Unquestionably there is no doubt that the reason I dropped out of the technological system is because I had read about other ways of life, in particular that of primitive peoples. When I was about eleven I remember going to the little local library in Evergreen Park, Illinois. They had a series of books published by the Smithsonian Institute that addressed various areas of science. Among other things, I read about anthropology in a book on human prehistory. I found it fascinating. After reading a few more books on the subject of Neanderthal man and so forth, I had this itch to read more. I started asking myself why and I came to the realization that what I really wanted was not to read another book, but that I just wanted to live that way.
In this paper I will discuss two main topics: the differences between the early "progressive" Neanderthals and the late "conservative" Neanderthals, and the question of how broad the term "Neanderthal" should be, or more specifically, whether the Rhodesian-Saldenha or Solo men should be considered Neanderthals.
I. Are the Rhodesian and Solo Men Neanderthals?
The European type Neanderthals form a definite and rather special group. Many anthropologists, however, like to class as Neanderthals the Solo Men of Java and the Rhodesian-Saldamha type of man of Africa. For example, R. Singer quotes Frany Weidermich as follows: "I would like to quote two appropriate sentences of Franz Weidermich's (1940) with which I readily concur:
'... for it proves that the so-called Neanderthal Man of Europe, notwithstanding his uniformity when compared with the Rhodesian Man of South Africa* (sic) or the Homo Soloensis of Java, has produced certain regional variations which are equivalent to social differences of to today.' " (Weidermeich classifies the European Neanderthals, the Rhodesian and Saldaha men, and the Solo Men as these different sub-species of Homo primai-genius.) Also, von Koenigswald and others refer to these men as Neanderthals.
I think this is wrong. First consider the Solo Men. What traits do they actually have in common with the European Neanderthals? Compared to Homo sapiens, both have very heavy brow ridges, a low, thick skull with its widest point for down, a marked occipital tower, small mastoid ...
* Singer appended a footnote here: "Broken Hill is in Northern Rhodesia, not South Africa."
(click here for the source PDF to finish copy-typing the text onto this website)
 R. Singer, "The Rhodesian, Flourbad and Suldanha SKulle" in "Hubdert Hi=agbe Beabdertgaks" p.6.