the New Mexico State Penitentiary near Santa Fe was the site of one of the most brutal prison riots in U.S. history, with a sadistic display of violence primarily against “baby rapers” (pedophiliacs) that included: beheading, torching, hanging, and rape. In the end, thirty-three inmates were dead, and the prison was almost destroyed. In spite of major expenditures, endless hand-wringing publicity, and hundreds of scientific studies, severe problems continue to harass our prisons, and the crime problem continues to get worse.

In addition to all the depressing aspects of our prison system enumerated here, new ones are constantly emerging. The Northwest Florida Daily News of October 23, 1994, (p. 2B) headlines another concern: “Frustrated State Prisoners Becoming More Dangerous.” The article quoted the Florida statistics that:

Inmate-on-inmate assaults and other violent crimes increased more than 20 percent, from 1, </quote>437 in 1992 to 1,749 in 1993. “It’s been steadily rising, and every day it’s been getting worse,” said Corrections Secretary Harry Singletary. In a state with the nation’s highest crime rate, few people seem to care about the problem. The problem, for most politicians, is figuring out how to lock up the worst felons for as long as possible and make prison life tougher. The legislature voted earlier this year to remove cable TV and other recreational amenities that those who work inside the razor-barbed wire rely on to keep inmates in line. “You take TV out of jails, that’s good for a local jail where somebody’s doing 364 days,” said Thomas Barnes, a prison guard who had been injured by prisoners. “But you get somebody doing twenty to thirty years, that’s your babysitter in the evening. We control it. You try to take the weights away that burn out a lot of stress and anxiety. The only other way to burn it up is either on another inmate or on one of us,” he said. In 1992, there were fourteen, but in 1993, there were fifty-four inmate injuries. Deaths in 1992 were 222; in 1993, there were 437. Thirty-nine inmates were shot to death by guards in California prisons between 1990 and 2000. Eighty percent of these deaths were unjustified.[748]

Among the many other innovations that have been tried out in our prison systems were chain gangs, boot camps, and civil commitment for dangerous sex offenders after they had completed their terms of prison sentences. Alabama was the first state in the spring of 1995 to put leg irons on their inmates working outside the prison in road-repair gangs. They could put some of their most dangerous prisoners to work in this manner. Several states inaugurated boot-camp programs for their younger and less dangerous prisoners from 1994 to 1998. It was believed that the strict regimentation and personal discipline that these training programs required would deter the less hardened criminals from deteriorating into a life of crime. Beginning with Washington in 1990, several states passed laws that would allow sex offenders to be detained in mental hospitals after they had completed their sentences in prison if they were found to be likely to commit more of their crimes if released into the public. In June 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that civil commitment was an acceptable means to protect innocent people from twisted sex offenders.

The U.S. Department of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention published a summary of the boot camps for juvenile offenders in late 1997 that showed that the recidivism rate did not improve when compared to a control group who did not go to boot camp. In the Cleveland boot-camp program, 72 percent of those completing boot camp recidivated to new court-adjudicated offenses following release, compared to 50 percent of the youths in the control group from other facilities in Ohio. Of the Cleveland boot camp, 78 percent of the youths were African. In Denver, 39 percent of the boot-camp youths recidivated, while only 36 percent of the control group did. In Mobile, Alabama, 28 percent of the boot-camp youths recidivated, while 31 percent of the control group did.[749]

In spite of the failure of boot camps to demonstrate the required effectiveness, state and local governments continued the boot-camp approach. By mid-1999, there were at least sixty-five boot-camp prisons serving juveniles and adults. Boot camps were one of the few correctional programs that could be sold to the public. “The visual appea1 of seeing young offenders being physically punished through tough regimens and verbally scolded by correctional staff made the job of selling boot camps to the public, policy makers, and court officials easier than traditional rehabilitation programs.”[750] Several other studies that found no evidence that boot camps reduced recidivism are Mackenzie (1991), MacKenzie and Shaw (1993), Burns and Vito (1996), and Jones (1996). Despite these findings, boot camps continue to be funded and expanded. There are even indications that boot camps may instill or reinforce macho attitudes and hormones in men who need the exact opposite.

In a study by Wood and Grasmick (1999), inmates who had served in them rated boot camps the most punitive. In descending order of punitiveness, the other sanctions were: county jail, day reporting, intermittent incarceration, halfway house, intensive supervision probation, electronic monitoring, prison, community service, and probation.

Another initiative is called the “three strikes” laws designed to put repeat criminals in prison for a protracted period of time after their third conviction. Washington State passed the first such law in 1993 and had put 121 people behind bars for life without parole by the end of 1998. California was the second state to pass a three-strikes law in 1994, with 40,511 “habitual offenders” in prison at the end of 1998. San Francisco reported that in 1994, the three-strikes laws had resulted in 192 persons “striking out” for marijuana possession, forty for murder, twenty-five for rape, and twenty-four for kidnapping. At a cost of $21,885 per year per inmate, it cost the taxpayers $4.2 million per year to keep the marijuana smokers in prison. If they are kept for the full twenty-five years, the cost will be $105 million. This is clearly exorbitant. If all 40,511 three-strikes inmates are kept for twenty-five years in person, the cost will be well over $21 billion.

Largely because of the extremely high costs, most of the other twenty-one states that have similar laws have used them but very little. Four of these states have had no three-strikes convictions, and thirteen other states had less than fifteen convictions each at the end of 1998. Florida, Georgia, and Nevada all had over 100 three-strikes convictions each at the end of 1998.

The use of private business firms to operate correctional institutions began in the mid-1980s in an attempt to lower the costs and provide equal or better services to inmates than county, state, or federal governments were able to. In 1987, there were about 3,000 prisoners in these private adult facilities, and by 1996, the number of prisoners in private prisons was more than 85,000. In 1996, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed five studies of this privatization and concluded that “because the studies reported little cost difference and/or mixed results in comparing private and public facilities, we could not conclude whether privatization saved money” (GAO 1996, “Private and Public Prisons: Studies Comparing Operational Costs and/or Quality of Service,” report to the Subcommittee on Crime, House Judiciary Committee, GAO/GGD 96-158, Washington, DC: US GAO). In April 1999, the U.S. Department of Justice National Institute of Justice again solicited an examination of privatization in the Federal Bureau of Prisons because studies have failed to develop a coherent model of institutional performance in terms of cost and quality of operations.

The Atlantic Monthly magazine’s December 1998 cover story was about “The Prison-Industrial Complex,” and the same magazine published a sequel in their June 1999 issue, which showed “how prisons, established to fight crime, produce crime.” The article also showed how “locking more people away will ultimately increase the number of sociopaths in our midst” (“When They Get Out,” pp. 30–36).

Time magazine, June 21, 1999, (p. 60) featured an article on “Cellblock Seniors,” which pointed out the increasing costs of keeping elderly people in prison. This amounted to three times the cost of incarcerating younger men ($22,000)—about $65,000 a year per individual over age fifty-five, due mostly to medical expenses. An example cited in the article was John Bedarka, eighty-six, who was sentenced to life without parole for shooting his wife’s lover thirty years earlier in Pennsylvania. To keep some of these people in prison for life is purely punitive and serves no advantage to society. Statistically, the risk of recidivism drops significantly with age.

One of the disturbing national phenomena was the explosion of the number of mothers in prison. The population of women in U.S. prisons has risen to more than 149,000 female inmates in the year 2000; 70 percent of them have at least one child under age eighteen. Most of these mothers were the sole providers for their children, and the impact on their kids was devastating. They were sent to foster homes or sent off to live with relatives. Half of the 1.5 million kids with an incarcerated parent will commit a crime before they turn eighteen. By the year 2000, more people had become aware that the penal system was costing a lot of money and was not having the desired effects on the criminal population. Morris (1995) and West (2000) had published books calling for penal aboli